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Full text of "The two duchesses, Georgiana, Duchess of Devonshire, Elizabeth, Duchess of Devonshire. Family correspondence of and relating to Georgiana, Duchess of Devonshire, Elizabeth, Duchess of Devonshire, Earl of Bristol ... the Countess of Bristol, Lord and Lady Byron, the Earl of Aberdeen, Sir Augustus Foster, Bart., and others, 1777-1859"

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FUND    GIVEN     IN     1 89 1     BY 


Date  Due 



^RNijtrtysm^i  1 


^jKI^**^^1^ ''    ^ 



cggS*  _j_                 | 

Cornell   University   Library 

DA   522.D51F75    1898 

Two  duchesses.  Georgiana,  Duchess j  ol I  Oev 

3  1924  028  003  618 

The  original  of  this  book  is  in 
the  Cornell  University  Library. 

There  are  no  known  copyright  restrictions  in 
the  United  States  on  the  use  of  the  text. 


(D&tizlefii,  ('/ vJr.-i. 







EARL  OF   BRISTOL   (Bishop  of  Derry) 










BLACKIE   &   SON   Limited 





I  have  given  to  this  book  the  title  of  The  Two  Duchesses, 
because  its  contents  are  mainly  composed  of  poetry  and 
correspondence  written  by,  or  to,  one  or  other  of  the  two 
last  Duchesses  of  Devonshire,  one  of  whom,  Georgiana,  was 
daughter  of  John,  Earl  Spencer,  and  the  other,  Elizabeth, 
was  daughter  of  Frederick  Augustus  Hervey,  fourth  Earl  of 
Bristol,  and  Bishop  of  Derry. 

These  two  ladies  were  inseparable  companions,  and  lived 
under  the  same  roof  for  nearly  a  quarter  of  a  century. 
They  travelled  together  in  Switzerland  and  Italy;  Georgiana, 
usually  referred  to  as  the  beautiful  Duchess,  writing  an 
account  of  their  travels  in  verse  addressed  to  her  children, 
and  pieces  of  poetry  addressed  to  her  friend,  while  Eliza- 
beth illustrated  Georgiana's  poetical  narrative  by  numerous 
landscape  paintings  of  her  own  composition.  Georgiana 
died  in  1806,  and  Elizabeth  became  the  second  wife  of  the 
fifth  Duke  of  Devonshire  in  1809,  and  died  in  1824. 

In  the  Dictionary  of  National  Biography,  of  which  valu- 
able work  fifty-two  volumes  are  already  published,  the  fol- 
lowing description  of  Georgiana  is  attributed  to  Horace 
Walpole,  whom  Sir  Walter  Scott  declared  to  be  the  best 
letter-writer  in  the  English  language:  "She  effaces  all  with- 
out being  a  beauty ;  but  her  youthful  figure,  flowing  good- 
nature, sense  and  lively  modesty,  and  modest  familiarity, 
make  her  a  phenomenon  ".     And  in  the  same  work  are  the 


following  statements  regarding  Elizabeth.  In  early  life 
she  married  John  Thomas  Foster,  M.P.,  of  Stonehouse, 
County  Louth.  They  (Georgiana  and  Elizabeth)  tra- 
velled together  at  different  times  on  the  Continent.  On 
one  of  these  occasions,  in  1787,  they  met  Edward  Gibbon, 
the  historian,  at  Lausanne.  He  had  then  just  finished  his 
History  of  the  Decline  and  Fall  of  the  Roman  Empire.  He 
read  to  Lady  Elizabeth  Foster  some  of  the  concluding  pass- 
ages, "and  her  admiration  was  so  warmly  expressed  that 
Gibbon  suddenly  surprised  her  by  an  offer  of  his  hand. 
The  offer  was  declined,  but  Gibbon  took  the  disappoint- 
ment philosophically,  and,  while  his  estimate  of  her  fascina- 
tions remained  as  high  as  ever,  his  friendly  feelings  towards 
her  underwent  no  change.  Comparing  her  with  the  first 
Duchess,  he  writes:  'Bess  is  much  nearer  the  level  of  a 
mortal,  but  a  mortal  for  whom  the  wisest  man,  historic  or 
medical,  would  throw  away  two  or  three  worlds  if  he  had 
them  in  possession '.  He  also  gave  it  as  his  opinion  that, 
'  if  she  chose  to  beckon  the  Lord  Chancellor  from  his  wool- 
sack in  full  sight  of  the  world,  he  could  not  resist  obedience'. 
In  1809  sne  became  the  second  wife  of  the  fifth  Duke  of 
Devonshire,  and,  after  the  death  of  her  husband,  she  took 
up  her  residence  in  Rome,  where  she  enjoyed  the  friendship 
of  some  of  the  most  distinguished  Italians  and  foreign  resi- 
dents, and  her  house  became  the  great  resort  of  the  brilliant 
society  gathered  together  in  Rome  from  all  countries. 
Ticknor  relates  that  he  went  to  her  '  conversaziones  as  to  a 
great  exchange  to  see  who  is  in  Rome,  and  to  meet  what  is 
called  the  world '.  .  .  .  She  spent  large  sums  in  exca- 
vations at  the  Forum,  and  with  considerable  success,  and 
she  was  one  of  the  most  liberal  patrons  of  the  fine  arts. 



Canova  and  Thorwaldsen  were  her  personal  friends."  "The 
portrait  of  the  Duchess  when  Lady  Elizabeth  Foster  was 
painted  by  both  Sir  Joshua  Reynolds  and  Gainsborough. 
A  portrait  by  the  latter  was  stolen  in  1876  from  the  Bond 
Street  gallery  of  Messrs.  Agnew,  who  had  purchased  it 
shortly  before  from  the  Wynn  Ellis  collection."  This  is 
probably  a  mistake,  for  I  believe  it  was  a  portrait,  not  of 
Elizabeth,  but  of  the  beautiful  Duchess,  Georgiana. 

There  is  also  a  full-length  portrait  of  Elizabeth  by  Sir 
Thomas  Lawrence  in  possession  of  Sir  Vere  Foster,  Bart, 
at  Glyde  Court,  County  Louth. 

A  representation  of  the  two  Duchesses  linked  together  in 
a  medallion  appears  on  page  xii  of  this  book,  and  I  have 
added  a  multiple  likeness  of  Georgiana  represented  in  the 
character  of  Pharaoh's  daughter,  accompanied  by  fifteen  of 
her  attendants,  all  engaged  in  the  finding  and  fondling  of 
the  infant  Moses.  The  picture  was  painted  and  engraved 
by  J.  K.  Sherwin  in  1789. 

The  letters  quoted  in  the  correspondence  are  mainly 
written  by  the  following  persons: — 

Frederick  Augustus  Hervey,  Earl  of  Bristol,  Bishop  of  Derry,  to 

his  daughter,  Lady  Elizabeth  Foster. 
The  Countess  of  Bristol  to  her  daughter,  Lady  Elizabeth  Foster. 
Lady  Elizabeth  Foster,  afterwards  Duchess  of  Devonshire,  to  her 

son,  Augustus  Foster. 
Augustus  Foster,  afterwards  the  Right.  Hon.  Sir  Augustus  J. 

Foster,  Bart.,  to  his  mother. 
The  Earl  of  Aberdeen  to  Augustus  Foster. 
Lord  Byron  to  Elizabeth,  Duchess  of  Devonshire. 
Lady  Byron  to  Vere  Foster,  third  son  of  Sir  Augustus  Foster, 

and  compiler  of  this  correspondence. 


The  Hon.  Mrs.  George  Lamb  to  Augustus  Foster. 

Frederick  Thos.  Foster  to  his  younger  brother,  Augustus  Foster. 

There  are  also  single  letters  written  by  Gibbon ;  Sheridan ; 
Fox;  the  Prince  Regent;  General  Moreau;  Alexander, 
Emperor  of  Russia,  to  Madame  Moreau;  Canova;  Thor- 
waldsen ;  Baron  d'Armfelt;  and  Count  Capo  d'Istrias,  Presi- 
dent of  the  Greek  Republic. 

I  give  in  an  Appendix  some  particulars  culled  from 
reliable  sources  about  the  Earl  of  Bristol,  Bishop  of  Deny, 
Sir  Augustus  Foster,  and  Lord  Aberdeen,  who,  next  to 
Lady  Elizabeth  Foster,  afterwards  Duchess  of  Devonshire, 
are  the  principal  parties  in  the  correspondence  here  pub- 

The  biography  of  Lord  Byron  is  so  well  known  that  I 
would  think  it  an  impertinence  to  offer  any  information  on 
the  subject  beyond  the  three  letters  addressed  by  himself 
to  my  grandmother;  and  I  do  not  feel  at  liberty  to  publish 
anything  about  Lady  Byron,  except  as  regards  the  episode 
connected  with  my  father's  attachment  to  her  prior  to  the 
advances  of  Lord  Byron,  and  the  few  interesting  letters 
addressed  by  her  to  myself. 

The  attachment  here  referred  to,  which  met  with  the  full 
approval  of  Sir  Ralph  and  Lady  Milbanke,  as  stated  in  the 
Duchess  Elizabeth's  letters  to  my  father,  came  to  my 
knowledge  as  a  surprise,  and  will  probably  be  new  to  all 
my  readers. 

Gibbon's  letter  to  my  grandmother  is  printed  here  by 
kind  permission  of  Mr.  John  Murray,  and  I  am  requested 
by  the  Earl  of  Lovelace,  grandson  of  Lord  Byron,  to  state 
that  the  letters  of  Lord  and  Lady  Byron  are  here  published 
with  the  full  consent  of  their  representatives. 


In  conclusion,  I  should  mention  that  none  of  these  letters 
have  ever  been  published  before,  except  a  very  few  which 
appeared  a  few  months  ago  in  an  Irish  provincial  news- 
paper, the  Belfast  Northern  Whig,  and  that  the  present 
occasion  of  their  publication  arises  from  the  fact  that  I  have 
recently  had  access  to  a  mass  of  family  correspondence  of 
which  I  was  previously  unaware,  dated  mostly  about  the 
end  of  the  last  and  commencement  of  the  present  century. 
As  the  Duchesses  moved,  Georgiana  for  more  than  twenty, 
and  Elizabeth  for  upwards  of  forty  years,  in  the  highest 
circles  of  society  in  London,  Paris,  and  Rome,  and  were 
intimate  with  many  eminent  persons,  and  a  great  number 
of  these  letters  relate  to  memorable  contemporary  events 
and  subjects  of  public  interest,  I  have  copied  some  entire 
and  made  extracts  from  others,  and,  with  the  kind  per- 
mission of  my  grandnephew,  Sir  Vere  Foster,  and  encour- 
aged by  the  very  favourable  reception  of  the  letters  already 
referred  to,  I  have  at  the  special  request  of  many  friends 
put  them  in  print,  adding  notes  of  my  own  as  to  dates,  and 
in  explanation,  where  apparently  required,  of  the  text. 

Owing  to  illegible  writing,  to  fading  of  ink,  to  the  torn 
and  fragmentary  state  of  much  of  the  correspondence,  and 
to  the  absence  of  dates  in  hundreds  of  cases,  it  has  been 
found  very  difficult  to  preserve  continuity,  and  I  must  claim 
the  indulgence  of  my  readers  for  such  mistakes  as  they 

may  discover. 


Belfast,  December,  1897. 



The  Two  Duchesses,  xii 

Elizabeth,  Duchess  of  Devonshire  (from  a  print),      -     Frontis. 

The  Earl   of   Bristol,   Bishop  of  Derry,   and    his   Daugh- 
ter, Lady  Erne,  2 

Mary  (Hervey),  Lady  Erne,  43 

Georgiana,  Duchess  of  Devonshire  (after  Gainsborough),  84 

Georgiana,  Duchess  of  Devonshire  (after  Romney),  96 

Georgiana,     Duchess     of     Devonshire,    and     Child     (after 

Reynolds),  105 

Elizabeth,  Duchess  of  Devonshire  (from  a  painting),  132 

Louisa  (Hervey),  Lady  Hawkesbury,  15° 

Sir  Augustus  Foster,  Bart.,  154 

The  Earl  of  Aberdeen,  185 

The    Finding    of    Moses  —  Duchess    Georgiana    and    other 

Ladies,  278 

Lord  Hawkesbury  (second  Earl  of  Liverpool),  317 

Elizabeth,  Duchess  of  Devonshire  (after  Sir  T.  Lawrence),  340 

The  Hon.  Mrs.  George  Lamb,  373 

Lady  Albinia  Foster,  411 

Vere  Foster,                                                 -  466 


The  Hon.  Mrs.  Hervey1 

To  Mrs.  John  Thomas  Foster? 

Brussels,  June  6,  1777. 

Voici  deja  vendredi  et  je  ne  fais  que  prendre  mon 
ecritoire  pour  la  premiere  fois  depuis  que  ma  chere  fille 
m'a  quitte.  Mais  pourquoi  enfrancais  dit  Monsieur 
le  sage3?  C'est  vrai  mais  il  a  coule  de  ma  plume  toute- 
fois  comme  je  n'ai  point  besoin  de  vous  dire  des  chases. 
I  may  in  plain  English  tell  you  a  plain  truth,  that  I 
love  you  with  all  my  heart,  that  I  think  of  you  con- 
tinually, and  that  your  whole  conduct  since  your 
marriage  has  given  me  the  most  perfect  satisfaction. 
Don't  misinterpret  this  expression:  it  does  not  mean 
the  most  distant  censure  on  your  behaviour  before  it; 
but  the  16th  of  December*  is  your  grand  epocha,  and 
may  you  date  from  it,  dear  Bess,  every  possible 
happiness.  I  shall  be  impatient  to  hear  you  did  not 
suffer  materially  by  the  heat,  fatigue,  and  distress  of 

1  The  Hon.  Mrs.  Hervey — Elizabeth,  daughter  of  Sir  Jermyn  Davers,  Bart.,  and 
wife  of  the  Hon.  Frederick  Hervey,  Bishop  of  Derry,  d.  1800. 

2  Mrs.  J.  Th.  Foster—  Daughter  of  the  Bishop  of  Derry  and  Mrs.  Hervey,  d.  1824. 

3  Monsieur  le  Sage— An  allusion  to  Mrs.   Hervey's  son-in-law,  J.  Th.   Foster, 
M.P.,  d.  1796. 

li6th  of  December— -Date  of  Mrs.  Foster's  marriage  in  1776. 



the  first  day.  The  rain  and  change  of  air  we  flatter 
ourselves  made  the  second  more  pleasant,  and  this 
very  night,  perhaps,  or  to-morrow,  you  will  breathe 
the  pure  air  of  your  own  dear  country.  I  have  been 
so  mauled  by  the  suffocating  heat  here  that  I  have 
not  been  able  to  stir  off  the  couch  these  two  days; 
but  I  hope  to  get  out  this  morning,  and  Monday  the 
9th  is  fixed  on  for  our  going  to  Antwerp.  I  find  your 
sister1  writes  by  this  post,  so  I  shall  not  touch  upon 
the  la  rue  des  etoiles,  and  I  could  almost  forbear  to 
say  anything  myself  (out  of  economy,  that  a  packet  of 
foreign  letters  may  not  add  to  your  continental  ex- 
penses), but  that  I  have  a  mind  to  meet  you  in  London 
and  show  you  that  my  heart  and  mind  are  with  you, 
but  I  expect  you  to  rely  upon  this  and  not  to  expect 
frequent  repetitions.  You  will  have  a  thousand  new 
objects,  and  I  the  important  one  of  preparing  and 
removing  ourselves.  Whilst  Mary  is  here,  too,  I 
know  she  will  mention  us.  When  we  separate  I 
will  try  to  make  you  amends.  Your  father  continues 
to  complain  and  do  nothing,  but  I  think  a  journey 
will  soon  set  him  all  right.  Assure  Mr.  Foster  of 
my  sincere  affection.  He  loves  you  too  well  for  me 
not  to  feel  a  true  regard  for  him,  and  I  flatter  myself 
that  a  well-founded  esteem  and  perfect  harmony  will 
subsist  amongst  us  all  as  long  as  we  live.  Adieu. 
Je  vous  sers  sur  mon  cceur,  and  I  repeat  to  you  to 
take  care  of  yourself,  and  above  all  to  be  at  home  in 
time.  Remember  what  I  said  of  &  false  calculation, 
and  avoid  its  consequences.    Present  my  compliments 

'your  sister— Mary,  Countess  of  Erne,  eldest  daughter  of  the  Bishop  of  Derrv 
d.  1842.  '' 

/7L/ry.  -J ;/>///  C  •/>-// 


FROM   THE   HON.   MRS.    HERVEY.  3 

to  Doctor  Foster,1  and  obey  as  well  as  love.     Your 
most  affectionate  mother. 

Louisa2  sends  a  thousand  loves. 

The  Hon.  Mrs.  Hervey 

To  Mrs.  J.  Th.  Foster. 

Liege,  June  22,  1777. 

I  am  afraid  my  dear  Bess  will  think  I  have  made 
a  long  interval  between  my  first  and  second  letter. 
I  feel  it  so  myself,  but  as  I  knew  Lady  Erne  wrote 
as  punctually  as  if  she  had  nothing  else  to  do,  I 
contented  myself  with  doing  everything  else  without 
writing,  and  indeed  I  found  the  business  and  the 
civilities  belonging  to  our  departure  quite  enough 
for  me;  however,  I  thank  God,  here  I  am  tolerably 
well,  and  the  journey  thus  far  delightful,  having 
your  sister  still  with  me,  but  we  are  drawing  towards 
the  moment  of  separation,  which  must  be  endured. 
Miss  Creightons  were  received  into  the  Convent 
yesterday  in  form,  with  all  the  black  things  hovering 
about  them,  but  we  are  all  vastly  pleased  with  their 
present  situation;  they  are  well  lodged  as  to  con- 
veniency,  cleanliness  and  air,  have  a  room  and  two 
little  beds  to  themselves,  a  garden,  a  view  to  the 
country,  and  the  cheerfulness  of  a  great  many 
pensioners,    who    seem  perfectly  well   attended    to. 

^Doctor  Foster— Thomas  Foster,  D.D.,  Rector  of  Dunleer,  father  of  J.  Th. 
Foster  (1709-1784). 

2  Louisa— Louisa  Hervey,  youngest  daughter  of  the  Bishop  of  Derry,  married 
afterwards  to  the  second  Earl  of  Liverpool,  d.  1821. 


The  house  is  five  stories  high,  and  they  carried  us 
into  every  part  of  it,  and  nothing  in  Holland  was 
ever  cleaner. 

Monday,  the  23rd.  Your  sister  and  I  were  up 
this  morning  by  six  o'clock  in  order  to  go  and  make 
a  visit  to  a  Mrs.  Bond,  a  cousin,  at  about  115  miles 
distance,  but  as  I  sent  an  express  yesterday  to  give 
her  notice  of  it,  fearing  to  appear  abruptly  before  an 
infirm  woman  of  eighty,  she  just  now  has  sent  to 
decline  it  on  account  of  her  health,  which  mortifies 
me  extremely,  as  I  had  a  high  opinion  of  her  sense, 
manners,  and  excellence  of  mind. 

Lord  Erne  was  so  good  as  to  propose  himself  that 
Mary  might  go  with  me.  I  hope  we  shall  keep  to- 
gether to-day  notwithstanding  our  disappointment, 
but  to-morrow,  I  fear,  must  be  the  day  of  execution, 
and  poor  Dodd1  scarce  dreads  it  more,  for  now  I  am 
bereaved  of  my  children,  and  even  little  Benjamin 
cannot  make  up  the  loss — a  propos,  think  of  Louisa's 
being  ready  to  stay  in  the  Convent,  and  being  quite 
at  her  ease  amongst  the  nuns,  and  singing  both 
English  and  French  to  them.  The  Lady  Abbess 
is  a  cousin  Of  Mr.  Dennel's,  and  very  like  him,  less 
fine,  but  a  more  soft,  benign  angelic  countenance. 

And  now,  my  dear  love,  let  me  thank  you  for  your 
letter  from  Bethune,  and  assure  you  of  the  pleasure 
I  receive  from  every  mark  and  expression  of  your 
affection  to  me.  We  all  do  you  the  justice  to  believe 
that  you  or  Mr.  F.  wrote  on  your  arrival  at  Dover 

1  Dodd— The  Rev.  Wm.  Dodd,  LL.D.,  author  of  "Beauties  of  Shakespeare" 
and  "Reflections  on  Death",  found  guilty  of  forgery  and  executed.  His  case 
created  a  great  sensation  at  the  time  (1729-1777). 

FROM   THE   HON.   MRS.   HERVEY.  5 

and  London,  but  your  letters  did  not  arrive  from 
either  place,  and  the  delightful  news  of  your  being 
safe  and  well  in  London  came  accidentally  from  L. 
M.  Fitz.  Since  that  your  father  has  received  one, 
and  you  will  easily  imagine  how  we  have  all  rejoiced 
in  your  welfare,  amusement,  and  good  luck  in  finding 
so  many  of  your  relations  together.  I  must,  before 
I  forget  it,  tell  you  that  your  maid's  letters  to  Joseph 
have  been  constant,  so  I  suppose  she  has  more  care 
in  putting  them  into  the  post-office  than  your  other 
servants.  As  your  stay  in  London  was  so  pre- 
carious I  will  direct  this  to  Bury,  as  my  brother1 
can  frank  it  to  you  if  you  should  have  left.  I 
cannot  yet  give  you  that  to  Pyrmont,2  but  when 
I  can  find  it  out  you  shall  have  it.  Pray  always 
mention  your  health  and  how  you  go  on,  describe 
your  meeting  with  Doctor  F.,  tell  me  where  you 
have  been  and  are  to  go,  and  in  general  everything 
which  belongs  to  you  down  to  your  watch.  I  had 
intended  the  foldings3  for  Mr.  F.,  but  since  I  have 
run  into  them  unawares,  I  beg  you  will  thank  him. in 
my  name  for  his  little  scribble,  which  was  very  wel- 
come to  me,  but  his  constant  and  kind  attention  to 
you  I  shall  never  forget— assure  him  of  it  and  of 
my  sincere  affection.    Adieu.     The  Padre's4  blessing 

1  my  brother — Sir  Charles  Davers,  Bart. 

2  Pyrmont — A  noted  mineral  spring  in  the  north-west  of  Germany,  Principality 
of  Waldeck- Pyrmont. 

3  the  foldings — Portions  of  the  paper  folded  in  so  as  to  serve  as  an  envelope. 
Before  the  inauguration  of  national  penny  postage  there  was  a  separate  postage  for 
every  separate  piece  of  paper  under  a  quarter  of  an  ounce  weight,  and  therefore 
both  letter  and  address  were  usually  written  on  the  same  piece  of  paper,  which  was 
so  folded  as  to  leave  a  blank  space  for  the  address,  but  when  weight  alone  regulated 
the  postage,  in  the  year  1840,  envelopes  came  into  use. 

4  The  Padre — The  Bishop  of  Deny.     See  Appendix. 


and  the  love  of  this  party  attend  ye  both.     Ever 
your  affectionate  mother. 

The  Ministers  did  not  quit  us  to  the  last,  and 
a  petit  soupe,  with  a  Harp  and  arrSter  sous  cet 
ombrage  was  our  parting. 

The  Hon.  Mrs.  Hervey 

To  Mrs.   J.   Th.  Foster. 

Pyrmont,  July  15,  1777- 

My  dear  Elizabeth,  though  I  have  been  as  good 
as  my  word  in  not  writing  to  you,  my  thoughts  have 
accompanied  you  through  your  several  journeys, 
meetings,  &c,  and  I  also  guarded  as  well  as  I  could 
against  any  anxiety  which  you  might  have  on  my 
account  by  desiring  my  sister1  to  inform  you  of  my 
welfare,  which,  I  thank  God,  has  been  uninterrupted 
by  any  material  accident.  I  found  your  letter  here 
on  my  arrival  on  the  5  th,  which  gave  me  great 
pleasure.  Your  expedition  to  London  seems  to 
have  fully  answered  in  point  of  amusement,  and  to 
have  exceeded  our  expectation  in  your  reception  in 
the  family,  which  is  doubly  satisfactory.  I  see,  too, 
with  content,  that  you  have  not  forgot  my  friends, 
and  I  flatter  myself  that  you  have  made  them  yours. 
I  entirely  approve  of  your  going  first  to  Sh.2  with 
Dr.  F.,  and  wish  that  he  remained  in  England  to 
carry  you  over  with  him,  for  though  you  seem  to 
intend  being   in  time,   I    know   the  young  jf's3  are 

1  my  sister — Mrs.  Greene. 

^Sh. — Sheffield  Place  or  Park  in  Sussex,  country  seat  of  Lord  Sheffield. 

3  the  young  ff' 's— A  playful  designation  of  Mr.  and  Mrs.  J.  Th.  Foster. 

FROM   THE   HON.   MRS.   HERVEY.  7 

dreadfully  irresolute,  and  I  should  depend  more 
upon  the  old  one. 

I  daresay  you  have  had  a  little  notice  before  this, 
but  if  not  (for  it  is  very  weak  in  some  people),  do 
not  be  tempted  to  retard  your  journey.  A  propos, 
I  hope  you  will  remember  that  you  have  many 
necessary  things  to  provide,  but  don't  do  it  without 
a  person  of  prudence  to  advise  you,  for  finery  and 
expense  in  these  matters  is  very  ridiculous  for  a 
private  station.  I  am  glad  to  find  your  health  is 
at  all  better,  but  your  account  of  yourself  is  not 
altogether  satisfactory.  I  hope  you  are  attentive 
to  take  your  pills,  and  to  prevent  your  being  over- 
heated; that  you  do  not  exercise  too  -much,  or  sit  up 
very  late;  as  to  the  rest  you  must  arm  yourself  with 
fortitude  against  a  time  which  I  hope  will  be  of  as 
little  suffering  as  possible,  and  that  abundantly  made 
amends  for  by  the  fruit  of  it.  As  to  unwieldiness, 
nobody  ever  heard  or  talked  of  such  a  thing  in  the 
first  instance,  not  even  dear  poppy;  you  cannot  be 
pince,  to  be  sure,  any  longer,  but  I  advise  you,  when 
you  are  a  mother,  to  be  one  in  good  earnest. 

Your  second  letter  from  Sheffield  is  arrived,  for 
which  I  thank  you,  and  your  father  commissions 
me  to  assure  you  that  his  silence  does  not  proceed 
from  want  of  affection,  which  is  as  cordial  as  ever  to 
you,  but  from  a  rambling  life  first,  and  then  from 
the  inability  which  these  waters  give  to  all  reason- 
able employment.  I  am  now  transgressing  positive 
orders,  but  I  hope  to  come  off  for  a  red  nose,  whereas 
others  pay  the  heavier  tax  of  a  headache.  He  has 
drunk    these  waters   nine  days,   and    I    think  with 


great  benefit,  which  would  be  still  greater  if  the 
weather  was  not  worse  than  ever  you  saw  it  even 
in  Derry;  constant  rain,  and  dirt,  and  puddle,  and 
yet  in  spite  of  all  he  is  well  and  cheerful,  and  the 
gouty  pains  fly  before  them.  The  lounging  life 
agrees  with  him  also,  and  he  finds  great  amuse- 
ment from  the  company's  being  quite  new  to  him. 
Our  Princess  of  Brunswick1  is  here,  and  vastly  good 
to  us.  We  dine  with  her  quite  en  famille.  Two  of 
the  Queen's  brothers,  too  (one  with  his  Princess), 
the  Prince  Augustus  of  Saxe  Gotha,  and  many 
people  of  rank  with  whom  one  lives  upon  the  easiest 
terms;  the  Prince  of  Waldeck2  (who  is  Prince  of  the 
territory),  vastly  obliging,  too,  and  all  speak  a  little 
French.  We  have  regulated  our  hours  to  theirs, 
and  breakfast  little,  dine  at  half  an  hour  after  12, 
sup  between  8  and  9,  and  go  to  bed  by  ten.  I 
have  not  yet  said  a  word  of  myself,  but  1  think  you 
will  not  be  contented  without  it,  and  I  can  with 
truth  say  that  I  feel  better  and  stronger  than  I  did 
before  I  came.  I  now  and  then  pass  an  agreeable 
hour  with  somebody  that  I  discover  to  my  taste, 
and  I  have  no  material  complaint.  The  village  is 
very  pretty.  There  are  lovely  walks  by  the  well, 
and  the  country  is  very  picturesque,  but  the  roads 
by  which  we  came  were  so  dangerous  that  we  do 
not  care  to  return  the  same  way.  I  believe  it  will 
be  difficult  to  find  any  that  are  good,  but  many 
schemes  are  in  agitation.  The  hereditary  Princess 
wants  us  to  go  by  Brunswick.     She  may  possibly 

1  Our  Princess  of  Brunswick — Augusta,  sister  of  G«orge  III. 

2  Waldeck — The  sovereign  principality  of  Waldeck-Pyrmont. 

FROM   THE   HON.   MRS.   HERVEY.  9 

be  the  reigning  Princess  by  that  time,  as  the  Duke1 
is  dangerously  ill,  but  what  we  shall  determine  on 
is  quite  uncertain. 

I  thank  you,  my  dear  love,  most  tenderly  for 
your  dear  little  present  by  La.  M.,  and  am  very 
sorry  I  did  not  stay  long  enough  to  receive  it.  I 
am  in  hopes  of  a  letter  soon  from  Bury  with  an 
account  of  your  having  spent  your  time  very 
happily  at  Sheffield2  amongst  friends  toute  faite, 
and  some  of  them  at  least  to  your  taste.  What 
a  wilderness  the  world  is  without  them,  and  how 
I  miss  you  and  your  sister  every  day  and  every 
hour.  We  have  no  news  yet  from  Canada.3  Louisa 
sends  her  kindest  love  to  you.  I  have  been  unlucky 
about  a  governess,  for  that  Aigle  would  not  come 
at  last.  Scott  was  a  little  piqued,  but  behaved 
vastly  well  in  the  end,  and  has  come  with  us, 
making  the  best  of  all  difficulties,  and  serving  as 
interpreter  through  Westphalia.  Adieu,  my  dear 
child,  my  best  affection  to  Mr.  F.,*  and  your  father's 
blessing  to  you  both.  He  says  he  will  write  to  you, 
but  don't  be  uneasy  if  he  does  not.  I  hope  f.6  con- 
tinues well,  happy,  and  satisfied.  I  believe  Mr. 
Gifford  has  at  last  a  living;  he  wrote  your  father 
a  letter  of  J  lines  only  to  notify  the  vacancy  with- 
out asking  for  it.  Dearest  Bess,  I  am  your  most 
affectionate  mother.  I  know  nothing  yet  of  Mary, 
but  that  she  has  got  a  lodging  to  her  mind. 

1  the  Duke— Duke  of  Brunswick. 

2  Sheffield— That  is  Sheffield  Place.     See  note,  p.  6. 

Zfrom  Canada— From  Capt.  Hervey,  R.N.,  eldest  son  of  the  Bishop  of  Derry, 
married  to  Elizabeth  Drummond  of  Quebec,  d.  1796. 
*Mr.  F.— Thomas  Foster,  D.D.  (1709-1784). 
•/— ; J.  Th.  Foster,  d.  1796. 


The  Hon.  Mrs.  Hervey 

To  Mrs.  J.   Th.  Foster. 

Pyrmont,  July  30,  1777. 

My  dear  child,  I  received  your  letter  of  the  13th 
from  Sheffield  Place  yesterday,  and  am  extremely 
concerned  to  find  that  you  have  had  so  much  appre- 
hension on  my  account.  I  had  warned  you  against 
expecting  frequent  letters,  and  the  constant  change 
of  place  on  your  side  as  well  as  ours  has  been  a 
great  hindrance  to  our  correspondence.  What  can 
have  interrupted  your  sister's  active  mind  and  pen  I 
can't  guess,  but  it  ought  not  to  have  increased  your 
alarm,  because  as  we  were  not  together  it  could  not 
arise  from  the  cause  you  suspected.  I  fear,  my  dear 
Bess,  that  you  have  inherited  your  mother's  anxious 
temper  about  those  you  love,  but  conjure  you,  by 
the  well-known  suffering  of  it,  to  struggle  hard 
against  it  while  you  have  youth  and  spirits  to  do  so, 
and  to  incline  as  much  as  you  are  able  to  the  best 
side  of  every  object.  You  have,  I  hope,  long  before 
this  received  the  letter  I  directed  to  Bury,  either 
there  or  elsewhere.  I  meant  it  to  secure  the  satis- 
faction to  you,  by  which  I  fear  I  delayed  it,  but  as 
you  will  find  by  it  how  perfectly  free  we  have  been 
from  all  accidents  fdcheux  I  hope  you  will  be  more 
backward  for  the  future  to  suspect  them.  The 
posts  seem  to  be  very  ill  regulated,  too,  and  your 
letter  from  Dover  of  the  9th  of  June  came  only  two 
days  sooner  than  that  of  the  13th  of  July,  but  when 
once  we  are  in  Italy  and  you  in  Ireland  we  shall 
have  a  more  regular  intercourse. 


We  are  to  leave  this  place  about  the  8th  or  ioth, 
and  go  re  Frankfort,  and  perhaps  to  Mayence,  and 
so  embark  on  the  Rhine,  and  carry  Malle-  to  Cologne, 
to  put  her  en  pays  de  Conoissance  on  her  way  to 
Brussels.  This  will  give  us  an  opportunity  of  pull- 
ing down  that  river  for  so  far,  by  seeing  the  finest 
part  of  its  banks.  We  shall  take  our  carriages  and 
come  back  by  land,  and  so  proceed  to  Frankfort 
again,  Darmstadt,  Manheim,  Spier,  Stutgard,  Ulm, 
Augsbourg,  Munich,  Inspruck,  Trent,  Verona.  This 
route  through  Germany  will  be  new  to  us,  and  we 
hope  besides  to  be  in  time  to  drink  the  waters  of  Val 
d'Agno1  for  three  weeks.  They  are  something  like 
those  which  have  agreed  most  wonderfully  with 
your  father  and  done  some  good  to  me  also.  His 
gout  is  drove  away,  and  he  is  the  life  of  the  com- 
pany: he  has  had  but  one  drawback,  by  a  slight 
fever  brought  on  by  cold,  but  which  he  has  thor- 
oughly recovered. 

We  are  now  reduced  to  a  very  small  company 
here.  Our  Princess  and  her  train  set  out  for 
Brunswick  to-day,  which  is  a  great  blow,  for  there 
was  real  satisfaction  and  comfort  in  her  company 
— a  thing  not  very  common  with  Princes  or  Princ- 
esses. There  have  been  no  English  except  our- 
selves and  Col.  Faucit,  who  is  the  negotiator  for  the 
foreign  troops  now  in  our  pay.  Hot-hot ' s  brother 
is  come  for  a  few  days,  and  is  grown  a  quiet,  good 
boy.     Lord  Bessborough2  is  here,  too,  who  can  never 

1  Val  d'Agno — A  mineral  spring  in  the  north  of  Italy,   often  mentioned  sub- 

2  Lord  Bessborough— -Wm.  Ponsonby.  second  Earl  of  Bessborough  and  Viscount 
Duncannon  (1704-1793) 


grow  better  or  worse  or  other  than  he  is.  It  is  in- 
credible what  nonsense  he  talks.  People  listen  and 
laugh;  cela  lui  suffit,  he  puts  it  all  down  to  his 
credit,  and  stands  like  a  mountebank  with  a  circle 
round  him,  which  he  entertains  with  marvellous 
things  much  in  the  same  style. 

I  am  glad  to  find  you  have  passed  your  time 
so  pleasantly,  my  dear  love,  and  that  your  health 
is  mended,  of  which  I  hope  you  have  a  proper 
care,  and  that  you  do  not  only  intend  but  deter- 
mine to  be  in  Ireland  by  the  very  beginning  of 
September.  Remember,  you  have  to  settle  yourself 
and  to  provide  many  things.  I  have  not  been  able 
to  learn  whether  Nurse  Wilkinson  stays  for  you 
in  Dublin,  but  I  hope  so,  to  prevent  the  hazard 
of  her  going  back  and  returning.  I  hope  there 
will  be  no  objection  to  her  manner  of  nursing, 
as  you  seem  to  wish  it,  and  I  am  certain  she 
is  too  honest  a  woman  not  to  tell  you  if  by  any 
weakness  in  the  child  a  breast  should  be  necessary, 
which  is  sometimes  the  case.  N.  Byrne,  you  know, 
is  engaged  for  yourself,  and  I  advise  you  to  use  the 
hartshorn  and  oil  with  hare-skins,  as  I  did,  to  backen 
your  milk,  and  remember  your  promise  of  guarding 
your  breast  from  cold  on  your  recovery  and  first 
going  out,  which  will  be  in  cold  weather.  I  don't 
much  approve  of  riding,  except  you  had  begun  it 
sooner,  but  that  is  now  over.  I  am  glad  the  infanta 
is  so  lively,  but  I  shall  chide  you  if  you  become  a 
mother  so  tristement.  I  had  reckoned  upon  your 
feeling  the  full  value  of  it,  and  I  still  think  that 
when  your  fears  are  over  you  will  think  you  are 

FROM   THE   HON.   MRS.   HERVEY.  13 

well  paid  for  your  pains.  I  have  ever  thought  so, 
and  I  hope  my  dear  child's  children  will  not  de- 
generate. At  all  events,  if  you  find  it  too  early  a 
care  I  am  ready  to  take  it  off  your  hands.  When 
I  return  next  year  send  the  dear  little  creature  to 
me  with  its  nurse,  and  I  will  make  it  as  hardy  and 
active  as  a  Magilligan  kid.  As  to  names,  il  faut 
phis  de  menagement:  one  of  ours  first,  if  you  please, 
but  don't  put  in  too  much  of  the  same  ingredient. 
D.  F.'s  present  was  very  handsome,  and  what  is 
better,  very  kind.  I  think  you  judge  perfectly  well 
about  the  trimming,  which  is  proper,  handsome,  and 

Your  father  bids  me  assure  you  of  his  truest, 
warmest  affection:  he  received  your  long  letter,  but 
the  waters  have  prevented  his  writing:  he  says 
when  we  are  settled  that  we  must  take  it  by  turns, 
and  that  you  shall  hear  from  us  every  fortnight. 
Adieu,  my  dear  child.  Louisa  sends  you  a  thousand 
loves,  and  longs  for  her  nephew.  My  sincere  affec- 
tion to  Mr.  F.;  pray  mention  his  health.  I  will 
direct  my  next  to  Dunleer,  and  will  write  as  we  go 
on,  but  remember  to  allow  for  the  failure  of  letters, 
which  is  very  frequent.  Adieu  once  more.  I  am 
very  well,  and  most  truly  your  affectionate  mother. 


The  Hon.  the  Bishop  of  Deny 

To  Mrs.  J.  Th.  Foster. 

Pyrmont,  July  30,  1777. 

Your  mother  and  I,  my  dearest  Elizabeth,  have 
at  last  agreed  to  atone  for  our  long  silence  by- 
writing  to  you  alternately  every  week,  and  as  she 
is  a  little  occupied  at  present  and  I  not  at  all  (unless 
drinking  waters  comme  un  enrage  may  be  so  called), 
I  have  spontaneously  taken  upon  myself  to  become 
the  periodical  tatler  for  this  time,  and  to  tell  you 
that  we  are  all  well  and  the  better  for  this  Helicon 
of  health.  Your  mother,  very  fortunately,  found 
upon  her  arrival  Dr.  Closius — don't  imagine  this 
singular  name  either  an  abridgment  or  a  translation 
of  Close: st.,  whatever  affinity  there  may  be  between 
his  profession  and  his  title.  Such  a  trouvaille 
immediately  quieted  the  lady's  nerves,  and  prepared 
her  admirably  for  the  waters,  which  were  deemed 
specifick  for  her. 

The  next  question  was  with  regard  to  company, 
and  in  that,  too,  we  were  fortunate,  for  there  was 
no  canaille,  little  bourgeoisie,  and  some  persons, 
not  only  of  great  distinction,  but  of  excellent 
dispositions;  and  the  great  parity  that  is  main- 
tained here  among  all  persons  gives  this  little  place 
a  spirit  of  elegant  but  easy  republicanism  that  is 
very  pleasing,  and  I  am  sure  contributes  much  to 
the  salutariness  of  the  waters,  and  of  course  to  the 
recovery  of  the  patients.  At  the  head  of  this  motlev 
society  of  princes,   peers,    and    citizens  stands    the 


amiable,  the  generous,  the  spirited,  the  learned 
prince  of  the  country,  the  prince  of  Waldeck, 
about  a  stone's  throw  from  the  well.  He  has  a 
soi-disant  castle,  but  a  very  comfortable  casino, 
built  on  a  eminence  which  commands  a  most 
beautiful  country  of  wood,  water,  meadow,  and 
hill  to  a  great  extent,  but  to  a  much  greater 
variety  than  ever  I  saw.  Here  he  entertains  dur- 
ing a  month  or  three  weeks  every  person  succes- 
sively who  either  can  or  cannot  entertain  him, 
females  alone  excepted,  for  as  he  is  not  married 
he  claims  an  exemption — I  am  sorry  to  call  it  so — 
from  that  trouble.  This  is  our  commander-in-chief, 
but  our  principal  citizen  in  this  miscellaneous  re- 
publick  is  our  Princess  Augusta,  hereditary  princess 
of  Brunswick,  with  whom  we  have  lived  more  than 
with  any  other  person  whatever,  and  from  whom  we 
part  with  a  proportionate  regret.  Her  husband 
came  for  a  few  days,  but  he  is  of  a  different  char- 
acter from  his  wife,  more  proud,  less  liant,  ruse, 
some  say  false,  very  debauched,  but  with  a  kind 
of  decency,  and  gave  no  tokens  of  it  here.  Graces 
aux  tempeVamens  delabres  et  epuis^s  qui  s'y  trou- 
vent.  Among  the  crowd  are  expatriated  prime 
ministers,  exhausted  ministers  of  the  gospel, 
Lutherans,  Calvinists,  Hernhuters,  Jews,  Greeks, 
&c,  who  altogether  form  a  good  savoury  oglio  of 
society,  especially  as  one  can  pick  out  of  the  dish 
such  pieces  as  are  too  luscious  or  too  hard  for  one's 
stomach,  or  even  such  as  do  not  suit  one's  palate. 

As  to  the  Place,  it  is  magical.    There  are  two  large 
and  long  avenues,  flanked  on  each  side  with  lesser, 


which  are  deemed  the  shilling  gallery  of  Pyrmont, 
a  part  for  servants.  At  the  end  of  each  of  these 
avenues,  which  cut  each  other  at  right  angles,  is 
a  decent  octagon  building  which  incloses  the  most 
salubrious  of  the  most  generally  efficacious  waters 
perhaps  in  all  Europe.  At  the  back  of  these 
avenues  a  triple  range  of  buildings  as  singular  in 
their  appearance  and  yet  at  least  as  necessary  in 
their  use  as  the  octagon  itself,  and  which  are  cal- 
culated to  receive  these  salubrious  waters  after  they 
have  filtrated  through  all  the  different  vessels  which 
have  received  them.  The  avenues  are  flanked  on 
each  side  with  shops,  not  very  brilliant  indeed,  but 
by  means  of  bath  apartments  said  to  be  very  con- 
venient, and  in  the  middle  is  a  long  salon  where  are 
public  breakfasts,  dinners,  dancings,  cards,  concerts, 
and  almost  all  the  uses  to  which  the  ark  of  Noe 
could  be  put.  Such  is  our  situation  here,  where  we 
shall  remain  ten  days  more.  From  hence  into  dear 
Italy  once  more,  to  drink  the  waters  of  Valdagno 
and  winter  at  Pisa.  Adieu.  Be  sure  not  to  take 
the  long  voyage  if  you  remain  late  in  England;  your 
stomach  cannot  bear  it,  and  you  will  fall  into  the 
equinoxes.     My  blessings  to  your  husband. 

The  Hon.  the  Bishop  of  Derry 

To  Mrs.   J.   Th.  Foster. 

Pyrmont,  August  7,  1777. 

I   am  just  run  home  from   the  walks,   my  dear 
Elizabeth,  to  tell  you  that  our  journey  for  Italy  is 

FROM   THE   HON.   THE   BISHOP   OF   DERRY.  1 7 

decided,  and  that  we  have  the  additional  satisfaction 
of  carrying  with  us  the  Prince  of  Saxe  Gotha,  one 
of  those  few  men  who  unite  familiarity  with  dignity 
and  science,  knowledge,  &c,  with  politeness.  We 
have  taken  violently  to  each  other;  he  is  to  meet  us 
at  Frankfort,  and  from  thence  he  says  nous  irons  au 
Paradis  sur  les  ailes  de  1'amitie.  On  Monday  we 
begin  this  violent  operation.  You  may  trace  us  on 
the  map  to  Cassel,  Frankfort,  Mayence,  from  thence 
we  embark  on  the  Rhine,  descend  it  as  far  as 
Cologne  by  water,  and  return  by  land  to  Mayence, 
thence  to  Manheim,  Immortal  Stutgard,  aussi  sur 
que  je  m'appelle  Charles,  and  so  on  to  Ulm,  Augs- 
burg, Munich,  Inspruck,  Trent,  and  dear  Verona. 
Don't  I  write  like  a  child  upon  this  subject,  yet  no 
wonder,  when  the  very  prospect  of  seeing  such  a 
country  revives  and  rajeunit;  your  mother,  too,  is 
greatly  reconciled  to  it,  and  only  dreads  the  pene- 
trating too  deep  into  it,  but  it  is  absolutely  necessary 
that  she  should  winter  where  there  is  no  winter. 
She  will,  besides,  have  the  advantage  of  drinking 
the  waters  of  Valdagno  both  in  going  and  returning, 
and  nothing  can  be  more  decided  than  that  we  shall 
return  to  these  superexcellent  waters;  none  can  be 
composed  with  more  suitable  materials  for  relaxed 
constitutions,  or  for  slow  circulation  of  juices.  Iron, 
nitre  in  small  quantities,  and  a  large  portion  of 
vitriol  or  fixed  air  constitute  this  salubrious  spring; 
'tis  beyond  belief  efficacious.  May  you,  my  dear 
child,  never  want  to  try  them,  or  if  you  should,  may 
you  never  miss  to  do  so.  Your  mother  is  marvel- 
lously well,  walks  for  above  four  hours  in  the  day, 


is  cheerful,  sings,  and  enjoys  the  place  in  spite  of 
its  present  solitariness.  Adieu,  my  dear  child;  my 
head  is  so  dizzy  I  can  write  no  more;  my  love  to 
your  husband.  Send  for  the  mare  home,  as  she 
risques  being  hurt  by  the  others,  being  the  weakest. 

The  Hon.  Mrs.  Hervey 

To  Mrs.  J.   Th.  Foster. 

Manheim,  August  25,  1777. 

My  dear  Bess,  though  I  wrote  to  you  only  a 
few  days  ago  from  Frankfort,  yet,  as  I  flatter  myself 
that  you  are  at  this  moment  on  the  march  to  Dublin 
Je  me  fais  un  vrai  plaisir  ma  chere  d'aller  au  devant 
de  vous  et  de  nous  feliciter  de  votre  arrivde.  As  it 
cannot  be  in  person  we  must  be  contented  with  its 
being  by  proxy,  and  I  hope  you  will  not  let  your 
spirits  sink  on  account  of  this  unavoidable  separa- 
tion. All  essential  points  are  settled  already,  you 
know,  by  me  for  your  safety  and  comfort,  and 
though  a  mother  is  not  easily  replaced,  yet  I  hope 
you  will  have  such  an  accession  of  friends  as  will 
make  her  care  and  presence  unnecessary. 

We  got  here  last  night  from  Mentz,  where  I 
staid  two  or  three  days  to  wait  for  your  father, 
who  took  the  opportunity  of  going  down  the  river 
as  far  as  Coblentz,  as  the  scenery  there  has  been 
so  much  admired.  He  had  the  finest  weather 
imaginable  for  it,  and  returned  satisfied,  but  not 
enchanted;  in  fact,  I  think  the  banks,  wherever  I 
have  seen  them,  too  low  to  be  very  fine.     I    had 

FROM   THE   HON.   MRS.   HERVEY.  19 

intended  myself  this  amusement,  but  he  did  not 
think  the  boats  commodious  enough  for  me,  nor  the 
road  back  by  land  sufficiently  good,  so  I  was  obliged 
to  give  it  up. 

Take  care  of  your  health,  my  dear  Bess,  in  time; 
one  becomes  a  sad  burthen  to  oneself  from  the  want 
of  it.  The  heat,  dust,  and  fatigue  of  the  journey 
has  unravelled  great  part  of  the  web  wove  at 
Pyrmont,  and  I  have  been  drooping  like  a  new 
planted  cabbage  for  some  days  past.  However, 
thanks  to  some  rain,  a  few  grains  of  I  powder,  and 
change  of  air,  I  am  refreshed,  and  begin  to  hold  up 
my  head;  the  weather  is  fine,  the  heat  moderate, 
the  air  seems  good,  and  the  town  appears  a  perfect 
bijou.  I  am  going  out  to  examine  it,  and  will  tell 
you  more  at  my  return.     Adieu. 

Manheim  is  a  vrai  bijou ;  its  situation,  though 
flat,  is  beautiful,  almost  an  island  by  means  of  the 
Rhine  and  Neckar,  over  which  there  are  yet  but 
convenient  bridges,  but  when  the  devastations  of 
the  French  in  the  Palatinate  are  better  recovered, 
and  that  they  are  converted  into  ornaments,  it  will 
compleat  the  scene.  The  ramparts  are  pleasant 
walks  which  command  these  rivers,  beyond  which 
is  a  small  plain  bounded  with  very  picturesque 
mountains.  The  town  is,  great  part  of  it,  new 
built,  the  streets  are  perfectly  regular  and  broad, 
some  planted  in  two  rows  for  a  walk  in  the  middle, 
and  a  place  or  two  very  well  laid  out;  the  houses 
are  tires  au  cordon,  and  though  the  fronts  are  not 
uniform,  this  regularity  of  the  line,  together  with 
a     neat     plaister    they    are     covered     with,     some 


German  ornaments  and  jalousies,  give  a  general 
elegance  in  the  appearance  which  is  very  pleasing. 
The  Elector's1  Palace  is  an  immense  building,  but 
there  is  no  good  architecture  or  ornament.  A 
grandeur  and  magnificence  from  the  extent,  and 
a  fine  prospect  of  the  river  and  country  from  the 
back  front;  these  are  its  merits.  In  the  precincts 
of  the  Palace  are  also  an  Opera  House,  Tennis 
Court,  Riding  House,  Library,  and  various  collec- 
tions of  antiquities  and  natural  curiosities  in  different 

We  are  waiting  for  our  Prince,  whom  we  expect 
every  minute.  In  the  meantime  we  have  a  very 
good  apartment,  with  a  large  room  which  looks  on 
the  Place  d'Armes,  the  prettiest  spot  in  the  town. 
Besides  the  cheerfulness  of  its  being  the  parade, 
you  may  imagine  that  your  father  amuses  himself 
very  well  here  in  the  midst  of  these  collections,  and 
in  sight  at  least  of  the  mountains  to  which  we 
are  going.  The  Court  are  out  of  town,  and  we 
have  not  been  in  any  society.  He  has  seen  and 
liked  the  French  Minister  (who  is  an  Irishman), 
and  last  night  an  Excellence,  something  hausen, 
who  is  the  Elector's  Minister,  sat  with  us  for  two 
hours.  He  is  monstrously  partial  to  the  English, 
laments  their  present  situation,  and  seems  to  be  a 
sensible,  well-minded  man.  The  conversation  turned 
chiefly  on  politics,  on  which,  as  you  may  imagine, 
I  took  little  share;  but  when  he  got  up  to  go  away, 
the  ceremonial  was  singular  enough,  with  a  permettez 

1  The  Elector — The  Elector  of  the  Rhenish  Palatinate  in  which  the  town  of 
Pyrmont  was  situated. 

FROM   THE   HON.   MRS.    HERVEY.  21 

moi,  Madame,  de  vous  baiser  la  main  (he  repeated 
the  baiser  quick,  and  I  believe  as  frequent  as  20), 
saying  jusqu'a  cent  fois.  It  was  quite  new  to  me, 
and  I  was  almost  ready  to  laugh,  but  I  can  conceive 
the  scene  to  be  sometimes  more  embarrassing. 
C'etoit  un  bon  Papa  avec  un  presque  Grandmama, 
but  I  am  not  clear  that  little  slimness1  would  have 
been  easy  with  such  a  liberty  towards  his  wife,  even 
from  Nestor. 

We  have  still  very  hot  weather,  but  I  am  much 
reconciled  by  rest.  What  I  regret  most  is  that  I 
cannot  hear  from  my  children  till  I  get  to  Verona. 
I  hope  to  hear  there  what  time  you  were  to  be 
at  home,  and  then  to  believe  you  arrived.  Adieu, 
my  dear  child;  my  best  affection  to  f.1  Let  me 
know  exactly  how  you  are  circumstanced,  and  tell 
him  I  don't  doubt  but  he  will  give  me  early  and 
frequent  news  of  you  when  you  are  confined.  Re- 
member you  must  not  use  your  eyes.  Tell  N.  W. 
I  love  her,  and  trust  in  her  care,  and  give,  her 
Louisa's  love,  which  she  will  like  better.  She  is 
perfectly  well,  and  minds  neither  heat  nor  fatigue. 
My  compliments  to  Doctor  F.  Ever,  my  dear 
child,  your  most  affectionate  mother.  Your  father 
and  Louisa  send  their  best  affection  to  you  and 

1  little  slimness — Playful  reference  to  Mr.  J.  Th.  Foster. 


The  Bishop  of  Derry  and  Mrs.  Hervey 

To  Mrs.  J.   Tli.  Foster. 

Augsburg,  Sept.  5,  1777. 

Here  we  are,  my  dear  child,  in  great  spirits,  and 
in  the  company,  I  will  not  say  of  the  most  agreeable 
Prince,  because  that  is  almost  a  contradiction  in 
terms,  but  of  one  of  the  most  agreeable  men  I 
almost  ever  met — I  mean  the  Prince  Augustus  of 
Saxe-Gotha,  first  cousin  to  His  Majesty  George 
the  Third,  K.  of  Little  Britain.  He  has  better 
talents,  more  knowledge,  and  less  pretensions  than 
most  people — in  short,  he  is  a  most  excellent  com- 
panion and  all  the  appearance  of  a  most  affectionate 
friend.  Your  poor  dear  Mother  is  as  much  pleased 
with  him  as  I  am,  and  as  he  is  perfectly  polite  and 
constantly  cheerful,  he  is  an  equally  good  companion 
for  both. 

Would  you  believe  que  deja  nous  avons  ete  a 
Stutgard,  seen  its  mad  Sovereign,1  and  been  accueilli 
by  him  in  the  civilest  manner?  He  was  in  the 
country  when  we  reached  his  capital.  It  was 
necessary  to  ask  his  leave  in  order  to  see  an 
Academy  of  his  institution,  which  bears  an  un- 
common character  in  the  rest  of  Europe.  An  old 
Rum  professor,  to  whom  I  was  recommended  by 
a  little  Rum  physician,  dispatched  an  express  to 
solicit  his  Princely  permission,  aussi  sur  qu'il  s'appelle 
Charles.     He  brought  it  himself,  and  sent  word  that 

1  mad  Sovereign — Charles  Eugene,  an  extravagant  ruler,  but  a  patron  of  educa- 
tion. The  state  at  this  time  ranked  only  as  a  duchy,  but  was  raised  to  a  kingdom 
in  1806. 


he  would  have  the  pleasure  of  showing  it.  We  met 
him  there  with  his  Comtesse  under  his  arm,  and 
after  saluting  us  with  all  proper  dignity  he  began 
exhibiting  his  lions.  A  more  elegant  and  orderly- 
Raree-show  I  never  saw.  Imagine,  my  dear,  300 
lads  from  seven  years  old  up  to  seven-and-twenty, 
all  ranged  in  different  classes,  but  in  the  same 
uniform,  same  manner  of  dressing  the  hair,  same 
hats,  stockings,  buckles,  &c.  &c,  marching  with  as 
regular  a  step  as  a  regiment  of  guards,  and  present- 
ing themselves  each  before  his  respective  plate, 
standing  stock  still  till  the  signal  is  given  for  grace, 
and  then  each  joining  most  reverentially  in  the 
benediction.  When  that  is  finished  they  remain  as 
motionless  till  the  word  is  given  for  sitting  down, 
which  alone  is  done  with  some  eagerness.  They 
then  eat  as  methodically  as  they  march,  and  during 
the  meal  the  Prince  and  we  marched  from  class  to 
class,  and  he  distinguished,  as  his  caprice,  his  in- 
terest, or  perhaps  their  merits  led  him,  the  different 
lads  of  talents.  Their  dread  of  him  was  shocking, 
though  he  seemed  to  do  everything  to  familiarize 
them  with  him.  After  dinner  they  returned  in  the 
same  distribution  with  which  they  came,  and  the 
Prince  explained  to  us  the  nature  of  the  Society. 
Lads  of  every  nation,  every  religion,  every  age,  and 
even  every  rank,  are  here  admitted — from  the  sons 
of  common  soldiers  up  to  Barons  and  Counts.  Each 
follows  his  genius.  We  saw  rooms  for  painting, 
sculpture,  drawing,  music,  Latin,  Greek,  Hebrew, 
&c.  &c.  This  is  the  true  secret  of  education,  and 
it    succeeds    accordingly.     Different   geniuses    have 


ripened  at  different  ages,  and  some  premature  ones 
have  been  blighted  when  least  expected.  Those 
who,  after  every  trial,  have  shown  no  talent  at  all 
become  good  dunces;  this  event  never  fails.  The 
Prince  feeds,  clothes,  and  lodges  every  one.  None 
is  allowed  to  receive  money  even  from  his  parents, 
nor  on  any  pretence  to  transgress  the  bounds  of 
the  College  without  an  Inspector.  Each  lies  in  a 
separate  bed,  and  fifty  of  them  sleep  so  cleanlily  in 
one  room  that  the  air  is  as  pure  within  as  without. 
I  did  not  think  so  perfect  a  system  of  education 
existed  anywhere. 

To-morrow  we  go  to  Munich,  then  to  Inspruck, 
then  to  Verona.  Your  Mother  bears  all  beyond 
expectation,  and  Lou1  in  the  highest  spirits.  I  have 
my  own  horses,  so  need  not  say  how  well  I  am. 
Adieu.  My  love  and  blessing  to  your  excellent 
husband;  may  he  always  love  you  as  well  as  he 
does  now,  that  is,  as  well  as  you  deserve.  I  leave 
the  rest  of  the  paper  for  your  mother;  but  send  us 
all  the  Irish  news  you  can,  and  believe  me  most 

Added  by  the  Bishop's  Wife. 

I  will  not  let  this  paper  be  folded  without  adding 
a  few  lines  to  my  dearest  Bess,  to  confirm  your 
Father's  good  account  of  me,  and  to  say  that  I  bear 
the  fatigue  of  travelling  very  well,  now  the  heat  is 
over;  and  though  my  fat  is  in  great  measure  melted 
away,  I  manage  to  carry  my  skeleton  through  with 
those  who  are  in  better  case.     Your  Father's  new 

1Lou—  His  daughter  Louisa,  as  previously  explained. 

FROM   THE   HON.   MRS.   HERVEY.  25 

friend  is  indeed  a  valuable  acquisition,  infinitely  so 
to  him  and  very  agreeable  to  me.  We  shall  now,  I 
hope,  be  at  Verona  in  a  few  days,  and,  I  hope,  find 
there  good  account  of  my  dear  children.  I  am 
persuaded  that  you  are  at  this  moment  in  Dublin, 
and  may  all  possible  happiness  attend  you  there. 
Darling  Lou  is  well,  and  sends  her  best  love  to  you. 
Pray  assure  little  f.1  of  mine;  and  great  F.2  of  my 
perfect  esteem  and  good  wishes.  I  flatter  myself 
that  your  present  to  him  next  month  will  make  him 
very  happy.  Mention  f.'s  head,  and  be  assured 
that  I  am  interested  for  you  both  in  every  article  to 
ye  greatest  degree,  being  ever 

Your  most  affectionate  Mother. 

The  Hon.  Mrs.  Hervey 

To  Mrs.  J.  Th.  Foster. 

Valdagno,  September  28,  1777 

I  think  of  you  so  much,  my  dear  Bess,  that  I 
must  absolutely  write  pour  me  decharger  le  cceur, 
especially  as  I  have  not  had  a  line  from  you  since 
you  left  Bury,  which  I  reckon  was  on  the  2nd,  and 
of  course  26  days  ago.  It  is  a  proof,  at  least  I  hope, 
that  you  did  not  return  to  London,  and  that  you  are 
growing  every  day  nearer  to  your  own  home  though 
farther  from  me.  That  is  now  my  first  wish,  yet 
the  fear  of  any  accident  which  may  have  befallen 
you  on  the  road  in  so  long  a  journey  is  very  dis- 
quieting;  but   you    have   passed  all  the  dangerous 

'  little  /—J.  Th.  Foster.  2  great  F— Thomas  Foster,  D.D. 


epochas  for  premature  births;  you  have  good  roads, 
a  good  season,  a  kind,  indulgent  husband,  and,  I 
hope,  an  attentive  servant,  all  strong  guarantees  for 
your  good  behaviour.  I  will  therefore  positively 
suppose  you  in  Dawson  Street,1  and  this  is,  I  think, 
the  fourth  letter  which  I  send  to  you  there,  and 
happy  shall  I  be  if  my  dear  child  receives  it  with 
her  usual  spirits,  and  with  as  much  health  as  her 
situation  will  allow  of.  The  accounts  of  you  from 
Bury  were  very  flattering,  and  Je  tache  de  m'en  bien 
farcir  la  tete  en  attendant  your  own  which  I  am  sure 
you  will  not  neglect  to  send  me.  You  cannot  be  at 
a  loss  for  a  direction,  as  Danoot  remains  receiver- 
general,  so  that  any  letters  directed  to  Verona 
would  be  sent  after  us. 

I  suppose  you  had  des  vives  entretiens  with  Mr. 
Foster  upon  the  beauties  of  Yorkshire  comparatively 
with  those  of  Brabant,  but  I  flatter  myself  that  he 
received  a  total  defeat  and  gave  hostages  for  his 
good  behaviour:  in  short,  I  think  you  went  trium- 
phantly through  all  that  riding;  when  you  came  to 
Westmoreland  and  Cumberland  he  took  a  little  sly, 
malicious  revenge,  and  if  my  poor  dear  love  was  not 
very  sick  in  the  passage  she  repaid  him  with  interest 
on  the  other  side  of  the  water.  I  imagine  you  slept 
one  night  at  least  at  Dunleer,2  where  I  hope  you 
have  many  comforts  in  store,  and  that  you  got  coolly 
and  quickly  to  town  afterwards.  But  why  do  I  talk 
of  coolly  ?  Perhaps  you  poor  creatures  are  already 
in  rain  and  storm  while  we  are  basking  in  sunshine. 

1  Dawson  Street — In  Dublin. 

2 Dunleer — A  village  in  Co.  Louth,  where,  as  already  mentioned,  Dr.  Foster,  her 
father-in-law,  was  rector. 

FROM   THE   HON.   MRS.   HERVEY.  27 

It  is  a  week  to-day  since  we  came  hither,  and 
we  have  had  the  finest  weather  imaginable,  with 
only  some  rainy  nights  that  have  made  the  air 
still  more  agreeable.  Your  father  continues  to 
ride  every  morning  to  the  spring,  which  is  four 
miles  from  this  village,  and  s'en  trouve  bien.  For 
my  part  I  readily  adopt  the  Italian  manner,  and  take 
the  waters  in  bed.  I  begin  about  seven,  remain 
in  quiet  and  darkness  till  near  half  an  hour  after 
nine,  and  then  open  my  window  (behind  the 
curtain),  take  my  chocolate  and  lie  till  eleven,  and 
sometimes  twelve.  This  has  rested  and  restored 
me  extremely,  and  the  waters  agree  perfectly  with 
my  constitution  in  every  respect.  I  cannot  posi- 
tively recollect  whether  I  wrote  to  you  since  I  left 
Verona  and  told  you  the  horrors  of  our  bare  walls, 
black  meat,  hard  bread,  &c,  but  we  are  all  so  much 
in  humour  with  the  waters  that  we  scorn  to  be  out 
of  humour  with  anything  else.  We  have  dressed 
up  the  ugliness  of  the  house  as  well  as  we  could, 
a  good  appetite  makes  our  peace  with  the  bad  food, 
and  health,  even  in  perspective,  makes  amends  for 
many  defects.  There  are  two  gentlemen  and  their 
wives  here,  but  one  family  is  too  good,  being  al- 
ways at  church,  and  the  other  rather  too  bad:  how- 
ever, we  have  some  communication  with  this  last, 
though  without  any  hopes  of  conversion.  The  lady 
is  handsome,  the  gentleman  very  dull  indeed,  but  we 
let  him  alone,  and  she  is  really  agreeable,  and  having 
no  object  of  love  makes  a  very  good,  cheerful  com- 
panion, with  a  proper  retenue,  at  least  when  I  am 


Bittio1  arrived  two  days  ago,  noir  comme  un 
maure,  and  grinning  in  a  most  ghastly  manner,  both 
at  the  fright  he  had  been  in  about  some  robbers, 
and  the  joy  to  find  himself  so  near  home.  He  has 
brought  a  great  many  fine  drawings,  and  made  good 
remarks  on  them.  We  hope  to  see  Mr.  and  Mrs. 
Strange  here,  and  think  of  going  back  with  them 
to  Venice  in  about  a  fortnight.  We  are  not  quite 
resolved  whether  to  remain  the  winter  at  Padua  or 
to  go  to  Pisa,  but  Rome  and  Naples  are  exploded, 
and  this  keeping  nearer  to  you,  my  love,  almost 
makes  me  feel  as  if  I  should  see  you  sooner. 
Louisa  sends  her  love  to  you ;  she  is  going  on  very 
well  now  her  hours  are  regulated  in  the  old  way. 
She  reads  French  and  gets  by  heart  with  the  gover- 
ness, then  writes  and  reads  English  with  me.  She 
has  now  begged  to  resume  her  drawing  with  Bittio, 
and  she  walks  every  day  after  dinner  attended  by 
a  little  dog  I  have  given  her,  which  makes  her 
delight.  She  is  perfectly  well,  and  keeps  her  plump- 
ness still.  I  have  a  bed,  even  here,  in  my  room  for 
her,  and  Mademoiselle  in  the  next,  so  that  I  am 
a  spy  upon  them,  and  she  no  fatigue  to  me,  but 
much  pleasure,  and  her  mind  opens  daily.  Adieu, 
dear  Bess.  My  love  to  f.  Your  father's  blessing 
on  you  and  him,  and  our  compliments  to  the 
Doctor.  La  Belle  is  almost  suffocated  for  want  of 
somebody  to  scold,  but  behaves  well,  and  so  do  I. 
Remember  me  most  kindly  to  Mr.  Rich  and  Miss 
Bellew.     .     .     . 

1  Bittio — A  teacher  of  drawing. 

FROM   THE   HON.   MRS.    HERVEY.  29 

The  Hon.  Mrs.  Hervey 

To  Mrs.  J.  Th.  Foster. 

Valdagno,  October  5,  1777. 

S'occuper  c'est  savoir  jouir, 
L'oisivete"  pese  et  tourmente; 
L'ame  est  un  feu  qu'il  faut  nourrir 
Et  qui  s'eteint  s'il  ne  s'augmente. 

You  will  wonder,  my  dear,  to  see  my  letter  begun 
with  poetry,  but  these  four  lines  of  Voltaire  were 
just  now  repeated  to  me.  I  do  not  recollect  to  have 
ever  seen  them,  and  if  they  are  as  new  to  you,  I 
think  you  will  not  receive  less  pleasure  from  them 
than  I  have  done. 

The  6th. — I  had  got  thus  far  in  an  idle  kind  of 
scribble  when  I  was  blessed  with  my  dear  child's 
letter  from  Dunleer.  The  winds  favoured  me  ex- 
tremely and  brought  me  the  news  of  your  safe 
arrival  in  24  days.  I  need  not,  I  cannot,  say  how 
delighted  I  am  with  it,  nor  how  thankful  I  am  for 
your  preservation  from  all  the  accidents  which 
threatened  you.  You  was  a  good  dear  thing  for 
giving  me  this  satisfaction  so  immediately  and  by 
your  own  hand,  as  no  other  could  have  conveyed 
the  same  degree  of  content  to  me.  You  seem  to 
have  performed  the  journey  in  a  very  short  time, 
but  I  flatter  myself  that  you  wrote  truly  safe  and 
well,  and  that  you  have  not  suffered  from  it.  The 
scheme  of  ending  your  journal  at  home  was  an 
excellent  one,  but  as  I  received  your  letter  with  too 
great  eagerness  to  see  the  postmark  on  the  direction, 
I  was  much  disappointed  on  finding  the  date  from 


Bury,  and  the  happiness  at  the  end  was  such  a  sur- 
prise to  me  that  I  was  in  transports  at  it.  Don't 
make  any  apologies  to  me  for  the  length  of  your 
letters,  but  be  assured  they  are  by  so  much  the 
more  welcome,  and  that  there  is  no  circumstance 
belonging  to  you  so  trivial  as  not  to  interest  me. 

Though  I  have  mentioned  L.  B.'s  conduct  towards 
Mr.  F.  and  you  in  former  letters,  yet  I  must  repeat 
my  satisfaction  as  well  as  surprise  at  it.  I  think  the 
;£ioo  was  well  allotted,  but  would  it  not  buy  3, 
instead  of  2,  pins.  I  have  a  notion  30  guineas  for 
each  would  do  very  well,  and  that  would  be  some- 
thing more,  and  the  number  better  suited  to  your 
use  for  them.  I  am  glad  Slimness  is  a  favourite 
and  should  wish  to  hear  his  remarks  and  opinion, 
but  not  by  letter. 

My  dear  Bess,  you  outdo  my  best  hopes  in 
matronly  care.  Comment  une  petite  provision; 
'twas  an  excellent  wench,  and  when  I  love  her 
not  chaos  is  come  again.  It  had  often  occurred 
to  me  to  recommend  it  (so  truly  have  you  guessed 
my  thoughts),  but  the  fear  of  alarming  you  with- 
held me,  and  I  believe  I  never  even  hinted  it. 
I  thank  God  that  this  provision  was  useless,  but  I 
figure  to  myself  that  my  dear  child  may  be  at  the 
time  she  receives  this  safely  and  comfortably  in  her 
own  bed,  with  the  little  —  removed  to  other  quarters, 
and  in  high  content,  the  Doctor  in  possession  of  a 
little  grandson,  nurse  W.  in  high  fun,  little  Byrne 
in  a  notable  fidget,  and  dear  Mrs.  R.,  or  my  friend 
Miss  B.,  in  social  chat  in  the  great  chair  by  you. 
If  all  this   has  not  already  taken    place,    I   flatter 

FROM   THE   HON.   MRS.   HERVEY.  31 

myself  it  is  a  comfort  in  store  for  you.  I  expect 
from  my  dutiful  son  great  discretion,  and  that  he 
talks  no  more  to  you  than  the  women  allow  of  (who 
are  here,  for  once,  the  best  judges),  besides  which,  I 
must  add  that  if  Poup6e  is  dismissed  one  moment 
before  her  time  my  heavy  hatred  shall  fall  on  him  ; 
it  is  a  thing  of  the  utmost  importance  or  I  would  not 
name  it,  but  who  else  can  do  it?  You  have  only  to 
keep  my  letter  en  cas  de  besoin,  and  I  have  too 
good  an  opinion  of  the  youth  to  doubt  his  compliance 
after  such  a  warning. 

We  have  compleated  a  fortnight  here  with  satis- 
faction, that  is,  with  success;  the  waters  continue 
their  good  effect,  the  weather  has  favoured  us, 
and  one  week  more,  before  the  rains  set  in,  is 
all  we  ask.  We  are  then  to  go  to  Venice  for  a 
short  time,  and  I  believe  afterwards  to  Pisa  (in 
Tuscany),  but  direct  always  to  Danoot  for  fear  of 
a  change  of  plan. 

I  have  wrote  to  beg  Mrs.  Preston's  protection 
for  you  in  Dublin,  which  I  think  will  please  her 
and  make  her  partial  to  you,  and  that  you  will  like 
her  and  she  you  notwithstanding  the  disparity  of 
age.  The  poor  La.  M'D.  have  played  a  desperate 
game.  Be  sure  to  let  me  know  your  acquaintance 
and  connections;  take  care  of  cold  on  your  recovery; 
cover  your  petto;  wear  a  chdle  all  winter,  and  let 
me  find  you  blooming  next  summer.  Adieu.  My 
love  to  f.  Your  father  and  Lou's  to  both;  compli- 
ments to  Dr.  F.,  M.  Rich,  M.  B.  Parnello,  et  tutti 
quanti,  and  my  blessing  on  my  children  and  grand- 
children.    Louisa    says    she    is    monstrously  happy 


at  your  safe  arrival,  and  longs  to  be  an  aunt.  She 
sends  her  love  to  Nurse.  I  hope  she  is  stout  and 
well,  and  little  Byrne  also. 

The  Bishop  of  Derry 

To  Mrs.  J.  Th.  Foster. 

ROME,  January  28,  1778. 

I  have  been  writing  till  my  head  is  almost  giddy, 
and  yet  I  cannot  let  the  post  go  out  without  saying 
one  word  to  my  dear  Elizabeth.  Your  mother  and 
Lou  are  at  the  opera,  from  which  I  exclude  myself 
per  decorum.  I  have  the  more  leisure  for  other 
amusements,  among  the  foremost  of  which,  my  dear 
child,  is  conversing  with  you.  I  must,  however, 
begin  with  commissions.  I  have  bespoke  a  full- 
length  statue  of  my  late  brother,1  which  I  mean  to 
have  executed  by  the  print  we  have  of  him,  and  beg 
that  you  and  your  husband  would  visit  the  work  as 
often  as  you  can.  Vanoost,  if  he  is  able,  is  to 
execute  it.  The  next,  my  dear,  is  rather  more 
difficult.  I  wish  you  to  buy  me  the  handsomest 
poplin  you  can  find,  and  of  the  richest  colour,  as 
much  as  will  make  the  most  fashionable  gown. 
This  I  would  have  sent  to  your  sister  at  Paris, 
which  Lady  Buckingham  can  easily  contrive  for  you 
by  one  of  the  many  messengers  that  go  to  London, 
or  even  by  the  common  post  to  the  Secretary  of 
State's  office,  from  whence  it  can  with  equal  ease  be 

Lmy  late  brother— -Probably  George  William,  second  Earl  of  Bristol,  d.  1775. 


directed  to  your  sister  at  Lady  Stormont's,1  and  your 
sister  will  have  directions  from  me  to  forward  it  to 
me  at  the  Cardinal  de  Bernis'  at  Rome,  where  I  am 
on  such  a  footing  that  he  has  done  this  more  than 
once  for  me. 

'Tis  incredible  how  pleasantly  I  pass  my  time 
here,  both  within  the  town  and  without,  and 
how  agreeably  the  first  nobility  receive  strangers. 
Your  mother  begins  now  to  mix  a  little  more,  and 
I  hope  will  gain  both  health  and  spirits  by  it,  but 
she  dares  not  attack  palaces  or  antiquities,  both  on 
account  of  the  fatigue  and  the  damp.  I  am  im- 
penetrable to  both,  and  have,  besides,  painters 
working  in  my  room  all  the  day.  'Tis  really  a  life 
of  Paradise.  The  sett  of  English,  too,  are  pleasant 
enough,  and  have  their  balls,  their  assemblies,  and 
their  conversationes,  and  instead  of  riots,  gallantries, 
and  drunkenness,  are  wrapt  up  in  antiquities,  busts, 
and  pictures.  One  day  or  other,  perhaps,  we  may 
visit  it  together,  but  as  yet  I  think  the  hazard  in 
every  respect  too  great. 

"  For  youth  to  itself  rebels  tho'  none  else  near." 

I  am  impatient  to  hear  that  something  is  to  be 
done  for  the  R.  Catholics.  Pray  inform  yourself 
well  about  it,  and  then  me.  The  young  senator's2 
opinion  would  weigh  much  with  many  people,  and 
he  could  easily  discover  their  bent;  there  seems  to 
be  no  possibility  of  escaping  a  French  war.  They 
are  working  with   all    their  might  at   Toulon,  and 

1  Lady  Stormont — Wife  of  the  British  Ambassador  at  Paris. 

2  The  young  senator — John  Thomas  Foster,  M.  P. ,  d.  1796. 



only  getting  ready  to  attack  us  the  better.  My 
intelligence  is  pretty  good,  and  they  are  so  confident 
of  success  they  can  scarcely  veil  their  faces  enough 
to  conceal  it.  In  this  case  you  would  see  us  sooner 
than  we  promised,  and  the  Cardinal  de  Bernis  must 
give  us  his  last  favor,  a  passport.  Some  of  the 
French  are  already  hurrying  home,  and  a  lady  of 
the  very  first  distinction  took  leave  of  me  to-day, 
hoping  there  would  be  no  war,  but  expecting  there 
would.  She  is  sister  of  the  French  ambassador  at 
London.  Ireland  in  this  case  is  undoubtedly  their 
first  object,  and  what  a  desperate  condition  is  ours 
if  the  R.  Catholics  are  not  first  won  over.  I  tremble 
to  think  of  it.  Why  don't  you  write  to  us  more 
constantly,  and  be  sure  that  every  trifle  that  belongs 
to  you  or  your  husband  interests  us.  Adieu.  It  is 
an  hour  later  than  I  thought,  but  a  short  letter  is 
better  than  none,  and  so  I  send  you  this. 

The  Hon.  Mrs.  Hervey  and  the  Bishop  of  Derry 

To  Mrs,  J.  Th.  Foster. 

Rome,  March  3,  1778. 

I  waited  for  the  end  of  the  Carnival,  dear  Bess, 
in  hopes  of  having  something  to  tell  you  which  was 
extraordinary  and  amusing  that  might  dissipate  your 
natural  gravity  for  a  moment,  and  lighten  the  effect 
of  Irish  fogs;  but,  alas,  my  dullness  and  indolence, 
and  the  most  perverse  and  persevering  wet  weather 
imaginable  has  in  great  measure  disappointed  my 
project.     The  Saturnalia  is  almost  over,  and  nothing 

FROM   THE   HON.  MRS.  HERVEY.  31, 

memorable  has  happened  that  I  know  of.  The 
public  entertainments  have  been  bad  operas,  masked 
balls  at  the  theatre  at  so  low  a  price  that  you  might 
be  in  company  with  your  cook,  or  even  your  foot- 
man, and  for  the  last  eight  days  a  horse  race  in  the 
principal  street,  which  was  likewise  crowded  with 
coaches  and  masks.  The  Roman  people  are  re- 
markable for  an  immoderate  love  of  pleasure,  yet, 
though  this  amusement  was  limited  to  a  few  hours 
only  each  day,  the  part  they  took  in  it  was  so 
moderate  that  it  seemed  to  consist  only  in  gazing 
at  each  other,  and  throwing  sugar  plumbs.  This 
retenue,  however,  is,  I  believe,  the  effect  of  guards, 
constables,  and  spies,  and  la  Corda1  (which  you  may 
remember  described  by  Bittio)  set  up  in  the  midst 
ready  to  punish  any  offender  sur  le  champ.  The 
race  itself  is  indeed  as  little  worth  seeing,  as  can  be 
imagined,  and  as  little  seen.  For  imagine  to  your- 
self five  or  six  horses  let  loose  to  run  down  a  street 
quite  full  of  people,  without  riders,  and  without  a 
place  set  off  for  them.  The  people,  who  are  divided 
among  many  objects,  make  no  place  for  them  till 
the  moment  they  come  up,  and  then,  falling  back 
just  enough  for  them  to  pass,  close  again  the 
moment  after;  so  that  as  there  is  only  one  heat,  it 
is  really  only  a  momentary  amusement.  What  is  a 
greater  is  the  variety  of  figures  that  are  piled  up  on 
each  side.  The  windows  and  balconies  tapissis,  and 
full  of  people.  Some  fine  carriages,  and  a  few  open 
ones;  but  I  have  seen  nothing  so  pretty  as  the 
procession    at     Brussels,    and    there    is    very    little. 

1  la  Corda— Probably  for  the  punishment  known  as  the  strappado. 


humour  amongst  this  great  variety  of  people.  The 
most  entertaining  of  them  was  one  who,  in  the 
character  of  a  petit  maitre  abbi,  went  about  bowing 
to  all  the  ladies,  and  looking  at  them  with  his 
lorgnette.  One  of  our  horses  happened  to  fall,  and 
this  pretendu  abbe  ran,  amongst  others,  to  our  assis- 
tance, and  after  he  was  got  up,  he  very  pompously 
gave  him  his  benediction  to  prevent  future  accidents 
(knowing,  as  was  supposed,  your  father  for  a  bishop), 
on  which  there  was  general  acclamation. 

Colonel  Dillon  (brother  to  the  one  who  married 
Miss  Phipps)  is  just  come  here,  and  has  given  us 
the  satisfaction  of  seeing  somebody  who  has  seen 
your  dear  sister,  which  is  always  more  satisfactory 
even  than  a  letter.  I  had  one  at  the  same  time, 
and  she  seems  going  on  very  pleasantly. 

Voltaire1  is  really  at  Paris,  as  the  newspapers 
mentioned,  but  which  I  could  not  believe.  He 
lodges  upon  some  quay  or  open  part  of  the  town 
where  there  is  a  crowd  every  day  to  stare  at  him; 
but  what  is  more  satisfactory,  he  has  had  a  deputa- 
tion from  the  Academie  des  Belles  Lettres  with  some 
of  the  first  people  at  their  head.  The  first  geniuses 
in  the  suite,  and  above  forty  in  number  to  compli- 
ment him  on  his  arrival  and  acknowledge  those 
talents  by  which  he  has  done  so  much  mischief. 
Imagine  his  excess  of  happiness!  This  man,  who 
has  certainly  more  vanity  than  almost  any  other 
person,  has  been  also  proportionably  more  flattered. 
His  sun  sets  bright  indeed,  yet  I  think  that  in  the 
midst   of  his  glory  his  heart  smites    him.      He  is 

1  Voltaire — Francois  Marie  Arouet  de  Voltaire  (1694-1778). 


going  to  bring  a  play  upon  the  stage  even  now,  but 
I  have  not  heard  whether  it  is  likely  to  be  a  proof 
of  his  strength  or  of  his  weakness.  I  cannot  help 
feeling  something  on  this  occasion  for  poor  Rousseau,1 
who,  I  think,  will  be  ready  to  dye  with  envy.  He  is 
certainly  a  more  amiable  man,  and  I  believe  more 
mad  than  wicked.  In  proof  of  this  I  must  tell  you 
that  he  has  lately  made  his  address  to  God  Almighty, 
which  is  not  to  be  published  till  after  his  death. 
He  tried  several  times  to  deposit  it  under  a  particular 
altar  in  a  church  at  Paris,  but  was  defeated,  and  at 
last  determined  to  find  out  a  faithful,  generous, 
pitying  Englishman,  with  whom  he  might  entrust 
it  with  this  injunction.  He  has  done  so.  I  saw 
the  particular  friend  of  the  person  to  whom  it  is 
confided,  who  told  me  that  R.  had  read  it  to  his 
friend  with  the  tears  pouring  down  his  cheeks, 
and  that  it  is  a  recital  of  all  his  hardships  and 
misfortunes,  and  a  most  sublime  and  affecting 

God  bless  you,  my  child;  perhaps  we  may  meet 
sooner  than  was  intended,  for  we  are  in  daily  ex- 
pectation of  a  declaration  of  war,  which  must  drive 
us  home.  My  love  to  f.,  and  a  kiss  to  dear  Fred 
the  third.  Your  father  and  Lou  join  in  all  kind 
thoughts  towards  you.  Compliments  to  Doctor  F. 
No  account  yet  of  Mrs.  Oliver.  I  write  to  you 
almost  every  week.  I  hope  you  receive  my  letters. 
I  am,  dear  Bess,  your  most  affectionate  mother. 

E.   Hervey. 

1  Rousseau— Jean  Jacques  Rousseau  (1712-1778). 


Louisa  sends  her  love  to  Nurse,  to  which  I  add 
my  blessing. 

The  following  supplement  is  added  by  the  Bishop. 

Your  mother  has  left  me  just  room  enough  to 
give  you  a  commission,  dear  Bess.  Ships  are  con- 
tinually going  from  Dublin  to  Leghorn.  Send  me 
by  the  first  as  much  poplin  as  will  make  two  suits  of 
clothes,  one  of  a  grey,  and  the  other  of  a  puce  colour. 
Direct  them  "  a  monseigneur  le  Cardinal  de  Bernis 
a  Rome  ".  Put  them  into  oilskin,  and  inclose  them 
"au  Consul  Francois  a  Livourne".  I  wish  I  knew 
what  would  best  please  you  and  your  husband  from 
hence.  Tell  me  frankly,  but  after  the  second  week 
in  April  direct  to  us  at  Paris  at  Sir  John  Lambert's. 
If  you  like  to  go  and  stay  at  Derry  this  summer,  the 
house  and  garden  there  belong  to  you  and  yours. 

The  Hon.  Mrs.  Hervey 

To  Mrs.  J.  Th.  Foster. 

Rome,  March  15,  1778. 

From  the  time  of  your  receiving  this  letter, 
dearest  Bess,  your  direction  must  no  longer  be  to 
Rome  but  to  Paris,  Sir  John  Lambert.  Our  route 
is  not  absolutely  fixed,  but  the  troubles  naissant 
in  Germany  will  prevent  our  returning  the  way  we 
came,  and  I  hope  we  may  go  the  other  in  time  to 
see  your  sister  before  she  leaves  it.  They  seem 
quite  uncertain  about  their  summer  party,  indeed 
we  must  all  be  so  whilst  war  hangs  over  our  heads. 

FROM   THE   HON.   MRS.   HERVEY.  39 

I  have  just  now  your  letter  ended  on  the  third  of  last 
month,  and  am  sorry  to  find  that  you  have  had  any 
apprehensions  about  me,  but  I  cannot  account  for  an 
interval  of  six  weeks,  as  I  think  I  have  seldom  been 
so  long  as  a  fortnight  without  writing  to  you.  I 
have  had  no  confinement  all  the  winter,  and  though 
it  has  rained  almost  as  constantly  as  in  Ireland,  there 
is  generally  some  part  of  every  day  not  only  practi- 
cable but  pleasant,  and  with  a  mild,  soft  air  and  sun 
unknown  to  us  poor  islanders  in  our  own  country. 
The  spring  is  now  remarkably  forward,  and  the 
scene  brightens  every  day.  I  hope  to  see  some 
of  the  environs,  and  in  the  meantime  our  Lent 
promises  to  be  more  cheerful  than  the  Carnival, 
from  the  great  number  of  strangers  which  are  now 
every  day  returning  from  Naples.  Vesuvius  has 
been  so  quiet  that  your  father  has  not  been  tempted 
to  go  there.  I  hope  it  will  not  take  a  tantaruni  at 
the  time  we  should  go  northwards  for  fear  we  should 
make  a  short  turn  towards  it. 

Mr.  Dillon,  brother  to  our  nephew  and  colonel  of 
a  regiment  in  the  service  of  France,  is  here  with 
some  other  officers  who  had  all  received  orders  for 
their  immediate  departure  to  join  their  corps,  but  it 
is  relaxed  a  little  yet,  so  that  they  seem  in  expecta- 
tion every  post  of  fresh  orders.  Many  jokes  pass 
between  him  and  your  father  about  the  invasion 
of  Ireland.  The  Colonel  promises  to  be  careful 
of  the  Palace,  your  father  to  be  indulgent  to  the 

What  you  tell  me  of  f.  and  yourself  opens  a  pros- 
pect to  me  much  more  delightful  than  the  fairest  in 


Italy.  I  see  very  plainly  that  his  conduct  towards 
you  has  been  affectionate  and  confidential.  I  know 
how  well  you  deserve  it,  and  I  long  to  embrace 
you  both ;  the  rose-lipped  cherubim,  too,  whom  I  am 
prepared  to  see  with  an  eclat  of  beauty  and  its  first 
lovely  little  endeavours  to  walk.  I  regret  only  that 
it  will  be  old  enough  to  fly  from  me,  but  I  trust 
I  shall  soon  win  him  over.  I  hope  you  will  all 
come  to  us  as  soon  as  we  get  home  and  that  may 
perhaps  be  by  the  middle  of  summer,  but  certainly 
cannot  be  later  than  the  end  of  it.  Remember  me 
affectionately  to  Mrs.  Richardson.  I  am  very  glad 
she  is  in  town.  I  have  not  heard  from  her,  but 
notwithstanding  your  caution,  if  she  tells  me  you 
are  thin  I  shall  be  alarmed.  I  hope  you  will  take 
the  medicine  I  have  recommended  to  you  pour  me 
soulager.  I  am  sorry  for  your  disappointment  in 
Miss  M.,  but  dear  Lady  Ross  makes  amends,  and 
I  had  rather  your  intimacy  were  with  those  older 
than  yourself.  La.  B.'s  civility  to  you  n'est  pas  peu 
de  chose,  for  I  hear  she  is  haughty.  You  don't 
mention  the  Fitz,  so  I  conclude  they  don't  go  on  to 
their  credit,  but  I  wonder  you  say  nothing  of  the 
youngest  brother,  married  to  Miss  Butler,  Dean 
Bayley's  granddaughter.  I  hope  you  have  visited 
her.  Your  good  nature  to  poor  Miss  Blackall  pleases 
me,  and  I  believe  she  is  sincerely  attached  to  you 
and  to  me,  besides  that  she  is  unhappy,  which  is 
always  a  claim  on  a  generous  gentle  mind,  and 
therefore  operates,  I  am  sure,  upon  yours.  Your 
e"clat  on  the  birthday,  and  the  popular  acclamation 
was  charming.     I  flatter  myself  that  little  f.  quietly 

FROM   THE   HON.   MRS.   HERVEY.  41 

enjoyed  both.  Adieu,  my  love.  My  hours  are 
now  much  crowded,  and  I  have  not  leisure  for  lono- 
letters.  Your  father  and  Louisa  send  their  love  to 
you  both.  You  know  how  much  you  possess  the 
heart  of  your  affectionate  mother. 

Louisa's  love  and  my  blessings  to  Nurse. 

The  Hon.  Mrs.  Hervey 

To  Mrs.   J.   Th.  Foster. 

Rome,  March  25,  1778. 

I  return  you  my  most  affectionate  thanks,  dear 
Bess,  for  all  the  kind  things  which  you  say  to  me  on 
my  birthday.  The  gift  of  life  to  one  who  feels  its 
true  value  and  tries  to  attain  its  end  is  inestimable, 
whatever  may  be  the  rubs  which,  in  the  course  of 
it,  are  allotted  to  us.  But  good  children  are  its 
choicest  blessings,  and  Providence  has  been  bounti- 
ful to  me  in  this  article,  not  only  giving  to  me  the 
present  enjoyment  of  them,  but  the  most  reasonable 
hope  of  their  being  treasures  to  society,  and  fur- 
nished with  all  that  can  procure  their  own  most  ever- 
lasting happiness.  I  can  hardly  say  how  much  I 
felt  for  you  on  the  alarm  which  your  dear  little  boy 
gave  you.  They  are  a  tax  (amongst  some  others) 
which  nature  has  laid  upon  us  poor  mothers,  but 
then  the  tenderness  of  our  attachment  makes  us 
great  amends,  from  the  first  innocent  smiles  of  our 
infants  down  to  their  grateful  and  well-directed 
affections.      I  hope  these  pangs,  however,  have  not 


been  repeated.  It  is  sometimes  only  the  first  that 
are  so  violent,  and  as  he  begins  early  to  cut  his 
teeth  I  flatter  myself  they  will  come  the  easier. 
He  is,  I  conclude,  before  this  decorated  with  a  coral. 
The  nurse  knows  that  I  conformed  to  this  usage, 
which  I  think  both  ornamental  and  diverting.  I 
have  more  reliance  on  a  crust  of  bread  for  efficacy. 
I  figure  to  myself  poor  f.  in  a  deplorable  state, 
betwixt  his  anxiety  on  your  account  and  the  dawn- 
ing of  his  fatherly  tenderness,  and  am  sure  it  cost 
him  many  a  sigh  and  stride  about  the  house. 

Sir  Robert  Smyth  (the  Welshman)  is  here  and 
his  wife,  who  is  a  pretty  sensible  young  woman.  I 
talked  a  good  deal  to  him  about  f.,  whom  he  spoke 
of  with  kindness.  He  said  he  was  sure  he  would 
make  a  good  husband,  and  I  don't  remember  that 
we  could  find  any  fault  except  a  little  too  much 
reserve  and  gravity  for  a  young  man,  but  he  swore 
to  me  that  he  had  seen  him  at  times  lively,  even  to 
mixing  humour  very  agreeably  with  his  conversation. 
So  have  at  him,  dear  Bess,  and  make  him  laugh 
without  mercy  in  spite  of  Lord  Chesterfield.1  I  am 
very  glad  to  hear  so  good  an  account  of  his  health, 
and  that  he  is  in  better  hands  than  his  own. 

I  hope  you  do  not  forget  that  I  consulted  Dr. 
Smyth  for  you  in  that  only  illness  you  ever  had, 
and  which  overturned  your  constitution  and  was  the 
foundation  of  all  that  is  amiss  about  you  to  this  day. 
I  mention  this  because  it  will  make  him  a  better 
judge  than  anyone  else,  having  the  experience  added 
to  family  attachment,  and  perhaps  you  will  take  his 

1  Lord  Chesterfield— Philip  Dormer  Stanhope,  Earl  of  Chesterfield  (1694-1773). 

FROM   THE   HON.   MRS.   HERVEY.  43 

opinion  about  the  medicine  I  sent  you,  for  if  I  find 
you  thin  and  coughing  I  shall  chide  you  as  usual  or 
perhaps  more — especially  as  I  find  you  take  fright 
and  don't  dance.  Your  letter  is  a  very  pleasant 
account  of  yourself,  my  dear,  and  I  follow  you 
about  to  all  your  parties.  .  .  .  Had  I  the  face  of 
Mrs.  Ferguson  at  full  grin  I  would  sit  for  my  picture, 
to  indulge  your  affectionate  desire  of  it.  The  fact  is 
that  my  face,  such  as  it  is,  has  been  very  bad,  and 
the  medicine  of  no  effect.  I  had  intended  it  for  my 
brother,  and  the  first  sitting  is  over,  but  it  promises 
so  ill  that  I  believe  it  will  be  only  fit  for  my  partial 
children,  who  seem  to  wish  to  preserve  even  the 
idea  of  what  I  am.  I  hope  yours  will  be  well  done. 
Your  father's  is  admirable,  and  Louisa's,  though 
unfinished,  may,  I  think,  be  relied  on  for  a  pretty 
picture  and  strong  likeness. 

Your  sister1  has  fallen  not  only  into  the  first  set  of 
company,  but  has  made  some  of  the  best  acquaint- 
ance, and  the  most  creditable  imaginable.  She  is 
bien  repandue  dans  le  monde  et  parfaitement  bien 
recue,  yet  I  don't  think  her  at  all  happy,  and  I  fear, 
though  she  does  not  say  it,  that  Lord  Erne  keeps 
his  usual  restlessness  and  discontent,  and  though  he 
requires  society  more  than  anybody,  is  constantly 
running  away  from  it,  and  yet  is  without  a  fund  in 
himself  to  supply  its  place. 

We  have  now  determined  on  making  Paris  our 
way  home,  but  whether  we  shall  be  in  time  to  catch 
them  there  the  war  will  determine.  If  it  breaks  out 
now  we  must  hurry  home  and  go  there  en  droiture, 

1  Your  sister — Lady  Erne. 


but  if  not  we  go  to  Venice.  I  write  to  Mrs.  Strange 
by  this  post  to  say  that  we  intend  being  there  by 
the  1 8th  of  May.  The  27th  April  is  our  day  fixed 
for  leaving  Rome,  and  we  shall  make  short  stops 
on  our  way.  I  hope  you  will  have  calculated  for  a 
full  month's  journey  for  your  letter,  and  not  have 
directed  it  here  too  late.  At  all  events  when  this 
reaches  you  let  it  warn  you  to  direct  only  to  Paris, 
Sir  John  Lambert's.  All  the  rest  is  too  uncertain. 
God  bless  you,  my  dear  child.  I  must  say  a  word 
or  two  to  Slimness}  Louisa  sends  you  her  unfaded 
love,  her  constant  kind  wishes  to  her  nurse,  and  a 
kiss  to  her  nephew. 

I  thank  you  sincerely,  my  dear  Sir,  for  your 
satisfactory  account  of  my  daughter,  and  am  not  a 
little  pleased  that  you  begin  already  to  huff  your 
son.  I  flatter  myself  that  I  shall  examine  the  truth 
of  these  articles  before  it  is  very  long.  We  are  soon 
to  leave  the  treasures  of  Rome  for  the  treasures  of 
Ireland,  which  are  now  far  greater  to  me.  I  con- 
fess, however,  that  this  is  a  charming  residence,  but 
as  to  weather,  the  winter  has  been  much  more  rainy 
than  that  we  passed  at  Brussels.  I  thank  you  for 
your  Politicks,  though  the  most  interesting  of  them 
is  the  completion  of  the  circular  road,  of  which  I 
hope  you  and  Bess  profit,  and  perhaps  the  dad.2  As 
to  f.'s  silence  in  Parliament,  it  is  prudent  to  begin 
with  it:  il  se  recule  pour  mieux  sauter.  Voltaire 
has  been  dying  at  Paris,  and  has  confessed  and  asked 
pardon  of  God  and  the  Church.     He  is  now  recover- 

1  Slimness — J.  Th.  Foster,  as  already  explained. 

2  the  dad— The  child  Fred.  Th.  Foster. 

FROM   THE   HON.   MRS.   HERVEY.  45 

ing,  and  I  should  think  would  be  puzzled  to  know 
whether  to  act  Saint  or  Devil. 

The  Hon.  Mrs.  Hervey 

To  Mrs.   J.   Th.  Foster. 

Rome,  April  6,  1778. 

My  dear  child,  your  father  went  out  yesterday  on 

a  little  tour,  the  first  that  he  has  made  (in  the  four 

months  which   we  have   been  here),   and   has   left 

me   your   letter   to    answer,    that   is,    acknowledge, 

lest    an    unusual   silence    should    alarm    you.       But 

acceptable  as  the  commission  is  to  me,  I  fear  I  must 

needs  be  brief,  for  our  departure  draws  very  near, 

and  I  have  left  a  mass  of  things  to  do  in  his  absence, 

which  I  thought  would  have  happened  sooner,  and 

which  you  know  is  the  time  I  allot  for  all  the  fiddle 

faddle  of  preparation  so  inexplicable  to  our  sovereigns. 

I  have  besides  to  pay  my  respects  to  some  of  the 

principal  rarities  here,  for  I  have  been  obliged  to 

decline  the  detail  of  them.      I   shall  only  eat  what 

I  can  digest  and  I  hope  be  the  better  for,  but  the 

weather  has  become  quite  hot,  and  though  I  have 

now  the  absolute  command  of  my  time,  it  harasses 

me  a  little,  but  I  shall  make  everything  bend  to  it 

and  accept  of  no  engagements:  all  daylight  may  be 

put  to  profit,  and  in  the  evenings  our  friend  the 

Prince  of  G.1  and  the  Russian  general  came  and  sat 

with  me  till  eleven,  which  is  my  hour  of  repose. 

I  have  been  more  vexed  than  you  can  imagine  at 

1  Prince  of  G. — Prince  of  Saxe-Gotha. 


losing  the  advantage  I  had  promised  myself  of  the 
excellent  music-master  I  mentioned  to  you:  great 
defects  and  great  perfections  are  almost  always  con- 
trasted in  the  same  person;  he  is  quite  a  character, 
but  it  is  not  Bittids.  In  short,  an  enthusiasm  about 
a  treatise  he  is  writing  on  music,  an  attachment  to 
his  country,  and  a  philosophic  contempt  of  riches 
robs  us  of  this  treasure  and  perhaps  a  little  love,  qui 
s'en  mele. 

I  have  this  moment  a  letter  from  your  sister,  who 
gives  me  the  triste  nouvelle  of  Lord  Stormont's1 
departure  from  Paris,  Monsr.  de  Noailles'2  arrival 
there  from  England,  &c,  &c,  in  short,  everything  but 
a  formal  declaration  of  war,  but  as  that  must  now 
follow,  I  think  we  have  nothing  further  to  do  or  to 
hope  for,  and  I  imagine  your  father,  who  has  had 
this  account,  will  return  in  a  few  days,  and  that  we 
shall  soon  after  take  the  shortest  route  to  our 
unhappy  country. 

Adieu!  Venice,  but  would  I  were  already  at  Paris 
to  counsel  poor  dear  Mary.  One  good,  at  least 
I  trust,  is  to  be  drawn  from  this  great  evil ;  I  mean 
our  being  all  once  more  together.  The  English 
post  is  come  in,  but  there  is  no  confirmation  of  the 
above  news,  though  I  know  it  to  be  true.  I  suppose 
it  was  a  day  or  two  before  the  event.  Adieu, 
dearest  child:  be  in  no  pain  for  us.  There  is  no 
doubt  of  a  passport  and  a  safe  conveyance  home, 
and  the  season  is  now  fit  for  travelling.  I  look 
upon  America  as  lost  for  ever,  but  I  flatter  myself 

1  Lord  Stormont— British  Ambassador  at  Paris. 

2  Monsr.  di  Noailles— French  Ambassador  at  London. 


that  Lord  Chatham1  will  be  our  minister,  and  that 
we  shall  punish  the  treachery  of  France  effectually. 
Ireland  is  to  be  invaded,  it  is  said,  but  I  hope  we 
shall  give  them  other  employment.  The  French 
officers  are  all  gone  off  this  morning.  I  embrace 
the  father,  mother,  and  son  with  true  affection. 
Louisa  sends  her  love  to  all,  and  to  her  nurse  par 
dessus.  She  is  well  and  happy.  I  told  you  before 
to  direct  to  Paris  only — Chevalier  Lambert. 

The  Bishop  of  Deny 

To  Mrs.  J.   Th.  Foster. 

Rome,  May  29,  1778. 

My  dear  child,  in  the  uncertainty  whether  this 
will  find  you  in  Ireland  or  not,  I  shall  not  write  as 
copiously  as  I  would  have  done  last  week  had  I  had 
leisure.  When  your  mother  wrote  to  you,  my  dear, 
the  fate  of  war  appeared  to  be  fixed,  and  in  that 
case  we  were  equally  fixed  to  remain  at  Rome;  but 
since  all  the  appearances  now  incline  for  peace,  our 
project  changes  with  that  of  higher  powers,  and  if 
the  political  weather  continues  fair  we  shall  leave 
this  delicious  abode  at  latest  in  the  autumn.  Your 
mother  has  imagined  that  the  waters  would  be 
almost  necessary  to  you,  and  if  you  suspect  it,  my 

1Lord  Chatham — William  Pitt,  Earl  of  Chatham,  prime  minister  from  1757  to 
1761,  and  from  1766  to  1768.  Lord  Chatham  had  been  against  harsh  measures 
towards  the  American  colonies,  but  he  was  strongly  opposed  to  the  Rockingham 
party,  then  in  power,  and  the  peace  proposed  by  them  as  betraying  an  unworthy  fear 
of  France.  His  last  appearance  in  the  House  of  Lords  was  on  the  7th  April— the 
day  after  this  letter  was  written — when  he  protested  against  the  acknowledgment 
of  American  independence.     He  died  on  May  nth  (1708-1778). 


dear  girl,  don't  delay  so  pleasant  a  remedy  for  a 
single  week,  but  take  up  fifty  pounds  from  my 
banker,  Mr.  Gleadow,  who  upon  seeing  these  few 
lines  will  be  contented  with  your  receipt,  and  it  will 
at  least  pay  your  postage  through  England. 

I  must  confess  to  you  that  if  a  war  should  take 
place  between  France  and  us,  I  am  in  no  little  pain 
about  Ireland,  as  I  know  to  a  certainty  their  great 
stroke  will  be  at  us,  as  the  weakest,  the  most  divided, 
and  the  least  defended.  The  Irish  regiments  in 
their  service  are  already  quartered  on  the  coast  and 
ready  to  be  embarked,  and  the  officers  belonging  to 
those  regiments  who  had  made  an  excursion  to 
Rome  of  a  few  weeks  were  returned,  recalled  in  a 
hurry,  and  had  joined  their  corps.  From  these  I 
collected  enough,  not  only  to  assure  myself  of  their 
destination,  but  even  of  more  particulars  than  they 
would  have  chosen  before  dinner  to  communicate. 
Their  object  at  Rome  at  this  time  was  easily  guessed. 
Considering  what  a  number  of  Irish  friars  of  every 
denomination  abounds  here,  and  how  attached  our 
cruel  and  political  laws  render  them  to  the  Stuart 
family,  nothing  could  exceed  the  attention  shown 
by  the  French  Ministers  here  to  these  gentlemen. 
They  were  lodged  in  one  of  their  houses,  and 
received  daily  at  their  tables,  and  distinguished  con- 
stantly from  all  other  strangers,  and  their  elation  at 
the  thought  of  a  war  was  beyond  all  description. 
At  the  close  of  their  visit  they  scarce  made  any 
secret  of  their  destination,  and  would  frequently 
rally  me  on  my  purchases  of  statues  and  busts,  which 
they  said    must   one    day  belong   to  them.     If  so 


perilous  a  state  does  not  waken  our  Government  to 
mitigate  the  penal  laws  against  the  Papists,  and  to 
win  by  gentleness  whom  they  cannot  subdue  by 
severity,  if  the  most  uniform  acquiescence  under  the 
most  impolitic  and  undeserved  oppression  that  ever 
disgraced  any  legislature  does  not  soften  our,  as  yet, 
inflexible  Government,  I  must  confess  I  shall  suspect 
some  treachery,  and  that  there  is  a  latent  scheme  for 
driving  them  out  of  the  island. 

You  write  to  us  very  irregularly,  my  dear  child; 
I  hope  your  health  is  not  the  cause  of  it.  Yet  at 
this  distance  the  omission  of  a  post  is  of  some  con- 
sequence, and  forms  a  disappointment  not  easily 
repaired.  Have  you  received  your  little  mare? 
Does  she  suit  you,  or  are  you  become  too  timid? 
Did  you  ever  receive  my  letter  in  which  I  offered 
you  my  house  either  at  Derry  or  the  Down  Hill,1  if 
you  wish  to  change  the  air?  It  long  preceded  our 
thoughts  of  staying  here,  and  it  is  now  an  age  since 
we  have  heard.  Think  that  it  requires  almost  two 
months  to  return  an  answer  and  you  will  not  be  so 
dilatory  in  sending  one.  I  long  to  know  where  you 
pass  your  summer,  in  case  you  remain  in  Ireland, 
what  your  occupations  and  what  your  intentions  are. 

We  are  fixed  in  a  delightful  habitation  twelve 
miles  from  Rome  which  we  see  every  day,  but  have 
not  yet  visited  since  we  left  it.  The  environs  of  this 
part  are  the  most  delightful  that  can  be  imagined. 
Wood,  water,  hills,  plains,  rivers,  and  the  sea,  while 
beautiful  buildings  decorate  all  the  villages,  which 
are  chiefly  on   eminences,  and  from   our  house  to 

1  the  Down  Hill — The  Bishop's  country  seat  in  Co.  Derry. 


Albano  the  road  leads  through  a  bird-cage  walk  of 
about  a  mile,  shaded  by  the  largest,  the  oldest,  and 
the  most  venerable  oaks,  as  well  as  chestnuts,  that 
I  ever  saw.  Under  the  branches  of  these  patrician 
trees  one  frequently  discovers  the  principal  buildings 
of  Rome,  and  especially  the  numerous  ruins  of 
ancient  ones  that  fill  the  immense  plain  between  this 
hill  and  the  city.  In  short,  a  more  romantic  spot 
cannot  be  seen.  But  I  am  tired  of  writing  my  tenth 
letter  and  must  break  off,  not  without  assuring  your 
husband  of  my  sincerest  affection,  or  without  renew- 
ing every  protestation  of  the  truest  love  to  you  and 
yours.  Your  mother  and  Lou  are  both  well,  and 
both  at  supper  in  the  next  room. 

The  Hon.  Mrs.  Hervey 

To  Mrs.  J.   Th.  Foster. 

Castel  Gandolfo,1  June  28,  1778. 

As  I  had  nattered  myself,  dear  Bess,  so  it  has 
turned  out,  and  the  last  courier  from  Paris  brought 
me  two  of  your  letters,  for  which  I  thank  you,  my 
love,  and  for  all  your  punctuality  and  affection.  You 
say  your  health  is  better.  Mrs.  Richardson  writes 
me  word  that  you  seem  well,  but  that  your  looks 
are  not  in  favor  of  that  opinion.  I  hope,  however, 
that  the  fatigue  of  the  winter  and  amusements  may 
be  the  chief  cause  of  the  alteration;  and  I  think  I 
may  rely  on  you  and  Mr.  Foster  for  not  retarding 
any   measure   that   may   be   thought    necessary    to 

1  Castel  Gandolfo — A  village  near  Rome. 

FROM   THE   HON.   MRS.   HERVEY.  51 

restore  you.  Don't  you  deceive  him  in  your  com- 
plaints, dearest  child,  and  I  think  he  will  not  deceive 
me  in  his  attention  to  them. 

Great  events  have  happened  here  since  the  date 
of  your  letters:  Lord  Chatham's  loss  in  the  political 
world,  Voltaire's  in  the  literary,  and  the  great  long- 
wished-for  toleration  passed  so  nobly  in  England 
and  so  well  begun  in  Ireland;  you  may  imagine 
how  much  your  father's  mind  is  occupied  with  such 
articles.  He  was  very  much  affected  by  the  death 
of  our  great  minister  and  deliverer ;  but,  luckily,  the 
warm  part  he  had  taken  in  bringing  about  this  bill, 
and  the  unexpected  and  rapid  success  of  it,  has 
turned  his  thoughts  into  a  new  channel,  and  restored 
his  spirits:  he  now  talks  of  nothing  but  Ireland,  and 
I  only  pray  God  that  we  may  wait  till  the  heats  are 
fairly  over  before  we  undertake  our  journey.  The 
Roman  Catholics  here  and  everywhere  are  in  high 
spirits,  and  we  have  already  some  instances  of  the 
good  Wish,  preparing  to  spend  their  fortune  and  their 
lives  in  their  own  country,  so  that  I  do  not  doubt  but 
there  will  be  a  very  great  revolution  in  favor  of  it 
almost  immediately. 

I  conclude  that  your  sister  will  have  told  you  how 
infamously  Voltaire  closed  a  life  which  has  been  a 
perpetual  scandal  to  mankind;  he  certainly  had  very 
great  and  agreeable  talents,  but  a  corrupt  mind,  and 
a  mean,  unfeeling  heart.  F.'s  transport  of  rage 
against  him  was  a  feast  to  me,  and  conveyed  such 
agreeable  ideas  of  his  sentiments  as  I  trust  he  will 
verify  in  all  his  words  and  deeds.  Your  account  of 
your  matron  manners  does  not  alarm  me,  for  I  lost 


my  wild,  youthful  spirits  as  soon  as  you  did ;  and  I 
know  that  you  may  have  more  satisfaction,  and  less 
danger  from  a  more  even  and  quiet  temperature, 
which  I  hope,  however,  will  not  degenerate  into 
grave,  which  does  not  belong  to  you.  Mrs.  Berkeley 
writes  me  word  that  Ranizzini1  goes  over  to  Dublin, 
on  which  I  congratulate  you,  as  also  on  all  the 
pleasant  parties  which  I  flatter  myself  you  have  had 
out  of  town.  I  can  easily  conceive  you  to  be  a 
favourite  with  dear  La.  Arabella  and  all  who  think 
well ;  and,  what  is  more,  I  am  convinced  that  you 
will  always  be  such,  for  your  character  has  taken  its 
plie  and  Dieu  soit  loue  for  its  being  a  right  one.  I 
beg  you  will  reconcile  your  mind  to  my  passing  the 
summer  here,  where  the  air  agrees  uncommonly  well 
with  me,  instead  of  going  to  Val  Dagno,  which,  being 
a  small  town  in  a  small  valley,  would  have  suffocated 
me.  I  am  thinner  than  ever,  and  wizened  like  a 
winter  apple,  but  I  thank  God  my  health  is  pretty 
good,  my  spirits  even,  and  my  face  better ;  and  if 
the  frequent  variation  in  the  father's  feelings  and 
schemes  did  not  affect  my  nerves,  I  believe  I  should 
even  grow  fat — he  begins  now  to  find  this  air  too 
gross  for  him,  and  is  going  to  make  a  little  tour, 
which  at  this  season  in  this  country  is  difficult,  but 
he  cannot  do  without  it.  Louisa  is  very  well,  very 
amiable,  very  docile,  but  without  application  to  any- 
thing. She  sends  her  sincere  love  to  you;  to  f, 
the  darling  nephew,  and  his  nurse.  Adieu!  I  em- 
brace you  both,  my  dear  children,  and  am  youi 
affectionate  mother. 

1  Ranizzini — Cardinal  Ranizzini. 

FROM   THE   HON.   MRS.   HERVEY.  53 

F.'s  scrap  at  the  end  of  your  letter  was  cheering, 
and  I  thank  him  for  it.    Compliments  to  the  Doctor. 

The  Hon.  Mrs.  Hervey 

To  Mrs.  J.   T.  Foster. 

Rome.,  July  15,  1778. 

Though  I  think  I  wrote  to  you  last  Wednesday, 
dearest  Bess,  yet,  as  I  find  myself  at  my  usual  em- 
ployment here,  I  must  try  to  snatch  half  an  hour  to 
thank  you  for  a  long  letter  of  the  14th  of  May,  which 
I  think  came  after  mine  was  set  out.  The  time  will 
soon  come  when  I  shall  begin  to  talk  of  the  arrange- 
ment of  our  journey,  and  the  time  fixed  for  it:  in 
succession  our  adventures  on  the  road,  and  finally,  I 
hope,  a  rendezvous  given  in  St.  Patrick's  blessed 

The  heat  is  increased  since  I  wrote,  but  is  still 
bearable,  and  much  depends  on  temperance,  patience, 
and  good  management.  The  most  disagreeable 
circumstance  is  the  disappointment.  We  have  the 
finest  sky  and  sun  imaginable,  which  we  dare  not 
enjoy;  fruits  which  are  delicious  and  pernicious;  and 
refreshing  evenings  which  prudence  forbids  to  taste 
of:  my  weak  frame  will  not  allow  me  to  get  up  at 
4  o'clock  in  the  morning,  which  is  the  time  of  enjoy- 
ment, and  your  father's  regularity  and  strictness  with 
regard  to  good  hours  at  night  takes  off  the  amuse- 
ment which  the  freshness  of  the  evening  invites  to 
after  supper  (I  mean  in  the  house).  This  leaves  a 
short  space  in  each  afternoon  only  for  going  out,  &c, 


but  the  drives  are  lovely  and  invaluable  even  thus. 
I  have  dined  at  a  neighbouring  villa;  but  though  it 
is  delightful  when  once  there,  it  is  difficult  to  get  to 
it  without  suffering.  Thus  you  see  new  illusions 
start  up  in  every  path  of  life ;  virtue  is  the  only  good, 
and  a  good  conscience  the  only  real,  invariable,  per- 
manent satisfaction  and  enjoyment. 

Your  lamentation  and  panegyrickon  Lord  Chatham 
are  very  just,  dear  Bess,  yet  I  confess  that,  strongly 
as  I  feel  the  publick  loss,  I  think  the  ruin  of  his  family 
by  a  shameful  profusion  or  inattention  bears  hard  on 
his  private  virtues  as  a  man.1  To  make  a  perfect 
character  they  must  go  together,  and  where  they  do 
not,  I  cannot  but  suspect  brilliant  qualities  to  be  with- 
out a  solid  foundation.  A  man  who  loves  his  country 
preferably  to  his  children  appears  to  me  a  monster; 
but  I  speak  more  as  a  woman  than  as  a  patriot,  not- 
withstanding I  can  conceive  the  virtue  of  a  Brutus 
(hard  as  it  was) ;  but  there  must  be  delinquency  and 
the  austere  justice  of  a  magistrate ;  but  why  a  retired 
statesman  should  forget  he  is  a  father  je  l'ignore. 
Rest,  however,  be  to  his  soul,  for  it  was  a  great  one, 
and  the  greatest  have  perhaps  the  most  striking 

I  admire  your  Irish  patriotism  very  much,  and 
hope  trade  is  in  a  way  to  have  every  reasonable 
advantage,  but  that  sudden  qualm  has  checked  the 
ardor  for  the  Papists,  and  in  the  midst  of  the  indul- 
gence to  their  interests,  has  made  Mr.  Gardiner 
forget  their  religion.      How  much  more  noble  is  the 

1  Lord  Chatham — The  House  of  Commons  voted  ^"20,000  to  pay  Chatham's 
debts,  and  an  annuity  of  ^4000  was  settled  on  his  successors. 


unlimited  toleration  of  them  in  England!  What  says 
hum-hum  (Mr.  Fortescue)?  I  know  f.  is  for  him, 
de  cceur  et  d'ame.  Pray  assure  him  of  my  best  love 
and  thanks  for  his  readiness  to  take  you  to  England, 
which  I  flatter  myself  is  not  so  necessary  as  I  had 
imagined.  You  have  an  excellent  place  for  the  goats 
when  near  you,  if  that  should  be  proper,  as  it  once 
agreed  with  you,  and  are  in  time  for  the  second 
season ;  but  I  hope  your  house,  and  the  country  air 
may  suffice.  Pray  when  you  write  to  Mrs.  Richard- 
son assure  her  of  my  affectionate  friendship  and 
gratitude  for  her  kind  letter,  which  I  entreat  her  to 
forgive  my  not  answering.  The  heat  takes  away  all 
strength,  and  I  hope  by  the  end  of  October  to  thank 
her  in  person.  A  kiss  to  your  boy,  my  blessing  to 
his  nurse,  compliments  to  Doctor  Foster.  Finale- 
ment  je  vous  serre  ma  tres  chere  fille  sur  mon  cceur. 
Your  father  came  home  yesterday  well.  Louisa  is 
perfectly  so. 

The  Bishop  of  Derry 

To  Mrs.  J.   Tli.  Foster. 

Rome,  August  5,  1778. 

Though  I  was  rejoiced  to  see  your  handwriting, 
my  dearest  Bess,  yet  when  I  found  the  contents  of 
your  letter  I  was  sorry  you  had  employed  it  so  long 
after  any  degree  of  fever:  so  long  an  abode  in  Dublin 
and  at  such  a  time  of  the  year  could  scarcely  produce 
anything  less.     This  country,  too,  has  had  its  fevers, 


and  we  have  all  suffered  more  or  less :  mine,  as  usual, 
lasted  two  days — one  good  struggle  and  my  consti- 
tution, like  a  giant,  subdued  its  adversary.  Your 
mother's,  according  to  her  system,  lasted  longer,  but 
I  thank  God  and  her  physician  (this  is  more  modest 
than  Cardinal  Wolsey,1  who  always  wrote  "I  and  my 
king")  she  is  better  recovered  than  ever  I  saw  her, 
and  contemplates  her  journey  and  her  return  to  you 
with  great  satisfaction.  Louisa  is  still  very  weak, 
though  in  good  spirits;  she  and  her  mother  write 
billets  doux  to  each  other  every  hour,  and  I  believe 
this  intercourse  does  them  more  service  than  febri- 
fuge drafts  or  decoction  of  bark. 

At  the  end  of  our  Campaign,  or  when  the  hottest 
of  our  Fire  was  over,  Mr.  O'Reilly,  a  gentleman  who 
has  passed  the  summer  in  the  same  house,  entered 
upon  action  with  a  most  violent  fever,  and  began  to 
batter  his  enemy  in  the  system  of  the  Episcopal 
Vauban,  but,  like  the  Frenchman  who  attempted  to 
cut  his  throat  and  stopped  in  the  middle  of  the 
operation,  so  poor  O'Reilly,  who  is  as  fat  as  Dr. 
Palliser,  twice  as  young,  and  with  a  truly  Hibernian 
constitution,  when  he  found  himself  deluging  in  sweat 
and  floating  in  his  own  grease,  whether  he  regretted 
losing  so  much  O'Reilly  matter,  or  whether  his  heart 
failed  him,  he  changed  his  system  abruptly,  called  in 
another  engineer,  who  began  immediately  to  batter 
in  breech,  and  expended  by  this  means  so  much  of 
the  patient's  ammunition  that  he  was  near  falling  a 
victim  to  his  own  imprudence  and  the  ignorance  of 
his  engineer;  another  has  since  been  called  in,  who 

1  Cardinal  Wolsey — Ego  et  Rex  meus  is  sufficiently  well  known  (1471-1540). 


has  wisely  turned  the  siege  into  a  blockade  and  means 
to  starve  the  enemy  into  surrender. 

But,  to  return  to  business,  you  will  have  learned 
before  this  both  from  your  sister  and  from  me  that 
we  all  hope  to  winter  in  Ireland,  and,  if  Shanahan 
will  allow  us,  at  the  Downhill,  but  the  poverty  of  the 
country  is  so  extreme,  rents  have  so  entirely  failed 
that  the  poor  tenants  are  not  able  to  pay  even  with 
daily  labor,  the  bankers  in  Dublin  are  failing  by 
dozens,  famine  stares  the  country  in  the  face,  provi- 
dence itself  seems  to  fight  against  us,  and  the  crops 
threaten  to  be  worse  than  ever.  The  pitiful  con- 
cessions made  to  us  by  England  will  not  compensate 
for  an  hundredth  part  of  the  losses  which  their  multi- 
plied blunders  have  brought  upon  us.  In  the  mean- 
time I  advise  your  husband  to  live  very  frugally, 
since  if  the  American  war  continues,  it  is  almost  im- 
possible that  Irish  tenants  in  the  north  should  pay 
above  two-thirds  of  their  rent.  As  to  the  invasion 
of  Ireland,  if  no  relief  had  been  given  to  the  R. 
Catholics,  I  believe  I  know  much  more  of  the  feasi- 
bility of  that  scheme  than  either  the  Viceroy  or  his 
Secretary,  the  place  where  it  was  to  be  executed,  the 
people  with  whom  it  was  concerted,  others,  again,  the 
least  suspected,  by  whom  it  would  have  been  abetted, 
and  the  arrangement  intended  to  take  place  in  case 
of  success.  If  the  Government  are  blockheads  enough 
to  imagine  that  the  raw,  undisciplined  troops  trans- 
mitted to  them  from  Great  Britain,  stationed  in  a 
part  of  the  country  where  the  French  never  meant 
to  approach  and  surrounded  by  internal  ennemies, 
would  have  been  able  to  secure  you  from  a  descent 


in  the  most  remote  parts  among  crowds  of  friends 
who  daily  expect  them  and  look  up  to  them  as  de- 
liverers from  the  most  cruel  and  unjust  bondage  that 
ever  oppressed  human  creatures,  it  would  only  con- 
vince me  there  was  as  much  treachery  as  folly  in 
their  counsel.  But  the  countenance  of  the  French 
ministers  in  this  place  upon  the  first  intelligence  of 
the  R.  Catholic  bill  was  the  clearest  proof  how  salu- 
tary that  measure  was,  and  that  the  medicine  would 
go,  if  the  faint-hearted  physician  permitted  it,  to  the 
root  of  the  evil — but  remember,  dear  child, 

"  Truths  would  you  teach  and  save  a  sinking  land, 
All  fear,  none  aid  you,  and  few  understand  ". 

The  prejudices  of  some,  the  interests  of  others,  the 
fears  of  still  more,  and  the  indolence,  indifference, 
and  supineness  of  all  are  barriers  which  even  Lord 
Chatham  found  insurmountable.  What  think  you  of 
a  button-making  king  that  in  the  midst  of  a  general 
conflagration  drives  about  the  country  drinking  tea 
and  coffee  with  Lords  and  Ladies  at  their  villas  and 
country  houses  ?  Does  he  imagine  the  K.  of  Prussia 
resists  the  H[ouse]  of  Austria  by  such  amusements,  or 
that  William  Pitt  supported  his  G. father  against  the 
whole  force  of  Bourbon1  by  tripping  about  in  such 
revels? — fie  upon't!  Whip  me  such  Roitelets2  into 
good  behaviour,  and  send  'em  to  school  to  learn  their 
lesson.  Adieu.  My  love  to  your  husband,  who  will 
say  amen  to  this  Imprecation. 

1  Bourbon— The  French  Royal  Family.  2  Roitelets— Petty  kings,  kinglets. 

FROM   THE   HON.    MRS.   HERVEY.  59 

The  Hon.  Mrs.  Hervey 

To  Mrs.  J.   Th.  Foster. 

Castel  Gandolfo,  August  15,  1778. 

I  find  two  of  your  letters  in  my  writing-table,  dear 
Bess.  I  do  not  exactly  know  how  long  they  have 
been  in  my  possession,  but  they  would  not  have  been 
totally  unanswered  if  I  had  not  known  that  your 
father  had  wrote  to  you,  and  that  I  was  engaged  in  a 
little  experiment  upon  fevers  in  this  hot  climate  and 
season.  In  short,  I  have  paid  my  usual  tax,  and 
experienced  the  usual  goodness  of  providence  in  my 
recovery,  which  is  going  on  very  well  after  a  very 
short  confinement.  The  circumstances  which  at- 
tended this  event  made  it  a  little  distressful  at  the 
time.  Your  father  had  one  of  his  short  fevers  during 
the  worst  part  of  mine,  and  Louisa  was  confined  to 
her  bed  likewise  with  an  intermitting  fever,  which 
is  in  a  very  fair  way  of  being  subdued;  her  looks 
improve  every  day,  the  fever  is  quite  gone,  and  she 
gains  appetite  and  strength  as  I  could  wish.  There 
is  only  a  gallery  between  my  room  and  hers,  and  our 
doors  were  open  night  and  day,  which  makes  me 
able  to  attend  in  some  degree  to  her ;  and  in  some  of 
my  good  intervals  I  wrote  her  joking  billets,  which 
kept  up  her  spirits,  which  the  absence  of  father  and 
mother  had  rendered  very  necessary.  We  had  a 
physician  in  the  house,  who  attended  us  very  care- 
fully; but  I  had  no  confidence  in  him,  though  he 
was  from  Ireland s  own  self.  At  the  same  time  a 
healthy  young  man  in  the  apartment  over  ours  took 


a  violent  fever  and  died  in  a  week:  it  has  proved 
since  that  it  was  the  only  circumstance  which  could 
have  saved  his  wife  from  ruin,  as  he  was  spending 
all  he  had.  So  after  comforting  her  for  a  week  she 
has  left  us,  and  all  melancholy  incidents  are  giving 
way  to  the  pleasure  of  returning  health,  and  the 
satisfactory  preparation  for  our  return  home,  which 
we  mean  to  do  as  soon  as  the  heat  will  let  us. 

Your  father  has  taken  a  little  alarm  about  my  ex- 
posing myself  to  the  blasts  of  the  North  of  Ireland 
after  being  in  a  state  of  perspiration  for  so  many 
months,  and  has  proposed  to  leave  us  in  England 
for  the  worst  of  the  winter  months,  which  I  believe 
may  be  necessary.  I  shall  quit  him  with  reluctance, 
and  regret  much  to  delay  our  meeting,  dear  Bess; 
but  I  hope  you,  Mr.  Foster,  and  the  little  boy, 
perhaps  also  the  Doctor,  will  go  to  him,  and  make 
up  for  my  absence,  which  I  shall  make  as  short  as 
I  can.  I  fancy  he  will  be  at  Deny  first,  to  creep 
into  the  Downhill  as  he  can,  and  I  hope  that  may  be 
an  amusement  to  you.  Mrs.  Richardson,  too,  will  be 
in  the  country,  and  I  trust  often  with  you.  I  wish 
Lady  Moira  would  trust  you  with  one  of  the  Lady 

I  hope  our  affairs  are  in  a  much  better  position 
than  when  you  wrote  last.  I  flatter  myself  that 
peace  is  at  this  moment  made  with  America,  and  by 
the  French  fleet  going  back  into  port  it  is  plain  the 
war  is  not  desired  with  England;  and  I  hope  that  if 
Spain  can  adjust  the  difference  betwixt  us  that  we 
shall  not  be  so  absurd  as  to  run  into  it,  but  that  we 
shall  have  the  pleasure  to  find  general  peace  at  our 

FROM   THE   HON.   MRS.    HERVEY.  6 1 

return,   and   poor   Ireland  emerging    from  its   diffi- 

God  bless  you,  my  sweet  child.  My  tender  affec- 
tion is  with  you  and  yours.  I  imagine  your  father 
will  be  at  home  the  end  of  October.  Lady  Bristol,1 
who  still  calls  herself  D.  of  K.,  is  just  come  to  Rome, 
and  they  say  is  busy  packing  up  all  her  effects. 

The  Hon.  Mrs.  Hervey 

To  Mrs.  J.   Th.  Foster. 
CASTEL  GANDOLFO,  September  14,  1778. 

My  dearest  Bess,  I  natter  myself  that  you  will 
have  imputed  my  long  silence  to  the  accidents  at- 
tending our  removal  from  hence,  and  our  journey 
towards  home,  and  by  this  means  may  have  avoided 
any  particular  anxiety  for  us;  but  here  we  are  still, 
my  love,  and  just  emerging  from  a  scene  not  a  little 
perplexing;  in  short,  there  has  been  an  influenza  in 
the  air  of  this  country  from  the  heats  of  the  last  two 
months  from  which  scarce  any  one  could  secure  them- 
selves. Your  father  and  I,  Louisa,  Finney,  Barwick, 
the  Bn.'s  valet  de  chambre,  the  child's  governess,  all 
have  paid  the  tax;  it  has  been  a  fever  more  or  less 
to  all ;  but  no  one  has  been  so  gently  treated  by  it  as 
myself,  so  that  I  became  the  nurse  and  apothecary 
to  all.  I  thank  God  my  labors  and  prayers  have 
been  blest  with  success;    all  are  returning  towards 

1  Lady  Bristol— -Elizabeth,  daughter  of  Colonel  Thomas  Chudleigh,  and  wife 
(married  privately)  of  Augustus  John  Hervey,  Earl  of  Bristol  and  brother  of  the 
Bishop  of  Deny.  She  married,  secondly,  E.  Pierrepoint,  Duke  of  Kingston,  for 
which  offence  she  was  impeached  before  the  House  of  Lords,  and  the  marriage 
was  declared  illegal  (1740-1788). 


health,  and  for  my  own  part,  I  am  both  ready  and 
willing  to  set  out  towards  you,  but  I  much  fear  that 
your  father  will  be  inclined  to  pass  the  winter  in  a 
milder  climate  than  that  of  Derry,  on  account  of  his 
dreaded  gout,  for  indeed  he  is  much  reduced,  and  it 
would  take  him  at  a  disadvantage;  but  I  do  not  re- 
linquish the  hopes  of  his  getting  strong  enough  to 
wish  himself  to  set  out,  and  to  have  courage  to  do 
it.  Poor  honest  Samuel  has  escaped  this  scourge, 
and  some  of  our  Italian  servants,  but  most  of  them 
have  suffered,  and  even  the  assistants  to  the  sick 
have  themselves  fallen  ill  of  the  disorder;  it  has  not 
been  mortal  in  this  part  of  the  country,  yet  pretty 
severe :  for  the  particulars  of  our  woful  state  I  reserve 
them  for  our  meeting,  that  I  may  make  you  cry  and 
laugh  at  pleasure,  for  which  I  pledge  myself. 

I  long  to  hear  something  of  your  state  and  situa- 
tion, and  how  little  f.  settles  to  a  family  life  in  the 
country.  I  am  glad  he  is  so  well  entertained  in  town. 
I  conceive  him  to  be  interested  in  Parliamentary 
debates,  and  I  was  pleased  to  find  him  in  the  chair. 
The  notable  provision  for  the  country,  my  dear  child, 
delights  me;  and  I  think  I  see  you  in  the  midst  of 
family  occupations,  with  the  little  fairy  tripping  after 
you  and  bleating  (as  ye  all  used  to  do)  that  dear  word 
Mama.  I  have  as  yet  no  account  of  Lord  Erne  and 
your  sister  having  left  Paris.  I  am  much  distressed 
at  her  state  of  health  and  at  his  irresolute  conduct 
about  Spa;  but  most  of  all  at  the  apprehension  of 
being  defeated  in  my  scheme  of  taking  her  with  me 
to  Bath,  where  I  hoped  to  have  recovered  her,  but 
man  proposes  and  God  disposes.     I  dread  her  going 


to  Ireland  with  her  present  complaints;  the  pleasure 
of  seeing  you  will  be  a  counter-poison,  but  I  am  afraid 
it  will  be  the  only  one. 

We  have  now  very  pleasant  weather,  and,  notwith- 
standing my  own  illness,  and  that  I  have  suffered  on 
account  of  other  people's,  this  place  certainly  has 
agreed  with  me,  and,  some  circumstances  changed, 
I  should  have  been  very  happy  in  it.  It  is  impossible 
to  say  even  now  whether  we  shall  have  war  or  peace. 
Poor  Keppel1  has  been  severely  treated  for  not  doing 
impossibilities.  I  am  furious  when  I  hear  a  brave 
man  condemned  hastily  for  want  of  success,  or  an 
honest  man  for  want  of  good  fortune.  I  think  a 
character  once  established  should  be  proof  against 
everything  but  matters  of  fact. 

Adieu,  dearest  child.  Why  are  we  to  be  hundreds 
of  miles  asunder?  My  best  affection  is  with  you 
and  yours.     Dutchess  of  Kingston  still  at  Rome. 

The  Bishop  of  Deny 

To  Mrs.  J.   Th.  Foster. 

Rome,  September  19,  1778. 

My  dear  child, — I  have  but  a  moment  to  tell  you 
that  we  are  all  making  great  strides  towards  health, 
and  that  at  this  instant  the  critical  rains  are  falling, 
which  usually  purge  this  atmosphere  of  all  its 
impurity;    but,    alas!    a  journey  to  England  is  im- 

1  Keppel— Admiral  Lord  Keppel  (1725-1786}.  He  had  been  in  command  of  an 
ill-equipped  fleet  of  twenty  ships  while  the  French  Brest  fleet,  with  which  he  was 
supposed  to  be  able  to  cope,  consisted  of  thirty-two  ships  of  the  line.  He  accord- 
ingly fell  back  to  Spithead  to  wait  for  reinforcements. 


possible  till  next  April.  In  the  meantime,  comfort 
your  poor  sister1  all  you  can,  who  is  exhausted,  worn 
out,  and  can  no  more.  He  tires  her  to  atoms  by 
his  silly  difficulties,  and  his  endless  irresolution. 
Great  God,  how  ill  she  is  matched!  Tell  your  hus- 
band, the  antipode  of  t'other,  that  I  should  be 
much  obliged  to  him  for  a  list  of  the  speakers  in  our 
house  on  the  Popish  bill,  and  the  sum  of  the  argu- 
ments against  us;  -that  I  wish  also  to  know  if  the 
bill  to  tolerate  their  religion  is  to  take  place,  without 
which  I  do  not  know  how  the  multitude  are  benefited; 
that  I  beg  him  to  ply  his  cousin2  close  on  this  subject. 
He  is  a  man  of  very  superior  talents,  of  great 
weight.  I  f  such  a  bill  should  pass,  I  pledge  myself  to 
bring  sixty  thousand  pounds  sterling  within  eighteen 
months  into  the  kingdom  for  the  purpose  of  building 
cathedrals,  churches,  and  chapels.  The  Pope  will 
give  us  five  thousand,  and  one  single  convent  in 
Bohemia,  of  Irish  friars,  subscribes  one  thousand 
pounds,  the  seminaries  of  Valladolid  and  Salamanca 
as  much.  There  is  a  Governor  MacEgan,  is  just 
returned  from  his  government  in  Peru,  an  old 
bachelor  with  ,£70,000,  who  will  give  us  £5000. 
The  Empress  of  Germany,  if  this  war  does  not  con- 
tinue, has  promised  her  confessor,  Father  Kelly,  an 
Irish  Recolet,  a  considerable  sum  for  the  benefit  of 
her  soul  in  Purgatory — other  lesser  subscriptions  are 
numberless,  but  such  a  sum  would  be  deeply  felt  in 
our  exhausted  country.  Adieu!  my  dear.  You  see 
how  much  I  have  this  matter  at  heart.     Your  hus- 

1  your  poor  sister — Lady  Erne. 

*  his  cousin — John  Foster,  last  Speaker  of  the  Irish  House  of  Commons,  created 
In  1821  Lord  Oriel  (1740-1828). 


What  this  will  produce  at  the  end  of  the  winter,  God 
alone  knows;  but  I  fear  they  will  be  ill  prepared  to 
undertake  an  early  journey,  which  was  my  purpose. 
In  the  meantime  they  are  better  lodged  than  they 
were,  in  a  higher  atmosphere,  in  separate  rooms,  and 
with  the  convenience  of  a  third  that  commands  the 
finest  prospect  in  all  Rome.  To  facilitate  their 
airings,  and  to  make  them  really  such,  I  have  bought 
four  horses  for  them,  which  carries  them  into  the 
country  and  out  of  the  suburbs,  their  former  patrolle. 
At  dinner  we  have  usually  two  or  three  friends,  and 
in  the  evenings,  if  Louisa  keeps  well,  we  shall  have 
small  concerts.  With  these  ingredients,  I  think  it 
no  difficulty  to  make  a  good  dish  of  happiness, 
"animus  si  nos  non  deficit  aequus":  your  husband 
will  English  this  Latin  for  you,  but  for  fear  he  should 
not,  it  runs  thus,  "if  your  appetite  be  as  good  as 
your  meat" — for  if  it  be  not,  'tis  in  vain  to  abuse  the 
cook,  and  would  be  more  to  the  purpose  to  call  in 
the  physician,  who,  if  he  knows  his  trade,  will  brace 
the  body  in  order  to  pacify  the  mind.  Fortunately, 
the  physicians  in  this  country  are  entirely  for  this 
system  infinitely  more  honest  than  ours,  for  they 
make  no  scruple  to  confess  that  great  towns  are  the 
churchyards  of  the  human  species. 

I  must  confess  myself  a  little  uneasy  at  your  scheme 
of  lying  in  at  Dublin,  and  would  much  rather  be  at 
the  expense  of  your  coadjutor  than  have  you  risk 
yourself  in  so  prejudicial  an  atmosphere,  both  to  the 
child  and  its  mother.  Air,  my  dear  Elizabeth,  is 
nothing  more  than  a  fluid  whose  purity  and  impurity 
depend    almost   entirely  upon    the   greater  or   less 


degree  of  its  elasticity:  in  great  cities  and  marshes 
there  can  be  little  elastick  air,  for  reasons  too  obvious 
to  mention  to  you.  Dublin  is  both  a  great  city  and 
a  great  marsh;  judge,  therefore,  what  a  stagnant  air 
it  must  always  contain.  Fear  it,  my  dear  Ophelia; 
fear  it.  A  propos  to  Dublin,  send  me  word  what 
were  the  colors  of  the  two  poplins  you  forwarded 
for  Paris,  but  which  never  reached  it.  The  lady  to 
whom  they  were  destined  doubts  our  taste  a  little, 
but  has  given  strong  proofs  of  her  own  in  two  most 
beautiful  gowns  she  was  so  good  as  to  procure  at 
Paris  for  your  mother,  who  now  deems  herself  too 
old  to  wear  them ;  and  if  Louisa  continues  as  she 
has  begun,  your  mother,  too,  will  grow  younger  and 
fitter  for  her  gowns. 

The  air  grows  delightfully  mild,  but  so  changeable 
that  we  have  daily  three  seasons  within  twenty-four 
hours;  and  though  I  am  what  is  called  recovered,  I 
dare  not  stay  abroad  in  the  evening.  Lord  and  Lady 
Lucan,  with  a  most  delightful  family,  are  here,  and 
enjoy  Rome  as  much  as  we  enjoy  them.  To-morrow 
they  dine  with  us  though  there  are  six  in  family,  but 
'twill  be  a  family  dinner,  and  probably  a  cheerful 
one.  The  other  English  here  are  not  worth  naming 
to  you,  but  Lady  Berkeley  is  expected,  and  we  shall 
have  a  scene  of  it.  What  if  the  Dutchess  Countess1 
should  return?  How  impatient  will  you  be  for  our 
letter,  and  what  copious  materials  we  should  possess; 
but  fate  has  no  such  happiness  in  store. 

Have  you  seen  Lord  Erne?  Is  he  on  tip-toes? 
Isn't  Mary  a  sweet  creature  to  be  at  last  multiplying 

1  Duchess  Countess— 'The  so-called  Duchess  of  Kingston. 


herself,  and  providing  comforts  for  her  old  age  and 
mine?  I  am  in  raptures  with  the  thought  of  seeing 
you  all  at  the  Downhill,  and  have  some  thoughts 
of  building  barracks  for  children.  Go  on,  my  dear 
Eliza,  and  never  fear  hurting  your  constitution  by 
honest  child-bearing,  since  for  one  mother  that  grows 
thin  with  this  work,  there  are  five  hundred  old  maids 
that  grow  more  thin  for  want  of  it.  My  love  to 
your  husband,  and  a  thousand  thanks  to  him  for  the 
warm  part  he  took  in  favour  of  R.  Catholicks.  Your 
mother  and  sister  are  both  asleep,  and  probably 
dreaming  of  you.  Send  me  word  frankly  what  the 
Primate  says  of  Downhill. 

The  Bishop  of  Derry 

To  Mrs.  J.   Th.  Foster. 

Rome,  December  8,  1778. 

Though  I  wrote  to  you  so  lately,  my  dear  Eliza, 
yet,  as  we  are  making  a  jaunt  to  Naples,  I  just 
apprize  you  of  our  motions.  Your  mother  would 
have  wrote,  but  having  just  finished  a  letter  to  Lady 
Erne  she  is  not  in  a  disposition  to  scribble,  and  I  am 
grown  such  a  secretary  that  letters  are  my  pastime. 
Our  weather  is  growing  delicious;  our  company  of 
English  multiplies  very  much,  and  some  pleasant 
people  among  them,  especially  Mr.  Thomas  Pitt, 
nephew  to  my  hero :  he  resembles  him  so  much  both 
in  person  and  understanding  he  is  quite  a  treat  to 
me,  and  having  been  intimate  with  him  in  his  last 
years,  becomes  twentyfold  more  interesting.     I  am 

FROM   THE   HON.    MRS.   HERVEY.  69 

purchasing  treasures  for  the  Down  Hill,  which  I 
flatter  myself  will  be  a  Tusculanum,  especially  that 
my  dear  Tullia  will  render  its  desert  Eden.  Bid 
your  husband  write  me  constant  billets  of  you  whilst 
you  lie  in,  and  be  sure  you  grow  a  prudent,  sober 
matron,  and  play  no  gambols.  Adieu,  this  is  a  short 
letter  to  travel  so  far,  but  it  is  better  than  none. 
Louisa  and  your  mother  are  at  the  table,  and  send 
their  love  to  you  and  f.     You  cannot  doubt  mine. 

The  Hon.  Mrs.  Hervey 

To  Mrs.  J.   Th.  Foster. 

Rome,  December  12,  1778. 

My  dear  Elizabeth, — The  last  post  brought  me 
two  letters  from  you.  I  had  already  destined  you 
one  by  the  courier  to-night,  but  imagine,  if  I  could 
want  anything  to  stimulate  me,  how  much  my  dear 
child's  affectionate  anxiety  for  me  must  have  con- 
firmed my  intention,  and  quickened  the  pleasure 
arising  from  this  happy  invention  of  communicating 
one's  thoughts  and  affections.  I  received  your 
letters,  my  love,  at  the  harpsichord,  in  spite  of  which 
I  read  them  till  the  tears  poured  down  my  cheeks, 
and  I  was  forced  to  cry  out,  "Oh!  love,  how  pain- 
ful thou  art!"  But  I  hope  the  pains  you  have  felt 
from  it  on  our  account  have  been  gradually  softened 
down  by  our  repeated  good  news  of  the  sick,  until 
your  mind  is  settled  into  a  thankful  calm  for  our 
deliverance.  It  is  true  we  all  suffered  much,  and 
myself  in  the  extreme,  but  God's  providence  was  so 


manifested  in  my  favor,  that  in  the  midst  of  my 
calamity  I  found  comfort. 

Since  we  came  here  this  dear  child  has  had  two  or 
three  very  slight  relapses,  which  have  determined  us 
to  go  to  Naples  for  a  month  for  change  of  air,  lest  she 
should  otherwise  be  subject  to  them  all  the  winter 
(direct,  however,  always  to  Rome).  Do  not  imagine, 
dear  Bess,  that  she  has  any  consumptive  complaints 
from  this,  or,  indeed,  any  that  I  conceal  from  you.  I 
give  you  my  honor  that  she  has  none  but  this  disposi- 
tion to  a  return  of  fever,  but  she  is  grown  strong,  has 
got  flesh  to  cover  her  bones,  and  eats  and  sleeps  well, 
rides  on  horseback,  walks  a  little,  is  in  good  spirits, 
dies  to  see  you,  and  desires  a  thousand  loves  which 
she  had  intended  to  assure  you  of  with  her  own  hand. 
Her  little  horse  and  little  dog  are  her  delights,  and 
she  is  very  happy  at  the  thoughts  of  going  to 

As  to  myself,  I  continue  very  well;  my  red  face, 
indeed,  is  returned,  which  I  had  exchanged  for  a 
better  hue  at  Castello,  but  my  health  is  good.  The 
account  of  yours,  my  love,  would  distress  me  ex- 
tremely did  I  not  impute  your  complaint  to  your 
situation,  and  hope  they  would  go  off  of  course. 
Your  sister  has  taught  me  that  comfortable  lesson, 
for  after  thinking  her  in  a  very  bad  state  I  hear  she 
is  growing  quite  well,  and  likely  to  produce  a  fine 
child,  which  I  hope  you  may  do  too.  You  both,  I 
find,  have  an  inclination  to  nurse,  but  she  has  taken 
advice  and  is  confirmed  in  it.  You  are  uncertain. 
The  principle  in  you  both  gives  me  the  truest  pleas- 
ure, but  you  must  follow  her  steps,  and  not  do  it 

FROM   THE   HON.   MRS.   HERVEY.  71 

without  proper  authority  on  your  own  account;  it 
sometimes  weakens  and  sometimes  strengthens  the 
constitution.  I  cannot  judge  at  this  distance  which 
is  likely,  but  beg  you  will  be  cautious;  do  the  best 
for  your  child,  and  leave  the  rest  to  Providence. 
Perhaps  nurse  would  stay  and  superintend  Henri- 
etta, though  she  might  not  be  equal  to  the  laborious 
fart,  as  we  shall  not  be  at  home  till  the  summer:  in 
short,  this  will  depend  upon  herself,  because,  though 
she  remains  in  our  pay  we  make  no  claim  upon  her; 
should  be  glad  she  could  be  of  any  service  to  you, 
and  would  have  her  equally  depend  on  us  for  her 
home.  As  to  reward,  my  dear,  it  would  be  difficult 
for  me  to  name  it.  Some  present,  I  should  think 
right  and  best,  in  money;  but  you  are  to  consider 
yourself  as  Mr.  Foster's  wife,  and  not  as  my  daughter. 
I  have  set  down  your  commissions  in  a  memorandum 
sheet  for  Paris — here  there  is  nothing.  I  will  add 
some  silk  stockings  to  them,  though  they  are  so  hard 
to  get  over  that  I  believe  I  must  put  them  on.  This 
will  get  to  you,  I  suppose,  about  the  time  of  your 
confinement,  in  which  I  hope  you  will  be  very  pru- 
dejit.  I  am  heartily  glad  that  you  are  to  be  in 
Dominick  Street,  which  I  look  upon  as  in  good  air; 
but  if  you  should  not  recover  well,  I  hope  you  will 
meet  us  next  spring  in  England:  your  sister  stays 
for  us  there,  and  I  think  it  very  possible  that  Jack1 
may  be  returned  home  by  that  time.  He  writes  in 
great  spirits,  was  on  a  cruise,  and  delighted  with 
his  station,  and  determined  that  Captain  Hervey  of 

1  jac]t Captain  Hervey,  the  writer's  son,  Augustus  John,  who  had  entered  the 



the  present  time  should  not  be  contented  with  less 
fame  than  his  uncle1  had  had  before  him. 

Adieu,  dear  Bess,  I  have  neither  time  nor  place 
for  anything  but  family  matters.  Your  father  wrote 
to  you  last  post,  but  as  perhaps  he  might  not  men- 
tion his  health,  I  must  tell  you  that  he  is  well,  and 
everlastingly  employed  in  buying  ornaments  for  the 
Down  Hill,  though  we  both  think  the  greatest  there 
will  be  our  children — God  send  us  to  them.  My 
love  to  f.  I  hope  he  is  very  good  to  the  poor  dear 
little  orphan?  and  will  be  able  to  give  her  in  good 
health  to  the  arms  of  her  affectionate  mother. 

The  Bishop  of  Derry 

To  Mrs.  J.   Th.  Foster. 

November  6,  1779. 

Here  we  are,  my  dear  Eliza,  within  a  few  miles  of 
Preston,  in  Lancashire,  and  at  every  stage  more  im- 
patient to  see  you  and  your  husband.  Perhaps  you 
will  be  able  to  meet  us  at  Belfast  and  settle  our 
winter's  campaign,  that  we  may  not  pass  more  time 
asunder  than  is  necessary.  I  have  wrote  to  your 
sister  for  the  same  purpose,  and  hope  you  will  be 
able  to  settle  something.  In  the  meantime  I  dread 
some  violent  convulsion  in  this  country.  Very 
credible  reports  are  circulated  that  Jamaica  is  taken. 
The  manufactures  of  Lancashire  and  Westmoreland 

1his  uncle — John  Augustus  Hervey,  brother  of  the  Bishop  of  Derry,  who  had 
greatly  distinguished  himself  in  the  naval  service  of  Britain. 

"ipoor  dear  little  orphan— A  playful  designation  of  her  daughter,  Mrs.  J.  Th. 


depend  chiefly  on  the  cotton  which  that  island  pro- 
duces, and  the  price  of  it  is  already  raised  25  per 
cent:  judge  how  the  manufacturers  are  alarmed. 
Sugar,  tea,  and  coffee  have  risen  in  proportion,  and 
the  alarm  is  universal.  I  must  own  that  I  expect 
little  less  than  a  general  insurrection,  for  there  seems 
to  be  a  determined  resolution  in  some  branches  of 
the  ministry  to  reduce  us  to  some  fatal  extremities, 
with  what  view  I  can  better  tell  than  write.  No  one 
in  London  doubts  of  an  union,  nor  do  I  believe  there 
will  be  much  difficulty  about  the  terms.  The  peerage 
to  be  incorporated  into  the  British  house  is  to  be 
hereditary,  and  the  remaining  Irish  peers  are  to  be 
admissible,  as  at  present,  into  the  lower  house.  The 
proportion  of  each  will  be  a  little  more  difficult  to 
ascertain,  but  all  agree  that  we  Bishops  shall  remain 
in  our  diocese.  God  grant  this  may  be  true.  An- 
other scheme  has  been  proposed  of  leaving  the  Par- 
liament in  Ireland  for  the  internal  administration  of 
the  kingdom,  and  assessing  it  once  for  all  in  propor- 
tion with  England,  but  I  cannot  imagine  the  Irish 
will  endure  this:  it  would  reduce  them  to  the  insig- 
nificance of  a  mere  corporation  of  aldermen  and 
common  council,  and  would  multiply  the  number  of 
non-residents  beyond  endurance,  for  who  would  con- 
descend to  become  a  member  of  such  a  legislature. 
Write  to  me,  my  dear,  at  Portpatrick,  and  let  me 
know  at  large  how  matters  go  on.  Send  me  no 
foreign  politicks,  for  on  your  side  the  water  you  know 
none.  Lord  Mountstuart  is  gone  to  negotiate  a  peace 
with  France.  Think  what  a  system  to  close  igno- 
miniously  a  popular  war  at  the  expense  of  maintaining 


the  most  unpopular  and  most  unnatural  one  possible, 
and  what  terms  can  be  expected  from  the  insolence 
of  France,  and  what  will  they  dare  to  offer  to  poor 
America.  Cunning,  which  they  call  policy,  guides 
all  their  steps,  yet  some  there  are  among  them  of 
true  parts  and  real  probity,  but,  alass!  how  few. 
What  is  your  husband  doing?  I  never  hear  from 
either  of  you,  yet  I  wrote  on  my  landing  at  Dover, 
and  once  again  from  London. 

[The  rest  of  this  letter  is  torn  off. — V.  F.] 

The  Bishop  of  Deny 

To  Mrs.  J.  Th.  Foster. 

BELFAST,  November  29,  1779. 

I  am  just  arrived  here,  my  dear  Elizabeth,  and 
was  fully  determined  to  set  out  to-morrow  to  meet 
you  and  your  dear  sister  either  at  Dundalk  or  Bar- 
meath,  but  the  extreme  badness  of  the  weather, 
joined  to  some  alarming  symptoms  of  the  gout,  which 
you  know  operate  strongly  on  me,  have  determined 
our  immediate  course  to  Derry.  It  is  a  little  hard 
to  be  so  near  you  and  not  to  have  the  least  chance 
of  seeing  you,  but  I  shall  trust  to  the  chapitre  des 
accidents  and  endeavour  to  make  it  out  in  some 
manner.  I  send  you  a  parcel  by  a  carrier  which 
contains  two  pair  of  bracelets,  one  for  your  sister 
and  the  other  for  you.  I  would  not  let  them  be 
sett,  that  you  may  do  that  in  Dublin  according  to 
your  own  taste,  and  when  you  have  done  so,  without 


sparing  my  purse,  if  you  will  let  me  know  the  amount 
I  will  discharge  my  debt  and  complete  my  present. 
There  are  also  two  rings:  the  Apollo  I  desire  dear 
Mary  will  offer  in  my  name  to  Lord  Erne.  The 
Plato  I  hope  our  philosopheryc/bz  Thomas  will  accept, 
and  I  must  rely  on  your  interest  for  making  it  accept- 
able. All  your  encomiums  on  Dublin  will  hardly 
prevail  on  me  to  go  there,  but  I  don't  know  what 
effort  I  may  make  for  the  sake  of  passing  a  week  or 
ten  days  with  Mary  in  the  S.W.  room  which  she  has 
so  comfortably  offered  me,  and  which  is  worth  a 
whole  apartment  in  a  palace  from  the  cordiality  of 
the  offer.  I  hear  from  good  authority  that  Bucking- 
ham leaves  you,  and  that  Lord  Hillsborough1  is  bold 
enough  to  visit  us.  This  prognosticates  real  free 
trade,  for  it  is  the  object  of  his  ambition. 

You  press  me  strongly,  my  dear  child,  to  return 
to  Dublin,  and  not  deny  any  longer  my  assistance  to 
this  sinking  country.  I  have  given  pretty  strong 
proof  to  the  ministry  in  England  and  to  many  of  the 
leading  people  here  that  I  have  been  invariably  pur- 
suing its  interests  and  investigating  the  causes  of  its 
decline  for  these  last  three  years.  Can  any  country 
flourish  where  two-thirds  of  its  inhabitants  are  still 
crouching  under  the  lash  of  the  most  severe  illiberal 
penalties  that  one  set  of  citizens  ever  laid  upon  the 
other?  All  the  errors  in  our  Popish  laws  have  pro- 
ceeded from  one  fatal  and,  as  yet,  insurmountable 
piece  of  ignorance.  The  Protestants  here  have  uni- 
versally concluded  that  every  R.  Catholic  is  a  Papist, 

1  Lord  Hillsborough— Lord  Hillsborough,  afterwards  Marquis  of  Downshire,  was 
a  supporter  of  Lord  North,  and  held  more  than  one  office  under  him. 


that  is,  that  every  man  who  was  fool  enough  to  be- 
lieve in  transubstantiation  was  wicked  enough  to  hold 
no  faith  with  heretics  and  to  deny  allegiance  to  his 
Sovereign  the  moment  that  Sovereign  was  excom- 
municated by  the  Pope.  In  order  to  discriminate 
one  of  these  Catholics  from  the  other,  I  got  an  Act 
of  Parliament  passed  in  1774  by  which  every  Catholic 
that  had  been  educated  in  the  French  and  Flemish 
seminaries  (where  the  dangerous  doctrines  of  Popery 
are  exploded)  had  an  opportunity  of  abjuring  them 
and  exculpating  himself.  Immediately  about  one- 
fourth  of  the  R.  clergy  availed  themselves  of  the 
occasion,  and  took  the  oath  which  purged  them  from 
this  imputation,  but  a  very  great  number  from  whom 
I  expected  the  same  conduct,  because  I  knew  they 
had  received  the  same  education,  declined  it :  nor  did 
I  guess  the  cause  till  we  were  at  Brussels.  There  I 
learned  that  the  hopes  of  preferment  in  their  miser- 
able hierarchy  deterred  them  from  abjuring  the  pre- 
rogatives of  their  sovereign  master  the  Pope.  On 
this  I  resolved  to  visit  the  fountain  head  of  such  a 
defection  and  to  trace  it  to  its  source.  I  did  it  so 
effectually,  bribed  so  many  clerks  and  under-clerks 
in  the  different  offices  that  I  obtained  the  whole 
course  of  correspondence  between  Rome  and  her 
clergy  in  Ireland  on  this  topick.  I  did  more.  I  de- 
tected the  whole  plan  of  invasion  for  last  year,  which 
could  not  have  been  attempted  without  the  assistance 
of  Irish  friars  conversant  in  the  English,  Irish,  and 
French  languages,  and  I  have  good  reason  to  believe 
that  the  whole  proceedings  in  England  in  favor  of 
the  Catholics  were  grounded  on  the  information  I 


transmitted  to  Lord  North1  and  Lord  Hillsborough. 
Had  the  French  ministry  imagined  that  the  Irish 
Parliament  would  have  done  things  by  halves  and 
omitted  the  religious  indulgence  to  the  people  whilst 
it  granted  the  pecuniary  one  to  the  gentry,  the  inva- 
sion would  still  have  taken  place  last  year  in  Ireland, 
after  Mr.  Keppel  had  so  scandalously  left  the  French 
masters  of  the  ocean.  Don't  imagine,  therefore,  my 
dear  girl,  that  I  have  been  inattentive  to  the  welfare 
of  this  kingdom.  Your  mother  can  tell  you  how 
many  wearisome  days  and  studious  evenings  it  has 
cost  me  whilst  the  ignorant  and  unobserving  thought 
me  busied  in  virtu  and  occupied  by  the  elegant  arts. 
The  committee  at  Rome  which  governs  the  religious 
affairs  of  Ireland  is  composed  of  seven  cardinals,  who 
are  governed  in  their  consultations  as  the  Commis- 
sioners of  the  Customs  are  in  Dublin,  by  a  secretary. 
They,  too,  have  their  Sackville  Hamilton.  Every 
member  of  this  committee  is  as  venal  as  a  Board  of 
Aldermen,  but  in  order  to  bribe  them  you  must  buy 
a  picture  of  one,  give  a  poplin  to  the  niece  or  the 
mistress  of  another,  a  suit  of  clothes  to  the  secretary 
of  a  third,  and  so  on ;  so  that  with  a  good  purse  and 
a  liberal  hand  one  may  know  every  tittle  of  what 
these  Christian  Pharisees  have  sworn  not  to  reveal. 
It  was  by  means  such  as  these  that  I  discovered  the 
sentiments,  the  views,  the  interests  and  connexion  of 
almost  every  Popish  bishop  in  Ireland,  and  that  at 
this  instant  I  know  why  some  have  taken  the  oath 
of  allegiance  and  why  others  have  declined  it.     By 

Lord  North— Frederick  North,  Lord  North,  prime  minister  from  1770  to  1782 


these  means  I  discovered  that  the  King  of  France,1 
through  his  ambassador,  the  Cardinal  de  Bernis,  got 
the  nomination  of  three  Irish  bishops  in  the  course 
of  one  year,  as  the  most  effectual  means  of  securing 
the  assistance  of  the  Popish  clergy  and  the  Popish 
populace  in  case  of  an  invasion;  and  of  all  this  I 
transmitted  immediate  information  to  such  as  could 
best  avail  themselves  of  it.  Whenever  that  great 
topick  comes  to  be  discussed,  I  will  endeavour  to  give 
such  council  as  I  am  able,  but,  alass!  mankind  are 
little  guided  by  reason,  and  unless  interest  or  danger 
excite  their  attention  they  are  generally  deaf.  Adieu, 
my  dear  girl.  I  must  say  a  word  to  your  sister,  and 
as  I  conclude  she  may  still  be  at  Dunleer  I  shall 
direct  it  there. 

The  Earl  of  Bristol,  Bishop  of  Derry, 

To  Lady  Elizabeth  Foster. 

Downhill,  near  Coleraine,  April  21,  1780. 

By  some  untoward  accident,  my  dear  Eliza,  your 
letter  of  the  14th  did  not  reach  me  till  last  night,  by 
which  means  I  was  deprived  of  my  option  of  at- 
tending the  dissenters'  bill;  but,  indeed,  my  spirits 
are  so  depressed  by  the  loss  of  dearest  Lady  Mul- 
grave2  that  I  am  totally  unfit  for  anything  but  the 
heartless  solitude  in  which  "  I  live  and  move  and 
have  my  being".  Your  mother  is  every  day  more 
urgent  with  me  to  go  over  in  order  to  join  with  Jack 

1  Louis  XVI.  (1754-1793). 

2  Lady  Mulgrave — The  Bishop's  sister,  who  died  in  March  of  this  year. 


in  liberating  the  estate1  from  the  shackles  in  which  it 
is  held,  but  matters  in  this  country  are  not  sufficiently 
decided  to  allow  me  to  quit  it.  The  fever  is  now 
coming  to  a  crisis,  and  whether  it  will  end  in  a 
delirium  or  in  the  health  of  the  patient  and  restora- 
tion of  his  constitution,  neither  you  nor  I  are  prophets 
enough  to  foretell ;  but  this  I  can  venture  to  say,  that 
to  all  appearance  the  struggle  will  be  great. 

Is  it  possible  that  the  Ch.  Governor2  or  any  of  his 
friends  can  think  me  capable  of  distressing  an  admin- 
istration both  in  England  and  Ireland  to  which  I 
wish  so  well,  and  for  the  sake  of  which  I  have  sepa- 
rated from  some  of  the  oldest  and  most  intimate 
connexions  I  have  in  the  world?  Believe  me,  I  think 
their  cause  too  good  either  to  desert  it  or  embarrass 
them.  When  I  judged  them  to  be  better  informed 
than  myself,  as  in  all  foreign  politicks  I  should  with- 
out either  scruple  or  reserve  deliver  my  political 
conscience  into  their  hands;  but  with  regard  to  their 
interests  in  Ireland,  and  the  intrinsick  unalienable 
rights  of  Ireland  itself  (which  are  the  rights  of  man- 
kind), in  which  I  deem  myself  much  better  informed 
than  them,  having  not  only  taken  more  pains  on  the 
subject,  but  being  likewise  an  ocular  observer  on  the 
spot,  if  either  through  inattention  or  presumption 
they  will  not  take  the  advice  I  have  given  them  but 
persist  in  the  same  infatuated  system  of  despotism 
towards  Ireland  which  has  almost  lost  America — 
what  is  then  the  part  of  an  honest  man  or  a  true 
friend?     What  would  a  faithful  physician  do  upon  a 

1  the  estate— The  estate  of  Ickworth  Park,  near  Bury  St.  Edmunds.  The  bishop 
had  succeeded  to  the  title  of  Earl  of  Bristol  and  to  the  family  estate  in  December, 
I77o.  2  Ch.  Governor— This  appears  to  mean  the  Lord-Lieutenant. 


similar  occasion  with  a  struggling  patient?  Would 
he,  in  compliance  with  the  prejudices  of  the  family, 
concur  in  administering  a  medicine  which  he  knows 
to  be  improper  and  suspects  to  be  fatal,  and  which, 
if  it  did  not  destroy  the  patient,  would  at  least  throw 
him  into  strong  convulsions,  or  would  he  honestly 
resist  the  dictates  of  that  family,  prohibit  the  medicine, 
and  encourage  the  patient  to  decline  it?  Would 
your  friends  have  me  act  the  part  in  the  North  which 
the  poor  Duke  of  Leinster1  has  been  persuaded  to 
take  in  the  South?  The  Duke  of  Leinster  may 
perhaps  be  sincere  in  his  professions  of  the  depen- 
dency of  Ireland,  but  I,  who  do  not  deem  that  depen- 
dency legal,  nor  even  that  it  is  either  politick  in 
England  to  assert  or  useful  to  exert  it,  could  not 
either  as  an  honest  man  or  as  a  real  friend  to  ad- 
ministration, remain  silent  in  such  a  conflict,  much 
less  espouse  the  opinion  I  from  my  head  and  heart 
condemn.  But  suppose  for  a  moment  I  should — what 
would  be  the  unavoidable  consequence?  I  should 
first  find  myself  bereaved  of  any  little  influence  I 
have  acquired  in  this  part  of  the  country  by  professing 
my  real  sentiments,  and  afterwards,  when  the  flame 
breaks  forth — as  break  forth  it  will,  unless  some  gold 
dust  shall  smother  it — what  would  administration 
naturally  say  to  me?  Why  remain  in  the  North  to 
give  no  information  of  the  storm  brewing?  or  why 
coincide  with  sentiments  which  you  knew  to  be  pre- 
judicial? Why  not  at  least  preserve  your  own  influ- 
ence in  the  country  to  prevent  violence  and  guard 

1  Duke  of  Leinster — William  Robert  Fitzgerald,  second  duke  of  Leinster  (1749- 


against  extremities  ?  I  think  we  are  at  the  eve  of  a 
civil  war,  which  bids  fair  for  being  one  of  the  most 
sanguinary  and  most  general  that  this  country  has 
known.  Parasites  and  sycophants  may  talk  another 
language  at  the  Castle,  for  all  governments  love  to 
be  soothed  into  an  opinion  of  their  safety,  and  for 
real  safety  heedlessly  mistake  their  own  dangerous 
security  (but  a  real  friend  will  apprize  the  minister 
betimes  of  his  danger,  and  a  warm  one  will  do  it 
in  warm  terms).  Their  danger  at  this  moment  does 
not  arise  only  from  their  offensive  measures  and  from 
the  alarm  given  to  the  friends  of  the  Irish  Consti- 
tution, but  from  a  more  latent  and  a  more  cancerous 
evil,  from  an  inherent  dislike  to  the  religious  estab- 
lishment from  the  scandalous — 

[The  rest  of  this  letter  is  missing. — V.  F.] 

The  Countess  of  Bristol 

To  the  Earl  of  Bristol,  Bishop  of  Derry. 

August  13,  1780. 

We  drank  your  health  yesterday,  but  I  am  much 
concerned  to  find,  upon  pressing  Elizabeth  on  that 
subject,  that  it  is  not  altogether  so  good  as,  in  your 
ardour  for  the  mountains,  you  represent  it  to  me; 
and  though  Mary  says  that  you  have  no  other  com- 
plaint than  a  sore  finger,  yet  she  seems  to  think  your 
spirits  low,  and  I  much  fear  that  you  have  taken  too 
much  fatigue  for  your  strength. 

We  are  in  hourly  expectation  of  f.,  who  has  been 
more  absurd  and  inconsistent  than  it  is  possible  to 


express;  and,  after  fearing  to  trust  anything  to  writ- 
ing, has  wrote  four  or  five  letters  by  every  post  of 
everything;  in  short,  he  is  a  ship  totally  without 
ballast,  blown  about  by  every  gust  of  passion,  a  very 
tiring  companion,  and  an  insufficient  and  unsatis- 
factory friend. 

There  has  been  some  thought  of  dissolving  the 
Parliament,  but  I  flatter  myself  that  it  is  over  for  the 
present.  My  brother1  was  disappointed  of  his  com- 
panion into  Devonshire,  so  turned  about  from  Lewes 
races,  went  back  to  London,  from  whence  he  writes 
me  word  that  he  stays  choked  with  dust,  he  does  not 
know  why,  but  I  suppose  he  will  soon  be  down. 
Colonel  H.  is  on  the  road  at  last,  and  will  perhaps 
be  here  to-day  or  to-morrow,  which  I  am  glad  of,  for 

I   think  f.  a  ,  and   it  may  keep  him   in  better 

order.  How  could  I  be  so  mistaken  in  him?  Yet 
are  not  wiser  people  than  myself  mistaken  every 
day?  Adieu.  Lady  Hervey  still  up.  Poor  Eliza- 
beth better  notwithstanding,  and  eats  a  little. 

The  Countess  of  Bristol 

To  Lady  Elizabeth  Foster. 

Ickworth  Park,  May  17,  1781. 

My  dear  child, — I  was  very  sure  that  my  brother 
would  not  decline  his  friendly  assistance  in  your 
present  distressful  situation;  and  I  am  sorry  to  find 
that  any  delay  should  have  occurred  in  a  thing  so 
necessary  for  your  peace  and  my  satisfaction.     As 

1  My  brother — Sir  Charles  Davers,  Bart. 


to  the  message  which  you  have  delivered  to  me 
from  Mr.  Foster,  I  should  be  surprized  at  it  from 
anybody  else;  for  he  cannot  but  recollect  that  I  have 
mentioned  the  very  sums  for  which  he  engaged  to 
me;  and  I  am  sure  that  when  he  is  cool  enough  to 
have  his  judgment  operate,  he  cannot  term  a  conduct 
severe  which  is  only  the  steady  performance  of  a 
very  painful  duty.  He  will  recollect,  perhaps,  that  I 
once  consented  to  your  reconciliation,  and  tried  by 
uniting  you  under  my  own  eyes  to  promote  your 
happiness:  his  return  to  me  has  been  a  conduct 
which  I  confess  was  the  last  I  should  have  expected 
from  him;  but  it  has  opened  my  eyes.  .  .  .  With 
regard  to  the  children,  as  they  are  boys,  I  advise  you 
to  make  no  opposition  to  his  desire  of  having  them. 

I  hope  poor  little  Frederick  goes  on  well. 

I  am,  my  dear  child,  your  most  affectionate  mother. 

The  Countess  of  Bristol 

To  Lady  Elizabeth  Foster. 

St.  James'  Square,  June  1782. 

Lady  Mary1  is  much  better.  I  am  just  come  from 
her,  and  have  had  an  opportunity  of  talking  to  her 
about  the  scheme  I  mentioned  to  you  last  night,  and 
she,  with  her  usual  kindness  and  good  humour,  has 
assured  me  of  a  welcome,  if  you  can  take  up  with 
such  a  retirement;  and  that  Mrs.  Gordon  makes  no 
objection,  for  they  are  to  lodge  and  board  together: 
that  is,  to  have  no  trouble,  and  each  pay  the  cook 

1  Lady  Mary — Lady  Erne. 


14s.  a  week  for  themselves,  and  js.  a  week  for  ser- 
vants; rooms  as  at  Bath,  each  person  to  breakfast 
alone,  and  at  no  time  to  be  a  clog  on  each  other. 
You  will  not,  I  am  afraid,  look  favorably  on  such  a 
party,  and  I  am  aware  that  it  will  be  a  dull  one,  yet 
your  affection  for  Lady  Mary,  and  the  real  use  and 
comfort  you  may  be  of  to  her,  will,  I  know,  brighten 
the  prospect  to  you.  You  would  not  disturb  their 
Methy  proceedings,  nor  would  they  intrude  them 
upon  you.  Thus  stands  the  compact,  provided  Mrs. 
Gordon,  who  is  the  foundation  of  the  party,  is  agree- 
able. The  advantages  to  you  would  be  in  a  kind 
relation,  an  appearance  of  protection,  retirement,  a 
good  air,  and  lovely  scenery;  and  if  you  adopt  my 
scheme  of  Bath  for  next  winter,  you  would  save  two 
expensive  journeys.  I  have  this  moment  received 
the  letters  you  sent  by  the  Duke  of  Devonshire,1 
and  have  caught  your  father  before  he  could  get 
quite  into  bed  to  hold  a  conversation  upon  them, 
the  result  of  which  is  that  I  expect  you  both  to 
leave  Bath  on  Saturday,  and  to  be  here  on  Sunday 
(as  I  suppose). 

The  Duchess  of  Devonshire's2  behaviour  on  this 
occasion  is  heavenly,  and  your  distress  will  have  been, 
I  hope,  at  this  very  hour  that  I  am  writing,  relieved 
by  your  father's  £  100.  I  am  so  hurried  and  agitated 
that  I  don't  know  what  I  say,  but  we  look  upon  your 
journey  and  your  summer  as  most  happily  allotted. 

1  the  Duke  of  Devonshire — William  Cavendish,  fifth  Duke  of  Devonshire,  who 
succeeded  to  the  title  in  1764  (1748-1811). 

2  Duchess  of  Devonshire — Georgiana,  daughter  of  John  Earl  Spencer.  She  was 
married  to  the  fifth  Duke  of  Devonshire  in  1774,  and  was  one  of  the  two  duchesses 
from  whom  this  volume  derives  its  title;  d.  1806. 

Trom.    £i&    '•.i/st/i'"/  vo  ■   //"■"'<;.<  .  icunJ-oorotufA      '77-' 


I  shall  certainly  stay  in  town  a  little  while  to  see 
you,  though  part  of  the  family  are  gone  to  Ickworth; 
and  I  flatter  myself  that  your  sister  will  be  better 
here  than  alone:  pray  tell  her  this;  I  am  not  able  to 
write  it.  I  send  two  letters  which  came  to-day  from 
your  brother.  S.  H.  intended  to  have  wrote  to  you 
had  she  not  seem  them,  and  desires  me  to  say  so, 
with  her  best  love.  Adieu!  my  dear  children.  Is  it 
possible  that  I  am  so  near  having  you  both  with  me 
again,  and  may  I  look  forward  to  a  degree  of  com- 
fort and  happiness  for  you  for  this  summer?  My 
blessing  on  this  dear  woman!  I  hope  you  will 
recollect  that  you  and  your  sister  and  lal  lal  will 
be  ill-lodged  but  affectionately  welcomed. 

The  Countess  of  Bristol 

To  Lady  Elizabeth  Foster. 

Ickworth  Park,  January  5,  1783. 

My  dearest  Bess, — I  would  not  write  to  you  till  I 
got  hither,  as  I  had  a  mind  to  tell  you  something  at 
least  with  certainty,  and  that  I  thought  my  letter 
would  certainly  travel  faster  than  you.  I  received 
your  dear  little  note  from  Dover,  but  have  not  yet 
the  comfort  of  knowing  you  got  safe  to  Calais,  though 
it  is  ten  whole  days  since  you  left  me;  however,  the 
weather  has  been  so  good  that  though  I  am  impatient 
I  am  not  uneasy.  I  saw  your  Duchess  several  times 
before  I  left  Town.  She  behaved  like  an  angel  in 
everything,  supported  her  loss  with  fortitude  and  felt 


it  with  the  utmost  tenderness,  was  warm  and  inter- 
ested about  you  to  the  smallest  trifle,  and  infinitely- 
kind  to  me  on  your  account.  I  rely  on  her  for  the 
first  possible  tidings  of  you,  but  I  am  quite  vexed 
that  she  should  have  found  a  way  of  writing  to  you 
which  I  did  not,  and  reproach  myself  for  your  being 
solitarily  at  Dover  with  a  comfort  less  than  I  could 
have  given  you. 

Whilst  I  was  at  Devonshire  House  one  morning 
there  came  a  letter  for  you  directed  there.  I  saw  it 
was  from  Mr.  F.  and  told  her  I  would  open  it  to 
save  the  postage.  I  did  so.  There  was  a  repetition 
of  the  remittance  sent,  settlement,  your  receipt  to  be 
given,  &c,  and  at  the  end  what  I  will  now  transcribe: 
"  I  would  ask  you,  if  it  should  not  appear  to  you  as 
a  question  of  idle  and  impertinent  curiosity,  whether 
since  I  saw  you  you  have  ever  received  any  pecuniary 
assistance  from  either  of  your  parents :  if  it  appears 
to  you  in  the  light  I  have  stated  you  have  only  to  be 
silent;  if  otherwise,  you  will  give  me  an  answer. — 
J.  T.  F."  This  is  so  extraordinary  that  I  should 
advise  you  to  answer  him  by  asking  leave  to  answer 
his  question,  by  a  question,  how  he  thought  you  had 
been  maintained  for  the  eight  months  he  had  left 
you  without  a  shilling.  I  pity  you  for  the  meeting 
at  Dover,  and  long  to  know  the  result. 

The  ex  is  postponed,  and  will  probably  never 
take  place.  There  have  been  two  notes  to  you  from 
Lord  Shuldam,  which,  as  they  were  about  La.  H.'s 
business,  I  opened  and  gave  to  her,  and  wrote  to 
him  that  you  was  gone.  I  believe  the  parcel  is  safe, 
only  they  did  not  know  to  whom  it  belonged.     I 


am  rejoiced  that  Mr.  Hunter  answers  so  well.  I 
have  wrote  your  father  word  how  I  had  engaged  for 
him.  I  have  no  letter  yet.  Poor  Mrs.  Greene  is 
highly  satisfied  at  having  been  of  use  to  you  and 
with  your  letter.  She  has  had  a  great  escape.  The 
step  of  her  carriage  broke  with  her,  and  her  leg  is 
slightly  hurt  and  in  a  very  good  way,  but  if  the 
horses  had  stirred  it  was  over  with  her.  She  bears 
it  vastly  well,  and  is  all  kindness.  My  sister  is  very 
well,  sends  her  love  to  you,  and  says  as  a  proof  of 
her  forgiveness  she  has  recommended  you  to  the 
good  offices  of  a  friend  of  hers  at  Nice,  a  Mr.  Morice, 
who  was  long  her  tenant,  at  last  bought  her  house, 
and  has  always  behaved  in  a  very  gentlemanlike 
manner.  I  expect  Fred  to-morrow,  have  asked  the 
poor  Plumpa  for  a  week.  Augustus  Phipps  is  now 
playing  at  backgammon  with  Louisa,  and  desires  his 
love  and  good  wishes  to  you.  I  shall  have  the 
pleasure,  I  hope,  of  seeing  all  these  young  people 
happy.  You  see  I  write  very  close  to  make  as  much 
as  I  can  of  a  letter.  I  saw  Captain  Finch  just  before 
I  left  town,  who  had  left  your  brother  in  good  health 
and  spirits  at  Madeira.  La.  H.  and  your  sister  are 
at  Bath;  saw  the  poor  little  Dillons  in  their  way,  and 
were  delighted  with  them.  I  shall  be  happy  to  hear 
that  Louchee  improves  upon  you,  for  a  disagreeable 
object  so  repeatedly  present  is  horrid,  but  I  know 
you  will  turn  to  the  best  side  of  her.  Lady  Emily 
Ker  is  going  to  be  married.  Lady  Ma,  the  Duchess 
of  Devonshire,  and  I  are  in  agony  of  expectation 
for  a  return  of  favor,  but  La.  Ma,  who  knows  her 
best,  says  we  must  let  it  work  alone.     God  bless  you, 


my  dearest.     Thank  you  for  your  promise.     Louisa 
asks  for  the  foldings. 

The  Countess  of  Bristol 

.  To  Lady  Elizabeth  Foster. 

Ickworth  Park,  Feb.  7,  1783. 

I  thank  you,  my  dearest  Elizabeth,  for  your  two 
letters  from  Lyons,  for  which  I  had  been  long  im- 
patient, as  the  winter  was  so  far  advanced.  Your 
stay  there  for  some  time  seems  absolutely  necessary 
after  so  much  fatigue,  at  which  I  am  the  more  dis- 
appointed as  I  had  flattered  myself  the  roads  were 
good,  and  that,  being  totally  your  own  mistress,  to 
stop  when  you  would,  that  you  would  have  escaped 
it:  however,  bless  Malle-  Bertin's  five  wits  who  has 
preserved  you  from  cold  a  la  Chinoise,  and  as  to  the 
pole,  springs,  &c,  though  they  are  teasing  accidents, 
and,  what  is  worse,  expensive  ones,  I  dare  say  you 
bore  them  very  coolly,  but  I  confess  that  your  ex- 
pedition on  the  water  alarms  me,  nor  shall  I  be  easy 
till  I  hear  of  you  on  dry  ground  again. 

I  am  sorry  Mr.  Hunter  does  not  turn  out  the 
economist  I  expected,  and  if  he  continues  his  princely 
ideas,  which  are  just  opposite  to  what  I  expected 
from  him,  it  may  become  necessary  for  you  to  send 
him  back  and  to  take  a  servant  more  suitable  to  your 
situation;  but  I  am  still  more  vexed  about  Mrs.  Ash- 
burner,  who,  I  see,  can  never  be  more  than  tolerated 
by  you,  and  yet  I  do  think  it  necessary  that  you 
should  have  a  person  of  character  and  conduct  about 


you,  and  not  a  pert,  gallant,  corrupt  femme  de  chambre, 
who  may  overturn  your  best  plans  of  prudence. 

I  am  sorry  I  did  not  write  to  Lyons,  but  you  will 
have  found  my  letters,  I  hope,  at  Nice.  I  cannot 
think  of  troubling  the  Duchess  of  Devonshire  with 
them  except  on  any  particular  occasion,  so  direct 
them  en  droiture.  I  am  surprised  at  your  recollection 
of  that  town,  though  it  is  very  striking.  I  trust  that 
you  have  found  no  difficulties  on  the  road,  and  this 
peace  will  now  have  put  all  sides  in  good  humor.  I 
hope,  too,  that  it  will  have  relieved  your  mind  of  part 
of  its  burthen. 

I  am  sorry  that  my  situation  has  sat  so  heavy  on 
it,  for  I  can  give  you  no  comfort  on  that  subject  ex- 
cept by  assuring  you  that  my  mind  is  quite  above 
and  out  of  the  reach  of  the  oppression  I  receive  and 
the  insults  which  accompany  it,  and  that  I  have  pride 
enough  to  bear  being  told  that  my  advice  is  pre- 
sumption, and  that  I  am  a  being  so  made  up  of 
vanity  and  ostentation  as  not  to  be  capable  of  co- 
operating in  so  laudable  a  plan  without  feeling  the 
least  humbled  by  it;  and  even  my  resentment  is 
softened  down  into  compassion  for  the  frailties  of 
human  nature,  and  for  the  wreck  which  warring 
passions  bring  upon  it:  my  own  happiness  has  long 
been  an  empty  sound,  and  I  now  am  only  intent  on 
drawing  all  the  good  possible  out  of  this  evil  in 
favor  of  Louisa  .  .  .  and  to  acquire  in  solid  advan- 
tages to  her  mind  and  character  what  she  loses  in 
accomplishments,  which  are  more  easily  taken  up  at 
any  time  and  of  infinitely  less  consequence. 

In  the  meanwhile  we  pass  our  time  cheerfully,  each 


considering  the  other:  she  is  become  a  dear,  amiable 
companion :  we  read  and  work  together  in  the  even- 
ings, and  they  do  not  appear  long;  and  now  the 
general1  is  come,  I  make  him  take  his  turn;  we  chuse 
pleasant  books,  and  we  are  all  in  good  humour  with 
one  another.  She  is  at  present  very  busy  in  cloth- 
ing a  girl  that  she  is  to  put  to  school,  and  is  to  be 
the  beginning  of  one  kept  by  your  music  master, 
who  is  come  to  settle  at  Horringer.  Dearest  Lou 
loves  you  with  the  sincerest  affection,  and  begs  I  will 
say  so.  The  house  in  town  is  let  for  three  years  to 
Lord  Paget  for  ^600  a  year.  I  have  sent  servants 
up  to-day  to  prepare  for  his  coming  in.  God  knows 
what  is  your  father's  plan.  Your  brother,  I  fear,  will 
be  much  mortified;  but  perhaps  it  may  help  to  settle 
his  affairs,  and  all  may  yet  turn  out  well  for  those  I 
am  most  anxious  about.  I  suppose  he  will  come 
home  now  to  settle.  I  must  write  a  line  or  two  to 
your  dear  Duchess.     Adieu,  my  dear  Bess. 

The  Countess  of  Bristol 

To  Lady  Elizabeth  Foster. 

Ickworth  Park,  February  26,  1783. 

My  dearest  Bess, — I  have  to  thank  you  for  your 
great  attention  in  writing  to  me  so  frequently  on  your 
journey.  I  received  your  letter  from  Calais  (though 
late),  two  from  Paris,  two  from  Lyons,  one  from  Aix, 
(none  from  Avignon,  as  you  mentioned),  but  one 
welcome    one    indeed    from    Nice.     Welcome,    my 

1  the  general — General  William  Hervey,  a  brother  of  the  Bishop  of  Deny. 


love,  indeed,  not  only  from  your  having  passed  all 
dangers  and  fatigues,  from  your  being  pleased  with 
the  place,  well  accommodated,  well  received,  &c.  &c, 
but  infinitely  dear  to  me  from  the  change  brought 
about  in  your  sentiments.  Do  not  lament  any  longer 
my  situation  or  late  disappointment,  but  be  assured 
that  there  is  none  whatever  which  could  have  given 
me  half  the  satisfaction  which  I  feel  on  this  occasion; 
and  appease  the  reproaches  of  your  own  mind  on 
the  uneasiness  you  have  given  me  (which  I  confess 
has  been  great)  by  reflecting  that  you  have  it  still 
in  your  power  to  make  me  amends  for  it.  For  thou 
art  the  sheep  that  was  lost  and  is  found  again,  and  I 
will  rejoice  over  thee.  This  calm  of  mind,  my  dear 
child,  will  wonderfully  assist  the  climate  and  the 
sweet  retirement  you  describe,  and  bring  you  back 
happy  yourself  and  capable  of  making  your  friends  so. 

Your  heavenly  friend  is  every  day  more  and  more 
the  object  of  my  admiration  and  love.  What  a  note! 
from  a  person  apparently  absorbed  by  every  worldly 
pursuit  and  gratification.  It  is  so  sweet  that  the 
sense  akes  at  it.  I  saw  her  often  before  I  left  town, 
and  always  with  fresh  pleasure;  and  on  my  coming 
hither  she  had  the  goodness  to  take  up  my  prote'ge', 
Mr.  Parkison,  in  order  to  serve  him  by  means  of  the 
Duke  of  Portland,1  but  her  humanity  to  him,  con- 
descension, and  real  attention  to  his  affairs  have  been 
beyond  any  possible  description,  as  I  learn  from 
himself,  and  I  am  in  hopes  he  will  succeed  at  last. 

As  you  had  received  but  one  of  my  letters  when 

''■Duke  of  Portland— William  Henry  Cavendish  Bentinck,  prime  minister  in  1787 
for  a  few  months;  home  secretary  under  Pitt  from  1794  to  1801;  and  again  prime 
minister  from  1807  to  1809  (1738-1809). 


you  wrote,  I  hope  you  have  had  since  in  their  order 
those  of  the  23rd  of  January  and  7th  of  February.  I 
did  not  write  to  you  on  the  road,  as  I  always  fear 
the  loss  of  my  letter. 

I  suppose  I  have  repeatedly  told  you  my  situation, 
&c,  but  I  believe  it  is  since  my  last  that  Lord  Paget 
has  actually  hired  the  house  in  St.  James'  Square  for 
three  years,  and  is  now  in  possession  of  it.  I  have 
had  many  reproaches  for  the  vanity  and  levity  of  my 
character  that  made  me  unwilling  to  adopt  so  fine  a 
scheme,  but  not  one  word  of  excuse  or  concern  at 
the  supposed  necessity  for  it.  I  own  I  have  never 
condescended  to  answer  these  accusations.  I  leave 
my  whole  life  to  do  so.  In  the  meantime  I  have 
accounts  from  time  to  time  of  his  great  spirits  and 
happiness  in  everything  that  is  going  on  in  Ireland, 
and  he  seems  quite  unconcerned  at  having  placed 
me  here  without  a  plan,  view,  object,  or  improvement 
of  any  sort  to  occupy  a  mind  so  much  harassed;  but 
I  thank  God  I  have  objects  that  are  out  of  his  reach, 
and  from  which  my  mind  receives  such  daily  comfort 
that  I  hope  you  will  not  be  uneasy  for  me.  I  have 
converted  this  disappointment,  I  trust,  entirely  to  the 
advantage  of  Louisa.  I  have  called  forth  all  the 
best  feelings  of  her  excellent  heart,  and  to  turn  her 
from  a  selfish  and  pining  discontent,  I  endeavoured 
to  make  myself  her  object  whilst  she  is  mine.  It  has 
answered  my  wish — her  case  is  to  lighten  my  soli- 
tude, et  vous  pensez  bien  ma  chere  qu'elle  n'y  perd 
rien.  I  have  convinced  her  that  she  is  at  an  age 
not  only  to  bear  but  to  profit  by  it,  and  that  it  is 
only  severe  in  the  decline  of  life  when  prospects  are 


no  more.  She  has  adopted  the  idea,  redoubled  her 
attention  to  me,  endeavoured  to  improve  herself,  is 
in  good  spirits,  reads,  writes,  plays,  works,  rides,  and 
joins  very  intelligently  in  all  I  read  to  her.  I  had  the 
precaution  before  I  left  town  to  make  her  dancing- 
master  promise  to  come  down  for  a  month  in  the 
summer  if  I  did  not  return;  and  I  hope  poor  Salva- 
tore  will  come  likewise ;  but  of  all  this  I  say  not  a 
word  to  Ireland.  It  might  be  thought  too  expensive, 
and  as  I  am  determined  to  lay  out  nothing  on  myself, 
I  think  I  have  a  right  to  it. 

Fred1  has  been  here  to  keep  her  birthday;  he 
must  be  removed  from  Mr.  F.,  who  has  not  behaved 
well,  and  I  am  trying  with  your  F-  to  get  him  to 
school,  and  am  uneasy  whilst  he  balances  between 
that  and  a  private  tutor.  I  have  reconciled  Fred's 
mind  more  to  a  school  than  ever  I  had  been  able  to 
do  before;  he  is  a  dear  boy,  and  I  hope  I  shall  save 
him.  Mr.  F.'s  letter  is  very  ex:  I  think  as  you  do, 
and  approve  so  highly  of  your  answer  that  I  could 
not  help  telling  the  purport  of  it  to  Fred  and  Lou :  a 
disposition  of  that  sort  in  him  is  favorable  to  yr  cha, 
though  you  do  not  avail  yourself  of  it:  he  certainly 
means  me,  mais  n'importe.  I  have  lately  had  a  letter 
from  your  brother;  vastly  well;  likes  the  warm  sun 
as  well  as  you  do;  is  in  spirits,  and  will  be  more  so 
when  he  knows  that  a  peace  brings  him  home.  I 
should  think  that  S.  E.  and  S.  H.  would  wait  for 
him  at  B. ;  and  I  should  imagine  that  if  things  are 
not  properly  settled  for  him  that  they  will  go  abroad, 

1  Fred— The  writer's  son   Frederick  Hervey,  afterwards  successively  Earl  and 
Marquis  of  Bristol.     At  this  time  he  was  only  fourteen  years  of  age 


and  probably  you  will  all  meet.  Pray  remind  Lady 
Rivers  of  me,  and  assure  her  that  I  have  not  forgot 
a  beautiful,  amiable  woman,  whom  I  knew  first  in 
this  house.  Remember  me,  too,  to  Miss  Danby,  Mr. 
Morice,  and  the  B.'s.  My  Aunt  Greene  is  quite 
recovered,  and  sends  her  love  to  you.  My  sister 
well.  General  H.  here  for  this  month  past.  I  make 
him  hear  me  read  the  first  part  of  the  evening,  and 
read  to  me  the  latter  part.  I  am  quite  troubled 
about  Louchee,  and  angry  with  Mr.  P.,  but  you  must 
dispose  of  her,  and  if  she  would  draw  a  veil  over  her 
ugliness,  it  would  do  very  well.  I  fear  Mr.  H., 
too,  has  not  economized  sufficiently,  and  that  your 
journey  has  cost  you  more  than  we  allotted  for  it; 
however,  I  hope  all  these  matters  may  be  arranged. 
Louisa  desires  me  to  add  her  tenderest  love.  You 
have  that  of  your  most  affectionate  mother. 

I  send  this  to  the  dear  Duchess.  Thank  you  for 
your  orange  flowers;  they  gave  me  agreeable  ideas 
of  your  villa. 

The  Countess  of  Bristol 

To  Lady  Elizabeth  Foster. 

Ickworth  Park,  March  13,  1783. 

I  was  just  going  to  write  to  you,  dearest  Bess, 
when  your  two  letters  of  the  16th  and  22nd  arrived 
by  the  means  of  your  invaluable  friend.  It  would 
be  impossible  for  me  to  describe  the  tender  emotions 
they  have  raised  in  me,  but  of  this  be  assured  that 
I  have  no  sufferings  but  what  are  infinitely  over- 


balanced  by  the  sentiments  you  express,  provided 
that  you  pursue  them  steadily.  You  take  my 
admonitions  so  well  that  I  have  nothing  to  add 
upon  that  subject,  and  I  am  extremely  pleased  with 
the  arrangements  of  your  retirement  and  the  limited 
acquaintance  you  receive  at  your  house;  something 
decisive  in  your  conduct  was  necessary  to  make  an 
impression  and  to  put  you  upon  a  new  footing,  and 
I  expect  the  best  consequences  from  it;  yet  I  should 
be  glad  to  know  how  you  pass  your  evenings,  and 
whether  they  do  not  hang  heavy  on  you  who  have 
been  used  to  constant  society.  I  perceive  that  your 
spirits  are  very  low,  and  I  am  disappointed  at  your 
not  feeling  more  relieved  by  so  great  a  change  of 
climate  in  three  weeks.  You  say  your  stomach  is  a 
little  better,  but  you  do  not  mention  your  breast, 
side,  or  cough,  and  you  complain  of  fever.  How  do 
you  like  Mr.  Farquhar's  friend,  and  what  has  he 
directed  besides  orange  juice?  What  is  your  diet? 
Do  you  keep  good  hours?  and  don't  you  write  too 
much?  I  am  glad  you  ride,  but  how  do  you  manage 
it,  and  what  does  it  cost  you,  and  your  house  and 
servants,  &c.  ?  Pray  send  me  a  little  plan  of  all  your 
doings,  that  I  may  attend  you  in  them. 

Your  father  in  his  last  letter  to  me  says  he  intends 
to  add  ^50  a  year  to  your  income,  and  perhaps 
^"ioo  if  you  conduct  yourself  prudently.  I  beg  you 
will  be  very  cautious,  in  speaking  of  him  to  others, 
how  you  throw  any  blame  on  him  on  my  account. 
I  leave  him  to  Heaven  and  to  those  thorns  that  in 
his  bosom  lodge  to  prick  and  sting  him.  I  give  you 
my  honor  that  my  situation  here  is  a  less  painful 


one  than  you  imagine  it.  I  own  I  had  promised 
myself  great  comfort  in  being  in  town,  but  I  have 
bent  my  mind  to  my  circumstances.  I  have  laid 
out  my  disappointment  to  Louisa's  advantage,  and 
though  I  should  be  very  happy  indeed  (believe  it, 
my  dear  Bess)  with  you  amidst  your  orange  trees, 
yet  there  are  several  things  of  consequence  transact- 
ing here  in  which  I  think  I  may  be  able  to  serve 
your  brother  and  poor  Fred  materially,  and  I  find 
great  satisfaction  in  the  idea  of  it — il  y  a  une  facheuse 
pilleule  que  je  n'ose  pas  nommer,  une  insensibilite 
dans  certains  moments  critiques  et  une  philosophie  si 
baroque  qu'il  y  a  de  quoi  se  ddsesperer,  mais  il  n'y  a 
point  de  remede,  et  on  s'etablit  en  maltre  sans  se 
faire  prier;  il  faut  done  tirer  parti  comme  on  peut  et 
vivre  au  jour  la  journ^e.  I  shall  long  for  you  to 
obtain  the  request  you  made  to  Mr.  F.  My  poor 
child,  I  have  always  said  that  you  was  made  for 
domestic  happiness  and  domestic  duties. 

What  you  tell  me  of  the  Duchess  goes  to  my 
heart,  and  will,  I  hope,  be  a  real  comfort  to  yours. 
You  have  done  well,  most  certainly,  to  leave  your 
interest  in  her  hands;  for  where  could  it  be  so  well? 
But  I  am  pleased  at  your  growing  indifference  to 
those  matters,  and  do  not  doubt  but  that  your  affairs 
will  be  made  easy  in  some  way  or  other.  The 
Duchess  and  I  do  not  correspond,  but  we  write 
sometimes  occasionally.  She  is  vastly  obliging  to 
me,  and  treats  me  like  your  mother,  and  I  love  her 
as  your  friend,  and,  besides  that,  am  charmed  with 
her  disposition  and  character.  She  has  promised 
me  a  print  of  herself,  and    I    gave    her  my  sweet 


miniature  of  Susanna,  which  she  liked.  I  hear  she 
advances  happily,  which  I  hope  you  know  long 
before  this. 

The  Polignacs  are  certainly  a  great  acquisition  for 
you,  and  I  think  your  stay  at  Paris  and  renewal  with 
them  on  your  return  will  depend  upon  circumstances, 
of  which  now  I  dare  say  you  will  judge  properly.  I 
am  glad  to  find  Lady  Rivers  so  comfortable  to  you, 
notwithstanding  her  deafness.  One  of  her  daughters, 
I  believe,  is  preferable  to  the  other.  How  do  you 
like  Mrs.  Stuart?  and  have  you  no  acquaintance  with 
Lady  Eliott?  Pray  write  the  dangerous  Italian's 
name  a  little  plainer  for  I  can't  make  it  out;  but 
avoid  him  by  all  means — their  whole  composition  is 
intrigue.  Poor  Miss  Danby!  I  am  sorry  she  has 
exchanged  one  bad  complaint  for  another.  You 
don't  mention  Lady  Craven,  so  I  hope  she  is  gone 
some  other  way.  You  must  have  no  intercourse  at 
all  there.  She  is  quite  undone,  and  has  not  an  atom 
of  character  left. 

I  hope  Miss  W.  will  answer  to  all  your  care  and 
their  hopes,  and  then  it  will  be  a  pleasant  circum- 
stance between  you;  but  I  am  sorry  she  requires 
strictness:  that  is  against  the  bent  of  her  indulgent 
governess,  but  perhaps  even  that  may  have  a  good 
effect,  and  give  to  a  soft  heart  a  firmer  texture. 

I  have  heard  nothing  about  H.,  but  I  hope  that 
all  is  en  train  to  open  the  eyes  on  both  sides.  You 
have  now  no  further  solicitude  about  his  destination, 
and  seem  to  have  fixed  your  conduct  upon  very 
proper  principles. 

Poor  Fred  told  me  he  had  made  you  his  confidant. 


I  cannot  get  any  decisive  direction  about  him,  and 
he  is  not  well  placed  where  he  is.  Mr.  F.  has 
behaved  ill,  and  has  been  led  into  it,  I  believe,  by 
distressed  circumstances.  Mark  that,  and  fear  it, 
my  dear  Ophelia,  as  much  as  anything. 

I  mention  no  politics,  because  you  have  them 
fresher  from  Devonshire  House,  but  never  was  poor 
nation  in  so  distressed  and  contemptible  a  situation. 

My  Aunt  Greene  is  very  well,  and  your  warm 
friend  always.  My  sister,  too,  was  softened  to  tears 
at  the  perspective  I  showed  her  from  your  present 
plan;  continue  it,  my  love,  and  return  to  the  arms 
and  grow  for  ever  to  the  hearts  of  your  family.  My 
brother  is  still  in  town  acting  like  an  honest  man  in 
the  midst  of  all  this  faction.  I  have  not  the  least 
hope  of  going  up;  now  the  house  is  gone  I  could  not. 
Mr.  D.'  A. — comes  Ambassador.  Your  sister  and  I 
agree  that  we  feel  ashamed  that  he  should  find  us 
without  an  hotel.  She  has  got  little  benefit  from 
Bath,  poor  thing!  Always  something  to  fret  upon 
wears  out  the  machine.  Louisa  is  well,  and  loves 
you  tenderly;  goes  on  well,  and  keeps  up  her  spirits. 
Your  uncle  W.  still  here,  having,  I  believe,  fixed  it 
as  a  part  of  his  grand  plan  not  to  be  in  the  hay 
market  till  such  a  day  of  such  a  month  of  the  year 
1783.  Is  Mr.  Wollaston  at  Nice?  and  how  is  he? 
My  compliments  to  La.  Rivers,  Mr.  Morice,  Miss  D., 
and  the  Birbecks.  I  am  glad  my  letters  come  easy, 
and  will  write  oftener,  being,  my  dear  child,  your 
most  affectionate  mother. 


The  Countess  of  Bristol 

To  Lady  Elizabeth  Foster. 

Ickworth  Park,  April  12,  1783. 

I  have  two  of  your  letters,  my  dear  Elizabeth,  and 
one,  so  late  as  the  19th  of  March,  I  should  have  hoped 
might  have  brought  me  the  comfortable  news  of  your 
amendment,  but  I  search  for  it  in  vain,  as  I  do  also 
for  the  real  cause  of  your  complaint.  Is  it  that  we 
have  been  so  unlucky  as  to  choose  a  wrong  climate? 
You  seem  to  think  so,  and  if  it  is  confirmed  to  you, 
for  God's  sake  change  it;  or  is  it  still  the  effects  of 
your  long  journey,  and  the  scene  you  went  through; 
or  a  wound  that  is  still  festering,  though  you  think 
it  healed;  or  the  absence  from  your  friends;  or  the 
severe  judgment  you  are  passing  on  yourself? 

For  your  bodily  complaints,  my  dearest  Bess,  you 
must  be  governed  by  others,  and  if  you  must  remove, 
I  suppose  La  R.  has  decided  you  in  favor  of  Lyons. 
It  is  a  long  journey,  but  if  Nice  is  thought  improper 
for  next  winter  you  may  as  well  be  there  as  anywhere 
else,  except  you  could  find  a  cool  place  nearer  to 
where  you  are  to  pass  the  next  winter.  I  should 
hope  you  would  not  be  determined  by  the  motive 
you  mention  of  hearing  sooner  of  your  friend,  dear 
as  she  is,  and  natural  as  it  is  for  you  to  make  it  an 
object,  but  I  beg  your  health  may  be  the  first,  and 
the  more  as  you  are  doing  everything  which  can 
make  it  valuable  to  yourself  and  your  friends.  Lyons, 
too,  is  a  little  Paris,  and  I  don't  know  how  you  could 
live  there  en  retraite. 


As  to  Italy,  though  at  this  time  one  cannot  think 
of  it  without  horror,  yet  I  am  very  sensible  that  after 
un  tal  sfuogo  it  may  be  next  year  safer  than  ever: 
but  it  is  a  terrible  journey;  you  are  alone,  and  I  do 
not  see  how  in  your  unfortunate  circumstances  you 
can  either  profit  of  the  advantages,  or  bear  the  ex- 
pence  of  it,  and  though  you  say  that  Miss  W.  would 
go  with  you,  and  lessen  the  expence  of  it,  yet  I  con- 
fess I  think  it  is  one  thing  to  carry  her  with  you  for 
health  to  a  place  of  retirement,  and  another  to  act  as 
a  mother  to  her  all  over  the  world;  neither  do  I 
think  it  would  put  you  in  a  proper  light  in  Italy,  but 
I  am  too  far  off  to  wish  you  to  rely  absolutely  upon 
me.  I  would  have  you  do  what  is  best,  but  circum- 
stances and  good  opinions  must  decide  you — only 
remember  L.  A.  P.,  and  how  often  people  advise  and 
persuade  what  in  their  serious  judgment  they  dis- 
approve. I  could  not  help  making  many  reflections 
on  that  approbation  which  you  forced  from  him  for 
having  refused  what  he  had  solicited.  I  hope  you 
made  some  too,  but  I  am  sure  you  did,  for  all  you 
say  gives  me  hope  and  comfort. 

I  am  sorry  that  my  banishment  should  sit  so  heavy 
upon  you,  my  dear  Bess;  the  manner  of  it  was,  to  be 
sure,  cruel,  but  I  hope  I  shall  turn  it  all  to  good 
account;  and  as  to  the  mere  solitude,  you  know 
nobody  minds  it  less  than  I  do.  I  assure  you  upon 
my  honor,  that  my  health  and  spirits  are  good,  and 
that  if  I  have  now  more  time  for  reflection,  I  have 
also  subjects  of  more  content  for  it.  You,  my  dearest 
child,  make  a  great  part  of  this,  for  I  cannot  but 
flatter  myself  that  you  are  getting  into  port  again, 


well  drawn  up,  and  shews  that  he  has  been  cruelly 
and  unjustly  treated.  Louisa  is  very  happy  at  this 
arrangement,  and  has  been  very  eager  with  some  new 
music  which  he  brought  down.  She  goes  on  in  every 
respect  as  I  could  wish,  health,  spirits,  sentiments, 
application,  &c,  loves  proper  reading,  shews  taste  in 
it,  and  never  finds  her  time  upon  her  hands,  &c. 

I  am  sorry  to  say  that  I  have  not  the  same  satis- 
faction with  poor  Fred,  though  he  has  no  fault  in  it; 
but  your  father  has  determined  on  sending  for  him 
to  Ireland,  and  having  a  private  tutor.  I  have  said 
everything  that  was  possible  to  dissuade  him  from  it, 
even  to  pointing  out  his  improper  treatment  of  him, 
for  this  was  my  duty,  coute  que  coute;  he  has  taken 
it  very  well,  ne  s'est  point  offense,  calls  it  good  sense 
but  reasoned  on  false  principles;  and,  in  short,  de- 
sires me  finally  to  leave  him  to  him,  so  there  is  an 
end  of  it,  and  I  can  do  nothing  but  wish  and  pray 
that  he  may  do  well. 

I  know  the  Sir  Rob.  S.  you  mention  a  little,  and 
think  him  very  sensible,  but  odd  tempered.  La.  M. 
Fitz  talks  of  going  to  Ireland  next  month.  Mr.  Fitz 
is  out  of  confinement.  I  suppose  you  hear  often 
from  Bath.  Lord  Rodney1  is  now  there,  and  they 
are  both  inamorato  morto  di  lui;  he  says  your  B.2 
may  be  at  home  next  month.  Pray  remember  me  to 
my  old  admirer,  &c.  Pray  say  something  pretty  to 
Madame  Birbeck:  I  thought  she  had  been  dead,  but 
tell    her   I   am  very  glad   to  hear  she  is  so  much 

1  Lord  Rodney — The  famous  British  admiral,  who  had  defeated  the  French  fleet 
in  the  West  Indies  (1718-1792). 

''•your  B — The  writer's  son,  already  referred  to  as  "Jack  "  in  letter  of  December 
12,  1778. 


better  than  when  I  had  the  pleasure  of  knowing  her 
at  Marseilles,  &c.  Poor  soul,  I  believe  she  was  un- 
happy there,  and  that  he  was  a  Birbo,1  so  pray  soothe 
her  a  little.  Adieu.  I  send  this  by  the  dear  Duchess. 
What  heavenly  good  nature  and  attention  she  shewed 
to  you  in  that  .£20!  Do  you  know  whether  she  ever 
sees  Mrs.  Cosway?  I  think  I  could  one  day  prove 
to  her  that  she  is  unworthy  of  her  notice,  and  I  wish 
you  would  mention  it.     God  bless  you!     .     .     . 

The  Countess  of  Bristol 

To  Lady  Elizabeth  Foster. 

Ickworth  Park,  April  16,  1783. 

The  inclosed  letter  from  your  brother,  my  dear 
Bess,  arrived  last  night,  and  I  hasten  to  send  it  to 
your  charming  friend  to  forward  to  you.  I  have 
one  by  the  same  pacquet,  and  as  mine  is  wrote  in 
very  low  spirits,  I  must  caution  you  against  any 
infection  from  yours,  and  desire  you  to  recollect  how 
the  news  of  the  peace  (which  he  had  not  then  heard) 
will  have  rejoiced  him,  together  with  some  other 
circumstances  which  are  in  his  favor  more  than  he 

I  thank  you,  my  dear,  for  your  frequent  letters, 
and  for  your  pretty  account  of  the  dedication  of  the 
fountain,  which  was  a  rural  compliment  very  well 
turned,  and  what,  I  think,  may,  without  any  self- 
reproach,  give  you  half-an-hour's  pleasure;  but  if  the 
attentions  you  mention  are  really  in  so  respectful  a 

*  Birio — Italian  birtone,  a  worthless  fellow. 


style — I  mean  generally  so,  and  not  from  a  designing 
individual  like  Eh  (who  sacrificed  the  very  character 
he  pretended  to  revere) — I  think  you  have  the 
greatest  reason  to  be  pleased  and  the  strongest 
inducement  to  go  on  in  your  new  system. 

I  am  sorry  you  think  of  leaving  Nice  so  soon,  but, 
as  I  said  before,  it  is  impossible  to  give  advice  at 
this  distance.  I  have  only  to  hope  that  you  do  not 
sacrifice  great  points  to  lesser  ones.  I  have  just 
heard  from  Barmeath1  your  dear  little  boys  are  vastly 
well.  Dr.  Foster  has  been  given  over,  but  is  better 
again.  I  long  to  hear  whether  that  letter  of  Mr.  F- 
to  you  is  to  produce  anything. 

Adieu !  my  love.  I  cannot  write  to-day,  having  a 
thousand  embarras,  servants  inoculating,  others  ill, 
contrivances,  orders,  &c.  I  expect  my  brother  from 
London,  too,  to-day,  and  we  will  talk  of  you.  I  do 
not  ride,  for,  if  I  had  a  mind  to  do  it,  your  father 
has  taken  my  horse  without  saying  a  word  to  me. 
Salvatore  is  not  yet  here.  I  expect  him  next  month; 
he  is  to  be  at  Bury,  and  come  up  every  morning. 
Louisa  desires  her  love.  I  will  take  care  to  make 
all  your  excuses  about  writing.  I  wish  you  was 
not  so  punctual  in  that  article  with  H.,  for  by  that 
means  you  make  absence  no  advantage,  and  you  are 
still  the  dupe  of  his  expressions.  The  Duchess  of 
Devonshire  assures  me  that  she  is  vastly  well,  and, 
as  she  has  been  all  the  time  so  prudent  and  manage- 
able, I  think  there  is  nothing  to  fear. 

I  long  for  your  Italian  letters,  the  verses,  and  Mr. 
Robertson's  answer,  as  also  for  further  particulars  of 

1  Barmeath — A  mansion  near  Dunleer,  Co.  Louth. 


your  travelling  scheme,  which  I  do  not  comprehend. 
You  will  not  forget  that  Switzerland  and  Geneva  are 
dear  places  for  strangers.  Adieu!  Ever  affection- 
ately yours. 

The  Countess  of  Bristol 

To  Lady  Elizabeth  Foster. 

Ickworth  Park,  Dec.  26,  1783. 

I  received  your  letter  from  Rome  of  the  27th 
November,  my  dear  Bess,  a  little  before  that  of  the 
10th  from  Florence;  I  don't  know  by  what  accident, 
but  the  dear  Duchess  who  sent  it  to  me  said  she 
supposed  the  French  Ambassador  had  had  it  some 
time  in  his  hands;  and,  as  she  did  not  mention 
having  received  one  of  an  earlier  date,  I  wrote  to 
her  to  say  what  I  knew  of  you,  and  I  knew  she 
would  be  glad  to  hear.  She  is  comforting  her  poor 
mother1  at  St.  Albans,  and  I  am  happy  to  find  is  so 
well  recovered  herself  as  to  be  able  to  go  on  with 
her  nursing,  and  to  succeed  extremely  in  it. 

This  overturn  of  the  ministry  will,  I  am  afraid, 
vex  her,  but  in  the  present  moment  of  confusion  it 
is  hard  to  say  what  may  be  the  consequence  of  it,  or 
whether  they  may  not  come  in  again  stronger  than 
before.  On  an  expectation  of  the  Parliament  being 
dissolved,  your  brother  came  down  to  me  to  try 
again  at  Bury;  but  as  that  is  not  to  be,  he  is  spared 
some  trouble,  and  myself  much  disquiet,  from  the 
difficulty  of  acting  in  all  matters  so  as  to  content 
your  father.     We  are  going  to  set  out  together  for 

1  her  poor  mother— -Margaret  Georgiana  Poyntz,  Countess  Spencer,  d.  1814.    The 
death  of  her  husband,  Earl  Spencer,  had  recently  taken  place. 


Valentine,  and  by  being  so  near  London  I  shall  hear 
more  frequently  how  the  arrangements  and  negotia- 
tions go  on,  and  whether  Mr.  Pitt  can  form  an 
administration  to  go  on  with  him :  Lord  Mul1  is  one 
of  his  adherents. 

I  am  very  sorry,  my  dear  Bess,  if  anything  I  have 
wrote  to  you  has  given  you  the  smallest  idea  of  my 
being  refroidi  towards  you.  No,  my  poor  suffering 
child,  my  tenderness  is  always  the  same;  nay,  more, 
my  reliance  on  your  good  intentions,  and  on  the 
desire  you  have  to  throw  a  drop  of  comfort  into  my 
bitter  cup,  which,  I  repeat  to  you,  is  always  in  your 
power;  but  when  I  see  you  borne  away  by  the 
defects  in  your  character,  or  blinded  by  your  own 
approbation  acting  so  as  I  think  will  provoke  the 
censure  of  the  world,  I  must  tell  you  of  it.  I  hope 
it  is  not  with  aigreur,  but  I  own  it  is  with  strong 
feelings,  because  I  see  you  in  a  situation  in  which 
you  have  everything  against  you.  I  am  grieved  to 
say  that  your  father's  very  extraordinary  conduct 
has  given  rise  to  many  ill-natured  reflections  on 
the  whole  family. 

I  have  lost  poor  Mrs.  Ashburner's  letter  and  direc- 
tion, but  if  you  wish  me  so  much  to  write  to  her, 
and  will  send  it  to  me,  I  will  certainly  do  it.  I 
do  not  understand  Lady  Cow's2  situation  by  your 
account  of  her.  Pray  explain  it,  and  how  you  found 
poor,  dear  Emily,  and  if  she  mentioned  having  heard 
from  me.  I  am  glad  you  saw  things  so  agreeably 
there,  but  I  was  impatient  to  have  you  out  of  that 
climate,  which  I  know  is  a  bad  place  for  you  late  in 

1  Lord  Mul—  Lord  Mulgrave.  ''■Lady  Com— Probably  for  Lady  Cowper. 


the  year.  You  will  soon  have  the  Emperor,  I  find, 
in  Italy,  so  you  will  have  an  opportunity  of  seeing 
many  crowned  heads  and  extraordinary  characters. 

I  am  not  surprised  at  the  avidity  with  which  you 
have  gone  to  the  great  objects  of  curiosity  and 
admiration  at  Rome;  and  to  tell  you  the  truth,  am 
glad  Mr.  Byres  was  absent,  because  I  think  Mr. 
Jenkins  will  be  a  pleasanter  cicerone,  as  he  knows  as 
much,  and  will  communicate  his  instruction  less  en 
routine.  You  will  find  him  in  all  things,  I  hope,  an 
intelligent,  useful,  and  friendly  man ;  and,  indeed,  he 
has  already  given  a  proof  of  it  in  the  circumstance 
you  mention.  Pray  remember  me  very  particularly 
to  him.  I  shall  never  forget  his  attention  to  me  in 
my  distresses  at  Castello.  I  will  not  write  to  him 
till  I  return. 

I  find  your  father  has  not  paid  him  the  last  year's 
pensions  he  is  so  good  as  to  distribute  for  him.  I 
wish  it  may  be  only  forgetfulness,  but  for  some  time 
past  everything  has  been  neglected  on  this  side  of 
St.  George's  Channel.  He  took  some  of  them  begun 
by  me  out  of  my  hands  (I  believe)  for  fear  I  should 
have  the  merit  of  it. 

I  don't  know  how  I  expressed  myself  about  Salva- 
tore,  for  he  is  in  London,  and  of  course  cannot  be 
employed  by  you,  but  may  be  served  by  your  good 
report.  I  am  glad  you  find  people  at  Rome  that 
speak  favorably  of  him.  I  was  afraid  that  that 
scandalous  imprisonment  had  hurt  him  there.  I 
wonder  Cardinal  Bernis  should  speak  of  me  whom 
he  never  saw,  and  not  of  your  father,  whom  I  sup- 
posed he  had  admired  and  saw  often.  .  .  . 


The  Countess  of  Bristol 

To  Lady  Elizabeth  Foster. 

Ickworth  F 'ark,  January  26,  1784. 

My  dear  Elizabeth, — I  have  two  of  your  letters 
from  Rome,  one  of  which  I  received  at  your  brother's, 
and  one  since  my  return  home.  I  thank  you  for 
the  account  of  what  you  see.  The  principal  things  I 
remember;  but  I  had  not  the  advantages  you  have, 
nor  any  guide  given  me,  much  less  so  good  a  one 
as  Mr.  Jenkins.  Indeed,  he  does  not  act  in  that 
capacity,  and  it  is  a  particular  attention  to  you.  I 
am  glad  you  made  my  message  more  acceptable  to 
him  by  making  it  public.  I  would  give  him  every 
testimony  of  my  regard,  for  I  was  in  misery,  and  he 
helped  me.  As  to  Cardinal  Bernis,  I  don't  wonder 
at  your  surprise  that  I  should  not  even  know  one 
with  whom  your  father  was  so  much  acquainted,  but 
I  soon  found  that  we  could  not  go  together.  I 
wished  much  to  have  seen  him,  am  sure  I  should 
have  liked  him,  and  have  my  disappointment  un- 
expectedly made  up  to  me  by  his  kindness  to  you. 

The  footing  you  have  put  yourself  upon,  my  dear 
Bess,  gives  me  great  pleasure,  and  Mr.  I.  confirms  it 
to  me,  but  do  not  rely  upon  the  praises  of  one  who 
has  acted  so  different  a  part.  They  are  false :  pursue 
your  own  plan,  and  give  her  no  opportunity  of 
intimacy  to  overturn  it.  I  dare  not  name  names, 
but  I  dare  say  you  will  understand  me;  if  not,  your 
cicerone  can  explain  the  living  as  well  as  the  dead; 
but  since  all  is  quiet  at  Naples,  and  since  you  must 


go  there,  I  rejoice  much  at  your  Danish  friend,  who 
is  probably  of  a  different  character  from  any  other 
woman  you  see;  but  I  almost  envy  you  the  oppor- 
tunity of  knowing  the  Emperor1  and  King  of  Sweden,2 
two  characters  which  have  excited  my  curiosity 
extremely,  and  which  you  seem  to  have  sifted  so 
well.  All  is  safe,  too,  at  Venice.  Well,  I  am  rejoiced 
at  it;  and  if  you  have  tolerable  weather,  you  have 
escaped  from  the  most  severe  winter  I  ever  saw, 
and  must  be  a  gainer,  I  hope  a  great  one,  in  many 
points;  but  you  still  complain  of  your  chest.  Etes 
vous  sage,  ma  chere  fille?  Do  you  avoid  cold?  do 
you  keep  to  regimen?  do  you  follow  Pipot?  Above 
all,  don't  let  even  S.  tempt  you  to  sing. 

I  sent  you  word  of  Sir  R.  Smyth's  death;  his  son 
was  with  him  to  the  last,  but  he  made  no  alteration 
in  his  favor:  he  has  left  him  nothing;  but  what  falls 
to  him,  and  what  he  had  before,  gives  him  an  income 
of  about  ^1400  a  year.  Mrs.  Brand  has  behaved 
very  handsomely  to  him,  and  he  very  unkindly  to 

I  have  to  inform  you  of  the  death  of  one  which 
will  affect  you  more — poor  Dr.  Foster — which  account 
came  very  kindly  to  me  from  Miss  Bellew  in  order 
to  transmit  to  you.  I  know  you  will  be  very  uneasy 
about  the  poor  boys,  but  I  think  Mr.  Foster  will  be 
inclined  to  leave  them  there,  and  that  if  you  request 
it  of  the  Marshalls  that  they  will  keep  them;  as  to 
what  you  ask  me  about  your  father  and  Mr.  Foster, 
I  suppose  they  have  quarrelled,  for  I  wrote  to  him 

1  the  Emperor— Alexander  I.,  Emperor  of  Russia  (1777-1825). 
*  King  of  Sweden— Gustavus  III.  (1746-1792). 


when  he  was  in  Dublin  to  beg  he  would  get  your 
settlement  registered,  and  his  answer  was  that  he 
would  have  nothing  more  to  do  with  Mr.  F.  I  will 
let  you  know  whatever  I  hear  from  Dunleer.  In  the 
meantime  do  not  let  your  imagination  be  too  busy, 
for  our  real  evils  are  enough  and  more  than  we  can 
well  cope  with. 

I  must  not  finish  this  letter  without  saying  some- 
thing of  Valentine:  it  is  really  a  pretty  place  and 
very  comfortable  house,  but  there  are  some  incon- 
veniences belonging  to  it,  and  I  wish  your  brother,  if 
possible,  to  get  rid  of  it.  Lady  Hervey1  is  not  very 
well,  and  they  talk  of  going  to  Spa  early  in  the 
season;  and  your  sister,  who  is  not  at  all  so,  has 
promised  me  to  go  whether  they  go  or  no.  Your 
brother  is  grown  fat  and  looks  vastly  well,  and  the 
two  little  cousins  are  au  mieux. 

I  will  say  nothing  of  Irish  politics,  and  English 
ones  are  in  such  a  state  of  confusion  at  this  moment 
that  nothing  can  be  said  of  them. 

I  will  remember  you  to  your  Aunts  when  I  see 
them,  and  to  my  brother,  who  is  in  the  country;  but 
we  are  all  shut  up  by  the  snow.  Your  uncle  William 
is  with  me,  and  has  just  done  a  very  friendly  thing 
by  your  brother.  He  and  Louisa  send  their  love  to 
you.  Remember  me  to  Mr.  Jenkins.  Have  you 
never  been  at  Batoni's?2  I  am  well  and  calm  though 
I  live  in  a  storm,  and  evermore  your  affectionate 

1  Lady  Hervey — Elizabeth,  daughter  of  Colin  Campbell  of  Quebec,  and  wife  of 
John  Augustus  Lord  Hervey,  eldest  son  of  the  Bishop  of  Deny,  d.  1818. 
^Batoni — Pompeo  Batoni,  Italian  painter  (1708-1787). 


Richard  Brinsley  Sheridan} 

To  Georgiana,  Duchess  of  Devonshire. 

Crewe,  October  29,  1786. 

My  dear  Duchess,  —  I  have  waited  with  the 
greatest  impatience  for  the  hour  of  liberty  to  remind 
you  and  Lady  Elizabeth  of  one  who  never  thinks  of 
either  of  you  without  a  mixture  of  pleasure  and  pain. 
I  hope  it  is  not  necessary  for  me  to  entreat  you  both 
not  to  forget  me.  I  am  more  interested  in  your 
happiness  than  half  those  who,  with  fine  speeches 
and  cold  hearts,  impose  on  your  natural  openness 
and  sincerity;  and,  though  it  is  impossible  for  those 
who  know  you  at  all  not  to  love  you,  yet  I  will  be 
confident  in  saying  they  cannot  feel  towards  you  as 
I  do  and  must,  after  all  that  passed  at  C. 

I  passed  two  days  at  Capethon,  with  its  inhabi- 
tants, and  Sir  George  and  Lady  Warren.  I  wandered 
about  all  day  alone,  and  by  recalling  the  past  made 
the  present  less  disagreeable.  It  is  not  often  I 
indulge  myself  in  these  solitary  rambles;  though  it  is 
most  pleasing  to  me  in  general,  it  unfits  me  for  the 
part  I  am  too  often  obliged  to  act;  but  I  could  not 
find  words  to  answer  all  the  fine  speeches  and 
pressing  invitations  of  Lady  Warren.  My  eyes  were 
so  dazzled  by  the  glitter  of  her  diamonds  and 
trinkets,  and  the  sound  of  her  voice  almost  con- 
vinced me  I  was  at  a  crowded  assembly  in  town.  I 
fled  from  the  idea  and  from  her,  and,  if  wishes  had 
wings,  you  would  have  seen  me  again  at  C. 

1  Richard  Brinsley  Sheridan~(i7$i-i.&i6). — See  Appendix 


We  came  here  Friday  morning;  there  are  many 
people  in  the  house,  but,  as  I  am  quite  sure  they  are 
quite  as  uninteresting  to  you  as  to  myself,  I  will  not 
mention  them.  I  must  except  Mr.  Hare,1  who  must  be 
pleasant  anywhere;  his  business  is  put  off,  I  find,  for 
he  does  not  talk  of  going  away.  Charles  Greville 
likewise  is  here,  but  I  do  not  find  he  has  been 
talking,  consequently  he  has  no  suspicion  of  what 
you  imagined,  otherwise  you  may  be  assured  Mrs. 
C.  would  have  been  acquainted  with  them.  She  has 
asked  me  a  thousand  questions  of  various  kinds,  to 
all  which  I  have  answered  as  I  would  to  the  town 
Cryer  if  I  was  questioned  by  him.  I  believe  she 
feels  that  my  heart  is  shut  against  her,  and  behaves 
accordingly;  but  I  dare  not  complain,  nor  would  it 
be  of  any  service  to  me  if  I  did;  she  is  of  an 
unhappy  disposition,  and  there  are  moments  when, 
in  spight  of  her  behaviour,  I  feel  inclined  to  pity 
her:  for  my  own  part  all  situations  are  pretty  much 
the  same  to  me  when  there  are  cribbage  or  whist 
parties ;  there  at  least  I  escape  observation ;  a  grave 
look  may  denote  a  bad  hand,  and  an  accidental  sigh 
may  be  that  of  regret  for  getting  out  a  wrong  card; 
here  I  find  it  doubly  necessary  to  be  so  occupied,  for 
the  attention  of  Friendship  does  not  suffer  a  word 
or  look  to  escape,  and  by  officious  enquiries  of  my 
health  or  spirits  point  out  an  occasion  for  reproach 
to  him  whom  I  wish  always  to  see  happy  by  appear- 
ing perfectly  so  myself. 

When  shall  I  hear  from  you?     I  am  very  anxious 

1  Mr.  Hare — James  Hare,  wit  and  politician.     See  the  lines  on  him  on  a  sub- 
sequent page. 


to  know  how  you  are,  and  how  things  are  going  on. 
I  see  by  the  papers  the  Duke  is  gone.  I  hope  you 
have  influence  enough  over  him  to  persuade  him  to 
resign.  I  am  sure  he  ought.  Pray  when  you  write 
assure  him  of  my  regard  and  Friendship,  indeed  no 
more.  Tell  him  the  only  thing  in  the  world  that 
would  give  me  the  greatest  satisfaction  is  to  think 
him  perfectly  happy,  and  in  that  wish  I  know  I  shall 
be  joined  by  you.  God  bless  you,  my  dear  Duchess; 
pray  believe  that  my  heart  is  anxiously  interested  in 
all  that  concerns  you,  and  that  my  warmest  prayers 
are  offered  up  for  your  happiness,  let  it  depend  on 
what  it  will.  Pray  believe  this,  and  that  I  am,  with 
the  greatest  affection  and  sincerity,  ever  yours, 


My  best  love  to  Lady  Elizabeth;  tell  her  Mrs. 
C.'s  greatest  insight  to  me  is  the  having  expressed 
myself  as  I  feel  about  her. 

The  Countess  of  Bristol 

To  Lady  Elizabeth  Foster. 

Bruton  St.,  Jan.  22,  1792. 
My  dear  Elizabeth, — I  found  a  letter  from  Mrs. 
Bellew  when  I  arrived  here  two  days  ago  which  I 
eagerly  opened,  as  it  was  to  answer  my  inquiries 
after  your  poor  boys.  The  account  is  so  pleasing  a 
one  that  I  will  give  you  her  own  words,  her  letter  is 
of  the  8th  of  this  month :  "I  had  the  pleasure  of 
seeing  the  dear  little  Fosters  here  yesterday.  They 
spent  the  day  with  us,  and  are  perfectly  well  now, 


and  both  very  fine  boys.  Frederick  is  very  senti- 
mental, sedate,  and  sensible;  he  had  for  a  time 
severe  chillblains,  but  is  now  well  of  them;  the 
youngest  seems  arch,  lively,  and  sensible,  and  I 
think  has  much  of  Lord  Bristol  in  him,  and  they  are 
very  good-natured  boys,  and  always  seem  happy  to 
see  us;  indeed,  the  father  seems  very  fond  of  both, 
and  takes  great  care  of  them."  I  was  in  a  hurry  to 
write  this,  my  dear  Bess,  though  it  could  not  reach 
you  the  sooner,  and  trusted  to  having  time  to  finish 
my  letter  to-day,  but  the  great  racket  and  perplexity 
of  arranging  things  and  people,  Louisa's  being  ill  of 
a  cold  and  cough,  and  a  number  of  little  plagues 
leave  me  but  little  time  for  it;  however,  I  will  just 
add  that  I  think  everything  is  settled  for  the  mutual 
advantage  of  all  parties.  I  was  going  to  have  ex- 
plained to  you,  but  Louisa  tells  me  she  has  done  so, 
and  I  will  therefore  only  say  that  I  have  got  a  very 
good  bed-chamber  myself,  and  that  hers  is  next  to  it, 
at  which  I  know  you  will  rejoice  for  me.  We  have 
not  stirred  from  the  house  on  account  of  her  cold 
and  my  business,  and,  on  account  of  both,  have  made 
our  arrival  so  little  known  that  we  have  seen  but 
few  people.  I  have  just  sent  to  Devonshire  House. 
How  vexatious  that  your  poor  little  muso1  is  not 
there,  and  where  is  it?  for  that  I  cannot  figure  to 
myself.  I  do  wish  it  out  of  France — for  though  I 
think  war  further  off  than  ever,  I  do  not  like  to 
have  you  exposed  to  the  accidents  belonging  to  the 
present  anxiety  of  it,  but  I  must  have  patience  per 
force.    .    .    . 

1  muso — Italian  for  muzzle,  face. 


Edward  Gibbon1 

To  Lady  Elizabeth  Foster. 

I  know  not  whether  you  are  already  informed  of 
the  sudden  death  of  poor  Lady  Sheffield2  after  four 
days'  illness,  but  I  am  sure  that  your  feeling,  affec- 
tionate mind  will  not  be  surprized  to  hear  that  I  set 
out  for  England  next  week,  and  that  a  journey 
undertaken  at  the  call  of  friendship.  All  the  dragons 
of  the  way  have  already  vanished.  I  go  by  Basle, 
Frankfort,  Cologne,  Brussels,  and  Ostend,  and  I 
flatter  myself  that  the  success  of  our  allied  arms  will 
contribute  every  week  to  open  my  passage;  it  is  even 
possible,  though  scarcely  probable,  that  I  may  embark 
from  the  English  town  of  Calais.  Your  answer 
to  my  last  letter  is  doubtless  on  the  road  and  will 
follow  me,  but  you  must  write  immediately  to  Shef- 
field Place,  and  I  promise  you  a  speedy  and  sincere 
account  of  our  afflicted  friend.  I  wish  to  hear  of 
your  motions  and  projects.  I  now  sigh  for  your 
return  to  England,  and  shall  be  most  bitterly  disap- 
pointed if  I  have  not  the  pleasure  of  seeing  you  in 
that  happy  island — yourself  and  the  most  amiable  of 
Dutchesses  before  the  end  of  the  autumn.  I  cannot 
look  with  confidence  beyond  that  period.  My 
friend  and  your  Chevalier  will  guard  me  as  far  as 
Cologne  or  Frankfort;  his  tender  attachment  to  his 
mother,  who  is  still  very  melancholy,  will  recall  him 
from  thence  to  Lausanne,  but  in  the  course  of  next 

1  Gibbon — The  historian  (1737-1704)- 

2  Lady  Sheffield— Abigail  Way,  wife  of  the  first  Earl  of  Sheffield,  Gibbon's  most 
intimate  friend,  and  editor  of  his  posthumous  works. 


winter  he  has  thoughts  of  visiting  England.  The 
circumstances  of  the  times,  which  impoverish  every- 
one, have  persuaded  him  to  listen  to  my  advice  of 
conducting  on  his  travels  some  English  pupill  of 
fashion  and  fortune.  Such  a  pupill  will  be  fortunate 
in  finding  a  real  gentleman,  and  I  trust  that  the 
Dutchess  and  yourself  will  exert  your  omnipotence  in 
providing  some  connection  equally  honourable  and 
advantageous  for  my  friend  and  your  sincere  Votary. 
Adieu.  Excuse  brevity,  and  address  a  Classic 
prayer  in  my  behalf  before  some  statue  of  Mercury, 
the  god  of  travellers. 

Lausanne,  May  the  $th,  1793. 

The  Earl  of  Bristol,  Bishop  of  Derry 

To  Lady  Elisabeth  Foster. 

Naples,  March  6,  1796. 

Dearest  Elizabeth,  —  I  did  not  expect  a  second 
letter  of  yours  from  Goodwood1  without  a  plan  and 
elevation  of  that  model  of  a  house  you  admire  so 
much  and  prefer  to  mine.  A  few  guineas,  my  child, 
would  have  procured  it,  and  you  know  I  am  not 
niggard  of  them,  especially  where  architecture  is 
concerned.  I  am  certain,  on  your  speaking  to  the 
Duke  of  Richmond,  he  will  order  it  immediately; 
you  may  fold  it  up  in  a  large  letter,  and  I  receive  it 
time  enough  to  adopt  any  improvements  it  contains. 

You  beg  me  on  your  knees  that  Ickworth  house 
may  be  built  of  white  stone  brick.     You  know,  my 

1  Goodwood— -The  country  seat  of  the  Duke  of  Richmond  in  Sussex. 


dear,  what  Ranger  says  to  his  cousin,  and  upon  my 
knees  I  beg  you  too.  What,  child,  build  my  house  of 
a  brick  that  looks  like  sick,  pale,  jaundiced  red  brick 
that  would  be  red  brick  if  it  could,  and  to  which  I 
am  certain  our  posterity  will  give  a  little  rouge  as 
essential  to  its  health  and  beauty?  White  brick 
always  looks  as  if  the  bricklayers  had  not  burnt  it 
sufficiently,  had  been  niggardly  of  the  fuel;  it  looks 
all  dough  and  no  crust.  I  am  ever  looking  out  for 
its  crust,  so,  my  dear,  I  shall  follow  dear  impeccable 
Palladio's  rule,  and  as  nothing  ought  to  be  without 
a  covering  in  our  raw  damp  climate,  I  shall  cover 
house,  pillars,  and  pilasters  with  Palladio's  stucco, 
which  has  now  lasted  270  years.  It  has  succeeded 
perfectly  well  with  me  at  Downhill  on  that  temple  of 
the  winds,  and  as  well  at  my  Casino  of  Derry — that 
temple  of  Cloacina.  It  has  resisted  the  frosts  and 
the  rains  of  Vicenza  c'est  tout  dire,  and  deceives  the 
most  acute  eye  till  within  a  foot. 

We  have  Lord  Macartney1  here  these  eight  days. 
They  had  him  at  Court  twice,  and  have  squeezed 
this  China  orange  so  close  they  left  him  nothing 
but  the  pulp.  What  restless  perturbed  spirits  he 
has,  that  in  the  course  of  his  short  life  he  has  visited 
Petersburgh  and  Grenada,  Madras  and  Pekin,  and 
is  now  reduced  to  a  mock  embassy  to  a  mock  king. 
A  propos  I  passed  two  hours  and  a  half  with  this 
King  of  Candides;  he  is  no  Carnival  King,  how- 
ever, that  is  certain,  but  un  vrai  Roi  de  Cardme.     I 

''■Lord  Macartney— Lord  Macartney  was  at  the  head  of  the  first  British  mission 
ever  sent  to  China,  in  1792.  The  "  mock  king  "  here  referred  to  was  Louis  XVIII., 
at  this  time  an  exile,  to  whom  Lord  Macartney  was  sent  on  a  confidential  mission 


never  conversed  with  a  more  pleasing,  cheerfuller, 
easier,  better-informed  man  in  any  country.  Adver- 
sity has  not  soured  but  sweetened  him,  and  turned 
all  his  vinegar  to  oil. 

I  am  truly  delighted  you  are  so  much  so  with  the 
picture  I  sent  Louisa.  'Tis  a  real  bijoux,  and  just  fit 
for  her  breakfast-room,  but  you  say  nothing  of  the 
Berlin  dejennS  which  I  reckon  a  great  cadeau,  and 
when  it  stands  on  a  tripod  of  Siberian  ?nalachite  will 
be  impayable. 

What  say  you  to  my  idea  of  a  gallery  of  German 
painters  contrasted  with  a  gallery  of  Italian  painters, 
from  Albert  Durer1  to  Angelica  Kauffman,2  and 
from  Cimabue3  to  Pompeio  Battoni,4  each  divided  by 
pilasters  into  their  respective  school — Venetian  for 
colouring,  Bologna  for  composition,  Florence  for 
designs,  Rome  for  sentiment,  and  Naples  for  nothing 
at  all?  But  the  Homer  of  Painting  is  in  my  mind  in 
Germany,  Rembrandt?  and  the  author  of  the  Descent 
from  the  Cross6  at  Antwerp.  Raphael7  and  all  Italian 
painters  are  the  Minor  Poets  of  Painting,  the  Garths,8 
the  Gays,9  the  Priors,10  but  there  is  not  a  Shakespeare^ 
among  them.  Michael  Angelo12  is  mad,  not  sublime; 
ludicrous,  not  dignified.  He  is  the  Dante15  of  painters 
as    Dante   is  the    Michael   Angelo  of  poets.     The 

I  Albert  Durer—  (1471-1528).  ''■Angelica  Kauffman — (1742-1807). 
3  Cimabue — Giovanni  C. — (1240-1300). 

*  Pompeio  Battoni — Pompeo  Batoni  (1708-1787). 

0  Rembrandt — Rembrandt  van  Ryn  (1606-1669). 

6  the  author  of  the  Descent  from  the  Cross — Peter  Paul  Rubens  (1577-1640). 

''Raphael — Raffaelle  Sanzio  (1483-1520). 

8  Garth — Sir  Samuel  Garth  (1661-1719). 

9  Gay— John  Gay  (1685-1732).  10  Prior—  Matthew  Prior  (1664-1721). 

II  Shakespeare — (1564- 1616). 

18  Michael  Angelo — Michael  Angelo  Buonarotti  (1475-1564). 
13  Dante — Dante  Alighieri  (1265-1321). 


picture  of  the  last  Judgment  is  so  tragi-comical  'tis 
difficult  to  say  what  passion  it  excites  most;  and  St. 
Barthleme,  all  flayed,  who  holds  up  his  skin  as  his 
ticket  of  admittance  into  Heaven,  is  worthy  only  of 
Bartholomew  fair.  Adieu.  This  is  the  fortieth  day 
I  am  in  bed  unremittingly,  reduced  to  a  shadow,  yet 
devouring  like  a  shark.  My  pulse  is  a  pulse  of 
threads  scarce  to  be  felt.  The  King  and  Queen  supply 
me  with  game,  and  I  make  game  of  everybody. 
The  House — -The  House — The  House. 

The  Earl  of  Bristol,  Bishop  of  Derry 

To  Lady  Elizabeth  Foster. 

Pyrmont,  August  1,  1796. 

Dearest  Elizabeth, — Though  I  would  not  for  the 
world  itself  disappoint  your  poor  brother's1  hopes  if 
his  noble  and  generous  heart  be  really  engaged,  nor 
even  diminish  of  one  obole  the  allowance  I  should 
be  able  to  make  him,  which  is  exactly  the  same  I 
gave  your  poor  dear  eldest  brother,  yet  I  must  con- 
fess it  would  half  break  my  heart  to  see  his  fixed  on 
any  other  than  the  beautiful,  elegant,  important,  and 
interesting  object  I  have  proposed  to  him.  At  least, 
dearest  Eliza,  if  you  have  any  interest  with  him,  in- 
duce him,  beg  him,  my  dear,  not  to  decide  before  he 
is  able  to  chuse.  She  would  bring  into  our  family 
,£5000  a  year,  besides  a  Principality  in  Germany,  an 

J your  poor  brother— Frederick,  who  by  the  death  of  his  elder  brother,  also  here 
referred  to,  had  become  Lord  Hervey.  He  was  afterwards  Earl  and  Marquis  of 
Bristol  (1769-1859). 


English  Dukedom  for  Frederick  or  me,  which  the 
King  of  Prussia1  is  determined  to  obtain  in  case  the 
marriage  takes  place,  a  perpetual  relationship  with 
both  the  Princess  of  Wales2  and  her  children,  as  also 
with  the  Duchess  of  York3  and  her  progeny,  the 
Embassy  to  Berlin,  with  such  an  influence  and  pre- 
ponderance in  favor  of  dear  England  as  no  other 
could  withstand.  Add  to  all  this,  the  King  is  so 
tent  upon  it,  from  his  great  partiality  to  me,  that  I 
doubt  not  his  doubling  the  dot  in  case  F.  desired  it, 
which  indeed  I  should  not.  We  are,  besides,  all 
determined  to  go  and  meet  him  the  moment  we  hear 
of  his  debarking,  which  he  may  notify  by  estafette. 
In  short,  nothing  would  be  more  brilliant,  or  flatter- 
ing, or  more  cordial  than  his  reception  in  case  he  can 
think  with  us;  and  indeed,  dearest  Elizabeth,  the 
examples  he  has  before  his  eyes  in  and  within  his 
own  family  ought  fully  to  determine  him  against  a 
love  match;  'tis  so  ominous  a  lottery,  so  pregnant 
with  blanks,  so  improbable  a  success.  In  short, 
dearest  Elizabeth,  write  to  me  soon;  above  all,  See 
him.  All  I  desire  of  him  is  not  to  resolve  against 
us;  not  to  throw  away  a  Pearl  richer  than  all  his 
tribe;  let  him  but  see  before  he  decides,  let  him 
weigh  all  we  offer  to  his  ambition,  his  ease,  his  com- 
fort, his  taste,  and  his  pocket. 

1  the  King  of  Prussia — Frederick  William  II.  (1744.-1797). 

2  Princess  of  Wales — Princess  Caroline,  daughter  of  Charles,  Duke  of  Brunswick 

3  Duchess  of  York — Daughter  of  Frederick  William  II.,  King  of  Prussia,  and  wife 
of  the  Duke  of  York,  son  of  George  III. ,  d.  1820. 


The  Earl  of  Bristol,  Bishop  of  Derry 

To  Lady  Elizabeth  Foster. 

Pyrmont,  August  4,  1796. 

Dearest  Elizabeth, — I  have  wrote  warmly  and 
fully  to  your  dear  brother  on  my  project  of  marrying 
him  to  one  of  the  prettiest,  sweetest,  most  delicate, 
and  innocent,  as  well  as  accomplished  little  women  I 
ever  saw,  endowed  with  ,£100,000  down,  besides  the 
reversion  of  a  landed  property  in  Germany,  with  the 
promise  of  a  Dukedom  to  him  or  me,  as  the  King  of 
Prussia  can  obtain  it  from  our  King.  On  the  con- 
trary, though,  God  forbid  I  should  negative  his 
inclinations,  poor  fellow,  at  his  time  of  life,  and  in  his 
state  of  health,  [I  wish]  to  dissuade  him  all  I  can  (and 
I  entreat  your  assistance,  sweet  Elizabeth)  from  his 
present  pursuit.  She  has  little  or  no  fortune.  Your 
brother  by  the  last  act  of  settlement  can  make  no 
provision  for  either  her  or  her  children,  and  if  he 
should  die  within  five  or  six  years — which  the  per- 
turbed state  of  his  mind  might  easily  produce— what 
must  be  the  consequence  to  his  widow  and  her 
orphans?  Once  married  and  the  first  heat  of  passion 
allayed,  what  must  be  the  state  of  an  anxious  debili- 
tated mind  ? 

Dearest  Elizabeth, — Farquhar1  himself  could  not 
ensure  his  poor  life  for  a  year  more  after  black  and 
melancholy  ideas  should  begin  to  possess  his  mind. 
Relief  would  neither  be  in  his  power  nor  in  mine, 
and  medicine  would  be  the  more  ineffectual  as  the 
malady  would  be  in  the  mind. 

1  Farquhar— -Sir  Walter  Farquhar,  Bart. ,  a  celebrated  physician. 


If  you  care,  my  dear  child,  to  accompany  your 
brother  to  Pyrmont,  and  from  thence  to  pass  the 
winter  at  Naples,  I  will  gladly  pay  your  expenses, 
and  be  glad  of  your  company  for  the  winter.  The 
King  of  Prussia  has  been  good  enough  to  write  by 
Express  to  the  Directory  at  Paris  requesting  a  pass- 
port for  Lord  Hervey  and  his  suite  to  land  at 
Ostend  and  pass  through  the  Low  Countries  to  Pyr- 
mont. .  .  .  [Torn.]  At  anyrate,  my  dear  Elizabeth, 
try  to  dissuade  him  from  a  passion  and  a  pursuit  so 
pregnant  with  evil  consequences  to  the  quiet  of  his 
mind  and  the  health  of  his  body,  whilst  on  the  other 
hand  I  offer  a  real  Cornucopia. 

The  Earl  of  Bristol,  Bishop  of  Derry 

To  Lady  Elizabeth  Foster. 

Pyrmont,  August  16,  '96. 

You  nasty  little  Imp  of  Silence!  What  are  you 
doing  that  one  can  hear  no  more  about  you  than  if 
one  did  not  care  for  you,  and  yet  who  do  I  care  for 

I  wrote  your  brother  that  he  might  bring  your 
ugly  face  with  him,  and  we  would  all  go  to  Naples, 
where  I  have,  without  exception,  the  handsomest  and 
best  situated  house  there;  fourteen  rooms  on  each 
floor  all  hung  with  Rafaels,  Titians,1  and  what  not. 
Then  how  happy  the  queen  to  see  you,  and  the 
delicious  evenings  we  should  pass  with  her.  Your 
brother  is  to  receive  by  estafette  a  passport  from  the 

1  Titian — Tiziano  Vecellio  {1477-1576). 


Directory  to  land  at  Ostend  and  come  to  me  through 
Brabant.  That  would  be  the  road  for  you,  eight 
hours'  sail  and  no  more.  Then,  what  a  journey  to- 
gether, and  a  month's  residence  at  Sans  Souci,  which 
the  king  has  just  lent  me  with  his  cooks,  his  manors, 
library,  gallery,  &c.  Oh!  if  I  can  accomplish  my 
heart  and  soul's  desire  to  join  your  dear  brother's 
hand  with  La  Comtesse  de  la  Marche1 — ^5000  a 
year  down,  ^5000  more  in  reversion,  an  English 
Dukedom,  probably  the  embassy  to  Berlin — por  Dio 
che  piacere.  The  King  gave  me  his  honor  to  pass 
next  summer  at  Ickworth  if  there  be  a  peace. 

The  Earl  of  Bristol,  Bishop  of  Derry 

To  Lady  Elizabeth  Foster. 

Pyrmont,  August  27,  '96. 

Dearest  Elizabeth, — Are  you  alive  or  dead,  or  are 
you  on  a  journey?  Or  perchance  she  sleepeth?  If 
so,  at  least  dream  a  little,  or  walk  in  your  sleep,  or 
talk  in  your  sleep,  for  I  have  no  patience  with  your 
long,  very  long,  silence.  I  proposed  to  your  dear 
brother  to  bring  you  with  him  first  to  Pyrmont,  then 
to  Naples,  where  you  know  what  pleasures,  intel- 
lectual and  sensual,  await  you,  and  neither  your 
journey  nor  your  abode  shall  cost  you  one  farthing; 
and  I  think  the  climate,  to  say  nothing  of  other 
circumstances,  would  do  ye  both  service.  What  I 
have  most  at  heart  in  this  moment  is  your  brother's 
marriage  with  The  Comtesse  de  la  Marche,  the  King 

1  La  Comtesse  de  la  Marche— -See  Appendix. 

124  THE   TW0   DUCHESSES. 

of  Prussia's  daughter,  of  which  I  have  wrote  to  you 
so  fully;  but  I  would  not  on  any  account  have  you 
teaze  him  about  it  how  ardently  soever  I  may  wish 
it,  especially  as  he  seems  inclined  to  another  project. 
But  see  the  difference: 

On  my  side.  On  his  side. 

,£5000  a  year  down.  No  fortune. 

^5000  a  year  in  reversion.  Wife  and  children  beggars  for 
An  English  Dukedom,  which  the  want  of  settlement. 

King  pledges  to  obtain.  No  connexion. 

Royal   connexion — Princess  of  A  love  match,  like  all  others  for 

Wales,  and  Duchess  of  York.  four  generations  before  him. 

Sweet  Elizabeth,  when  occasion  serves,  help  me  to 
accomplish  my  project.  I  cannot,  if  I  would,  afford 
him  more  than  ^"2000  a  year  whilst  my  house  is 
building  and  furnishing.     What  is  that  in  London  ? 

But  on  my  plan.  On  his  plan. 

^2000   from  me.  ^2000. 

^5000   Dowry.  Wife  and  children,  and  no  settle- 

,£3000   Embassy  to  Berlin  or  ment. 


The  Earl  of  Bristol,  Bishop  of  Derry 

To  Lady  Elizabeth  Foster. 

Pyrmont,  September  n,  1796. 

Dearest  Elizabeth, — Your  are  a  dear,  amiable 
little  girl  not  to  have  called  on  me  for  your  sugar 
plums  in  this  year  of  distress  and  confusion,  for  by 
the  last  balance  of  my  accounts  with  Messrs.  Gosling1 
there  remained  but  one  hundred   pounds  in    their 

1  Messrs.  Gosling—  Bankers  in  London. 


hands,  and  several  of  my  own  drafts  from  Italy  have 
been  protested,  which  is  both  expensive  and  dis- 
graceful, so  that  you  see,  my  dear  child,  I  had  little 
left  to  be  generous  with,  having  scarce  withal  to  fill 
the  duties  of  Justice. 

Lord  Hervey. 

And  now,  my  dear  child,  for  poor,  dear  Frederick's 
affair;  and  it  amazes  myself  when  I  recollect  the 
object  the  nearest  to  my  heart  for  these  last  twelve 
or  fourteen  years.  I  thought  I  could  be  content  to 
vegetate  for  the  remainder  of  my  green  old  age 
among  painters  and  sculptors,  masons  and  brick- 
layers, and  was  not  aware  of  the  very  deep  interest 
this  warm,  sensible  heart  of  mine  was  likely  to  take 
in  any  project  whatever;  but  I  own  to  you  the  idea 
of  fixing  a  son  of  your  brother's  superior  and  pre- 
eminent qualities,  both  moral  and  intellectual,  in  a 
station  worthy  of  him  and  of  us  all  has  kindled  anew 
the  almost  extinguished  sparks,  the  very  embers  of 
my  expiring  and  effete  ambition.  To  see  him  in 
possession  of  a  station  where  his  interest  can  be  as 
independent  as  his  spirit,  and  take  a  bond  of  Fate; 
to  see  him  fixed  where  he  can  essentially  and  proudly 
serve  the  greatest  country  that  ever  reared  citizens, 
and  the  ablest  minister1  that  ever  served  a  country, 
was  a  prospect  to  which  my  dim  eyes  did  not  yet 
reach :  then  to  see  that  project  tumbled  down  to  a 
Chateau  d'Espagne  in  the  regions  of  love  and  fancy; 
to  see  him  a  bankrupt  in  the  most  problematical 
and  disadvantageously  fascinating  Lottery  with  500 

1  the  ablest  minister— William  Pitt  (1759-1806). 


blanks  to  one  prize,  would  put  even  my  philosophy, 
triumphant  as  it  yet  is,  to  the  proof.  Aid  me,  there- 
fore, my  dearest  child,  to  eradicate,  if  possible,  his 
own  project  from  his  mind,  and  then  to  establish 
mine.  The  first  object  is  to  get  him  abroad,  where, 
if  you  can,  I  dare  say  you  will,  accompany  him;  then 
to  secure  his  health  of  body  and  tranquillity  of  mind: 
a  winter  passed  in  England  at  this  period  of  his 
malady,  both  of  mind  and  body,  cannot  but  be  fatal; 
whereas  a  warm  air  bath  at  Naples,  in  that  most 
balmy  of  all  atmospheres,  amidst  music,  friends,  and 
dissipation,  will  be  as  soothing  to  his  mind  as  the 
climate  to  his  body;  and  as  I,  on  account  of  my  own 
horses,  never  travel  above  25  or  30  miles  a  day,  and 
have  always  saddle-horses  at  hand,  he  can  not  fear 
fatigue.  As  to  his  love  project,  thus  stands  our 

On  my  project. 

1.  A  lady  without  fortune,  with-      1.  A  lady  with  ^10,000  a  year 

out  connexions.  instead  of  ^5000,  and  five 

2.  No   possible   settlement    on  more  in  reversion, 
my  part  nor  on  Lord  Her-  2.  An  English  Dukedom, 
vey's.  3.  The  highest  and  most  desir- 

3.  All  my  Irish  leasehold  estates  able  of  all  connexions. 

entailed    long    ago   on   H.      4.  Peace  of  Mind  for  me  and 

Bruce1  and  his  children;  on  himself. 

Theo.  Bruce  and   his  chil-      This  is  your  brief,  and  I  expect 

dren;    on    your   two    sons;  you  to  plead  with  eloquence 

on  Caroline;  and  finally  on  the  cause  of  us  all. 

Frederick,  with  a  clause  in 

favor  of  myself. 

4.  Therefore  poverty,  famine, 
and  omnipotent  love  for  her 
and  her  children. 

1 H.  Bruce— Rev.  Sir  Henry  Hervey  Aston  Bruce,  Bart.,  d.  1822. 

FROM   THE   EARL   OF    BRISTOL.  1 27 

He  says  his  honor  is  engaged;  so  it  is — not  to 
entail  poverty  and  famine  on  her  and  her  younger 
children.  Your  late  brother  has  left  me  a  debt  of 
,£15,000  to  pay — £10,000  to  his  daughter  and 
£5000  to  his  creditors:  judge  of  my  means,  and 
believe  me,  as  ever,  yours. 

The  Earl  of  Bristol,  Bishop  of  Derry 

To  Lady  Elizabeth  Foster. 

Pyrmont  (or  Berlin),  Sept.  14,  1796. 

If  I  have  anything  to  ask  of  you,  my  dearest 
Elizabeth,  it  is  that  in  case  your  brother  gets  a 
cough  in  the  course  of  the  winter,  you  beg  of  Lord 
Spencer1  a  frigate,  and  send  him  off  directly  to  me  at 
Naples,  ever  yours,  B. 

P.S.  —  Nothing  can  equal  the  Deroute  of  the 
damned  Blackguard,  pilfering,  plundering,  pillaging 
Republicans.  Neither  Minden2  nor  Rosbach3  can 
compare  with  it:  all  their  artillery,  all  their  baggage, 
all  their  waggons  loaded  with  contributions,  all  taken : 
we  have  here  two  officers  and  the  son  of  our  apothe- 
cary just  arrived  from  Frankfort,  who  not  only  con- 
firm all  this,  who  were  ocular  witnesses  to  these 
ourang  outangs  running  like  themselves  without 
shoes,  stockings,  or  breeches,  and  the  exasperated 
peasants  knocking  them  down,   like  real  monkeys, 

1Lord  Spencer — The  second  Earl  Spencer  (brother  of  Georgiana,  Duchess  of 
Devonshire),  First  Lord  of  the  Admiralty  in  Pitt's  government  (1758-1831). 

'Minden— -The  French  were  defeated  by  an  army  of  Anglo-Hanoverians  near 
Minden,  in  Westphalia,  in  1759. 

^  Rosbach— Rossbach,  in  Prussian  Saxony.  Here  Frederick  the  Great  defeated 
the  allied  Austrian  and  French  armies  in  1757. 


their  prototypes,  with  bludgeons,  pitchforks,  staves, 
all  that  came  to  hand,  "furor  arma  ministrat"  12,000 
dead  on  the  road  or  the  field,  900  waggons  loaded 
with  wounded,  that  is  9000  wounded,  and  the  Aus- 
trians  in  Frankfort  before  the  rear  guard  left  it. 

The  Earl  of  Bristol,  Bishop  of  Derry 

To  Lady  Elizabeth  Foster. 

Frankfort,  Sept.  26,  1796. 

Dearest  Elizabeth, — Here  is  the  most  consolatory 
Gazette  I  have  read  of  a  long  time,  and  I  inclose  it 
as  a  receipt  to  cure  you  of  a  migraine.  Nothing 
can  be  more  brilliant  than  the  successes  of  our 
two  heroes,  the  Archduke  Charles,1  and  the  Prince 
Frederick  of  Orange,  except  their  own  exertion  to 
obtain  them.  They  are  idolized  by  their  armies, 
and  amply  supported  by  their  courage.  The  last 
accounts  I  have  seen  of  Moreau's2  defeat  near  Munich 
carry  the  number  of  dead  up  to  15,000,  the  wounded 
9000,  and  the  prisoners  7000.  If  the  Austrians  can 
carry  the  fort  of  Kehl,  Strasburg,  entirely  com- 
manded by  it,  must  fall,  and  then  France  will  begin 
to  feel  the  iron  hand  of  Austria. 

I  leave  this  at  4  o'clock  to-day,  and  shall  reach 
Pyrmont  in  three  days,  which  I  left  only  to  get  a 
sight  of  the  armies.      From    Pyrmont   straight   to 

1  Archduke  Charles — Third  son  of  Leopold  II. ,  Emperor  of  Austria.  He  defeated 
Marshal  Jourdan  in  several  battles  in  1796.  He  also  defeated  Moreau  at  Rastadt 
in  1797,  Mass^na  in  1805,  and  the  main  French  army,  commanded  by  Napoleon  in 
person,  at  Aspern,  May  21st  and  22nd,  1809  (1771-1807). 

2  Moreau — The  greatest  general  of  the  French  Republic,  except  Napoleon  (1763- 


Sans  Souci,  where  I  pass  a  month  with  my  dear 
Countess  and  her  beautiful,  elegant,  decent,  mild, 
gentle  Daughter.  Would  to  God  she  were  also 
mine.  I  have  so  set  my  very  heart  and  soul  on  this 
union  that  no  event  whatever  could  give  me  equal 
satisfaction,  and  when  poor  dear  Frederick  perceives 
the  absolute  impracticability  of  his  own  project,  [I 
have  no  doubt]  but  he  will,  according  to  the  tenor  of 
his  last  letter,  readily  adopt  mine.  Ce  qui  me  mettra 
a  la  joie  de  mon  cceur,  for  a  young  woman  more 
calculated  by  nature,  as  well  as  education,  to  make  a 
virtuous  man  happy,  I  never  yet  saw,  and  I  am  certain 
you  would  doat  on  her. 

The  Earl  of  Bristol,  Bishop  of  Derry 

To  Lady  Elizabeth  Foster. 

CASSEL,  Sept.  30,  1796. 

Dearest  Elizabeth, — I  am  now  returning  to  Pyr- 
mont  from  my  military  expedition,  for  you  know, 
child,  we  have  Church  militant  as  well  as  Church 
visible — Low  Church  and  High  Church.  The  affaire 
at  Alten  Kircken1  near  Dillembourg,  which  is  near 
Marpurg,  was  bien  sanglante.  The  Ourang  Outangs 
or  Tyger  monkeys  lost  the  few  shirts  and  breeches 
they  had.  That  modern  hero,  Prince  Frederick  of 
Orange  (observe,  my  dear,  all  the  great  men  of  this 
century  are  Fredericks2);  this  hero,  who  united  the 

1  Alten  Kirchen In  Prussia.     The  French  who  had  defeated  the  Austrians  here 

in  1796  were  themselves  defeated,  and  their  general  Marceau  killed  on  Sept.  igth 


3  Fredericks The  writer's  own  name,  it  should  be  remembered,  was  Frederick. 



phlegm  of  Hannibal  with  the  activity  of  Scipio,  cut 
them  to  pieces  like  a  sailor's  biscuit.  They  have 
recrossed  the  Rhine,  and  evacuated  Dusseldorf.  On 
the  Upper  Rhine  the  bravery  of  the  Austrian  soldiers 
had  taken  Fort  Kehl,  which  commands  Strasburg; 
and  the  stupidity,  indiscipline,  and  rapacity  of  the 
officers  lost  it.  They  were  plundering  the  stores 
when  they  ought  to  have  been  raising  the  Draw- 
bridge— quelles  betes — Landau  is  known  to  have  only 
600  men  or  boys  in  it.  The  Archduke  marched 
with  13,000  men  to  take  it,  and  here  ends  my 
Budget  and  letter,  and  so  adieu,  dearest  Eliza. 

To-morrow  for  Sans  Souci  and  my  dearest 
Countess,  de  qui  je  soucie  beaucoup  in  spite  of  my 
Goliah  =  Rival,  whom  little  David  no  longer  fears. 

From  Georgiana,  Duchess  of  Devonshire, 

To  Frederick  Foster. 

Devonshire  House,  \ith  Nov.,  1796. 

I  have  hitherto  refrained  from  claiming  the  privi- 
lege of  an  old  acquaintance,  and  writing  to  you,  not 
only  from  the  dreadful  complaint  I  have  had  on  one 
eye,  which  has  occasioned  my  being  forbid  writing, 
but  also,  Dear  Frederick,  from  thinking  that  your 
time  must  be  very  much  taken  up.  I  can,  however, 
refrain  no  longer,  and  I  write  now  to  assure  you  of 
the  warm  interest  I  take  in  everything  that  concerns 
you,  and  my  impatience  to  see  you.  Your  apparte- 
ments,  and  your  brother's,  are  quite  ready  at  Devon- 
shire House.     I  hear  you  are  to  set  out  20th.     I  do 


most  earnestly  entreat  you  to  let  your  journey  suffer 
no  further  delay.  Your  Dear  Mother's  heart  is  so 
full  of  anxiety  and  expectation  that  any  disappoint- 
ment or  delay  in  the  expected  moment  would  be 
fatal  to  her  health.  You  will  find  many  friends 
impatient  to  see  you,  and  none  more  so  than  your 
new  Uncle,  Lord  Hawkesbury.1 

I  do  not  know  if  you  remember  me,  but  I  assure 
you  that  I  never  have  forgot  you  since  Bath.  You 
must  excuse  this  bad  writing,  as  I  am  still  half  blind, 
but,  truly  and  affectionately,  yours, 

G.  Devonshire. 

To   Lady   Elizabeth   Foster ;  from    Georgiana,   Duchess   of 

Devonshire,  when  she  was  apprehensive  of 

losing  her  eyesight — 1796. 

The  Life  of  the  Roebuck  was  mine, 
As  I  bounded  o'er  Valley  and  Lawn ; 

I  watched  the  gay  Twilight  decline, 

And  worshipped  the  day-breaking  Dawn. 

I  regret  not  the  freedom  of  will, 

Or  sigh,  as  uncertain  I  tread; 
I  am  freer  and  happier  still, 

When  by  thee  I  am  carefully  led. 

Ere  my  Sight  I  was  doomed  to  resign, 

My  heart  I  surrendered  to  thee ; 
Not  a  Thought  or  an  Action  was  mine, 

But  I  saw  as  thou  badst  me  to  see. 

Thy  watchful  affection  I  wait, 

And  hang  with  Delight  on  Thy  voice; 

And  Dependance  is  softened  by  fate, 

Since  Dependance  on  Thee  is  my  Choice. 

1  See  note,  p.  150. 


Lines  by  Georgiana,  Duchess  of  Devonshire,  on 
Lady  Elizabeth  Foster. 

Untutored  in  the  Pencil's  Art, 
My  Tints  I  gather  from  my  Heart, 
Where  Truth  and  Love  together  trace 
The  various  Beauties  of  thy  face; 
Thy  Form  acknowledged  fair  and  fine, 
Thy  Smile,  the  antidote  to  Pain, 
Thy  Voice  that  never  spoke  in  vain; 
As  diamonds  on  the  Crystals  trace 
In  Lines  no  Efforts  can  efface: 
To  please  for  ever  is  thy  Lot — 
Once  seen,  once  loved,  and  ne'er  forgot. 

On  Lady  Elizabeth  Foster,  by  Georgiana,  Duchess  of 

Portrait  d' Elizabeth. 

A  la  beaute  enchanteresse, 

Elle  unit  l'attrait  de  l'esprit ; 
Par  un  regard  elle  interesse, 

Par  un  sourire  elle  seduit. 
A  la  finesse  du  langage, 

Du  gout  parfait  le  rare  don; 
Elle  reunit  l'avantage 

De  la  bonte  et  de  la  raison. 
Mortels,  craintifs  fuyez  ses  charmes, 

Fuyez  son  pouvoir  enchanteur; 
La  cruelle  impose  les  peines, 

Au  lieu  de  donner  le  bonheur. 

G.  Devonshire. 


To  my  Children, 

By  Georgiana,  Duchess  of  Devonshire. 


Ye  plains  where  three-fold  harvests  press  the  ground, 
Ye  climes  where  genial  gales  incessant  swell, 

Where  art  and  nature  shed  profusely  round 
Their  rival  wonders — Italy  farewell! 

Still  may  thy  year  in  fullest  splendor  shine! 

Its  icy  darts  in  vain  may  winter  throw! 
To  thee,  a  parent,  sister,  I  consign, 

And  wing'd  with  health,  I  woo  thy  gales  to  blow. 

Yet,  pleas'd  Helvetia's  rugged  brows  I  see, 
And  thro'  their  craggy  steeps  delighted  roam, 

Pleas'd  with  a  people,  honest,  brave  and  free, 
Whilst  every  step  conducts  me  nearer  home. 

I  wander  where  Tesino  madly  flows, 

From  cliff  to  cliff  in  foaming  eddies  tost; 

On  the  rude  mountain's  barren  breast  he  rose, 
In  Po's  broad  wave  now  hurries  to  be  lost. 

His  shores,  neat  huts  and  verdant  pastures  fill, 
And  hills  where  woods  of  pine  the  storm  defy; 

While,  scorning  vegetation,  higher  still, 
Rise  the  bare  rocks  coeval  with  the  sky. 

Upon  his  banks  a  favor'd  spot  I  found, 
Where  shade  and  beauty  tempted  to  repose; 

Within  a  grove,  by  mountains  circled  round, 
By  rocks  o'erhung,  my  rustic  seat  I  chose. 

Advancing  thence,  by  gentle  pace  and  slow, 
Unconscious  of  the  way  my  footsteps  prest; 


Sudden,  supported  by  the  hills  below, 

St.  Gothard's  summits  rose  above  the  rest. 

Midst  tow'ring  cliffs  and  tracts  of  endless  cold 
Th'  industrious  path  pervades  the  rugged  stone, 

And  seems — Helvetia  let  thy  toils  be  told — 
A  granite  girdle  o'er  the  mountain  thrown. 

No  haunt  of  man  the  weary  traveller  greets, 

No  vegetation  smiles  upon  the  moor, 
Save  where  the  flow'ret  breathes  uncultur'd  sweets, 

Save  where  the  patient  monk  receives  the  poor. 

Yet  let  not  those  rude  paths  be  coldly  trac'd, 
Let  not  these  wilds  with  listless  steps  be  trod, 

Here  fragrance  scorns  not  to  perfume  the  waste, 
Here  charity  uplifts  the  mind  to  God. 

His  humble  board  the  holy  man  prepares, 
And  simple  food  and  wholesome  lore  bestows, 

Extols  the  treasures  that  his  mountain  bears, 
And  paints  the  perils  of  impending  snows. 

For  whilst  bleak  Winter  numbs  with  chilling  hand — 
Where  frequent  crosses  mark  the  travellers'  fate — 

In  slow  procession  moves  the  merchant  band, 
And  silent  bends  where  tottering  ruins  wait. 

Yet  'midst  those  ridges,  'midst  that  drifted  snow, 
Can  nature  deign  her  wonders  to  display; 

Here  Adularia  shines  with  vivid  glow, 
And  gems  of  chrystal  sparkle  to  the  day. 

Here,  too,  the  hoary  mountain's  brow  to  grace, 
Five  silver  lakes,  in  tranquil  state  are  seen; 

While  from  their  waters  many  a  stream  we  trace, 
That,,  scap'd  from  bondage,  rolls  the  rocks  between. 

Hence  flows  the  Reuss  to  seek  her  wedded  love, 
And  with  the  Rhine,  Germanic  climes  explore; 


Her  stream  I  mark'd,  and  saw  her  wildly  move 
Down  the  bleak  mountain,  thro'  her  craggy  shore. 

My  weary  footsteps  hop'd  for  rest  in  vain, 
For  steep  on  steep  in  rude  confusion  rose; 

At  length  I  paus'd  above  a  fertile  plain 
That  promised  shelter  and  foretold  repose. 

Fair  runs  the  streamlet  o'er  the  pasture  green, 
Its  margin  gay,  with  flocks  and  cattle  spread; 

Embowering  trees  the  peaceful  village  screen, 

And  guard  from  snow  each  dwelling's  jutting  shed. 

Sweet  vale!  whose  bosom  wastes  and  cliff  surround, 
Let  me  awhile  thy  friendly  shelter  share! 

Emblem  of  life !  where  some  bright  hours  are  found 
Amidst  the  darkest,  dreariest  years  of  care. 

Delv'd  thro'  the  rock,  the  secret  passage  bends, 
And  beauteous  horror  strikes  the  dazzled  sight; 

Beneath  the  pendent  bridge  the  stream  descends 
Calm — till  it  tumbles  o'er  the  frowning  height. 

We  view  the  fearful  pass — we  wend  along 

The  path  that  marks  the  terrors  of  our  way — 

Midst  beetling  rocks,  and  hanging  woods  among 
The  torrent  pours  and  breathes  its  glittering  spray. 

Weary  at  length,  serener  scenes  we  hail — 

More  cultur'd  groves  o'ershade  the  grassy  meads, 

The  neat,  tho'  wooden  hamlets  deck  the  vale, 
And  Altorf's  spires  recall  heroic  deeds. 

But  tho'  no  more  amidst  those  scenes  I  roam, 
My  fancy  long  each  image  shall  retain — 

The  flock  returning  to  its  welcome  home — 
And  the  wild  carol  of  the  cowherd's  strain. 

Lucernia's  lake  its  glassy  surface  shews, 

Whilst  nature's  varied  beauties  deck  its  side ; 


Here  rocks  and  woods  its  narrow  waves  enclose, 
And  there  its  spreading  bosom  opens  wide. 

And  hail  the  chapel!  hail  the  platform  wild! 

Where  Tell  directed  the  avenging  dart 
With  well  strung  arm,  that  first  preserv'd  his  child, 

Then  wing'd  the  arrow  to  the  tyrant's  heart. 

Across  the  lake  and  deep  embow'd  in  wood 

Behold  another  hallow' d  chapel  stand, 
Where  three  Swiss  heroes  lawless  force  withstood, 

And  stamp'd  the  freedom  of  their  native  land. 

Their  liberty  requir'd  no  rites  uncouth, 

No  blood  demanded  and  no  slaves  enchain'd; 

Her  rule  was  gentle  and  her  voice  was  truth, 
By  social  order  form'd,  by  laws  restrain'd. 

We  quit  the  lake — and  cultivation's  toil, 

With  nature's  charms  combined,  adorns  the  way, 

And  well  earn'd  wealth  improves  the  ready  soil, 
And  simple  manners  still  maintain  their  sway. 

Farewell,  Helvetia!  from  whose  lofty  breast 
Proud  Alps  arise,  and  copious  rivers  flow; 

Where,  source  of  streams,  eternal  glaciers  rest, 
And  peaceful  science  gilds  the  plain  below. 

Oft  on  thy  rocks  the  wondering  eye  shall  gaze, 
Thy  vallies  oft  the  raptur'd  bosom  seek — 

There  nature's  hand  her  boldest  work  displays, 
Here  bliss  domestic  beams  on  every  cheek. 

Hope  of  my  life!  dear  Children  of  my  heart! 

That  anxious  heart  to  each  fond  feeling  true, 
To  you  still  pants  each  pleasure  to  fmpart, 

And  more — oh  transport! — reach  its  Home  and  You. 

FROM   THE   EARL   OF   BRISTOL.  1 37 

The  Earl  of  Bristol,  Bishop  of  Derry 

To  Lady  Elizabeth  Foster. 

Dresden,  December  6,  1796. 

Did  I  not  tell  you,  my  dearest  Elizabeth,  that 
they  would  bungle  the  affair  with  the  King  of 
Prussia,  and  so  it  has  happened?  Mr.  Elliot1  here 
assured  me  he  had  seen  all  Mr.  Hammond's  papers, 
and  to  himself  it  was  clear  as  daylight  that  the  King 
and  his  ministers  had  acceded  to  all  the  preliminaries, 
whilst  Mr.  Hammond,  who  has  a  much  greater  hesi- 
tation in  his  brain  than  in  his  speech,  was  persuaded 
the  preliminaries  have  not  been  acceded. 

The  King  himself,  Bishopswerder,2and  Moellendorf3 
were  all  of  Mr.  Elliot's  opinion,  and  the  King  him- 
self told  me  in  presence  of  my  friend  that  he  never 
was  so  surprised  as  when  he  heard  that  Mr.  Ham- 
mond was  decamped.  I  repeat  it  to  you,  let  them 
send  Frederick  to  Frederick  William.  I  will  give 
him  la  grace  prevenante  with  my  Countess,  and  I  will 
pledge  myself  he,  with  his  talents,  his  manners,  and 
his  activity,  will  render  it  la  grace  efficace.  'Tis  a 
shame,  dearest  Elizabeth,  that  Frederick,  with  such 
endowments  as  his,  both  natural  and  acquired,  should 
sacrifice  so  all  to  indolence,  prepossession,  and  mere 
Egoism,  whilst  by  entering  into  a  career  equally 
suited  to  his  birth,  to  his  talents,  and  to  his  education, 
he  can  render  himself  so  extensively  useful  to  the 

''■Mr.  Elliot— Hugh  Elliot,  a  son  of  Sir  Gilbert  Elliot,  and  brother  of  the  first 
Earl  of  Minto. 

2  Bishopswerder — Hans  Rodolph  B.,  a  Prussian  statesman,  d.  1803. 

3  Maellemiotf—'Riehaxii  Joachim  Henry,  Count  de  M. ,  a  Prussian  general  (1724- 


noblest  country  that  ever  did  or  ever  can  exist,  re- 
spectable to  his  friends,  and  highly,  permanently,  and 
solidly  serviceable  to  himself.  Add  to  all  that  it  is 
inconsistent  with  that  noble  character  of  indepen- 
dence which  I  suppose  him  to  possess,  to  throw 
himself  on  the  shoulders  of  a  father  already  sinking 
under  the  weight,  whilst  by  a  manly  and  vigorous 
exertion  of  talents,  for  which  he  is  responsible,  he 
might  prove  an  honor  to  his  country,  a  comfort  to 
his  family,  and  a  solace  to  himself. 

Lord  Elgin1  is  tired  to  death  of  Berlin,  and  would 
be  so  of  any  other  station  where  he  could  not  exer- 
cise his  fox-hunting  spirit,  but  Ratisbon  was  the 
station  I  wished  your  brother  to  accept,  at  this 
hour  the  very  best  diplomatick  school  in  Europe, 
where  the  interests  of  all  the  empire  are  daily  dis- 
cussed, where  he  might  learn  his  lesson  in  the  best 
company.  Mr.  Elliot,  who  began  with  those  rudi- 
ments, assured  me  yesterday  it  was  to  that  school  he 
owed  all  the  diplomatick  knowledge  he  possessed, 
and  regretted  infinitely  with  me  that  Frederick  had 
Declined  what  he  should  have  Conjugated.  He 
empowered  me  at  the  same  time  to  say  that  if 
Frederick  could  procure  him  any  desirable  exchange, 
he  would  resign  Dresden  to  him.  At  all  events,  be 
sure  your  brother  is  not  aware  of  the  false  step  he  is 
taking  by  declining  the  diplomatick  line;  according 
to  all  experience  he  cannot  miss  with  his  Birth,  his 
Talents,  his  Connexions,  and  his  assiduity  becoming 
Secretary  of  State  in  ten  or  twelve  years.     Either  he 

'■Lord  Elgin— -The  seventh  Earl  of  Elgin,  who  collected  the  splendid  Grecian 
sculptures  known  as  the  "Elgin  marbles"  in  the  British  Museum  (1766-1841). 

FROM   THE   EARL   OF   BRISTOL.  1 39 

is,  or  he  is  not,  calculated  for  public  speaking;  if  he 
is,  ministry  will  be  as  glad  as  him  to  give  him  a 
Semestre  for  the  Parliament  month  (?)  to  avail  them- 
selves of  him;  if  he  is  not,  he  cannot  be  better  em- 
employed  than  at  the  Desk,  where  he  has  already 
given  proofs  of  his  prowess  and  powers  in  handling 
Mr.  Thomas  Paine1 — and  so  adieu,  sweet  Elizabeth. 
I  have  done  my  duty;  let  Frederick  now  do  his. 
Pour  moi  j'irai  mon  train,  and  if  I  cannot  be  the 
Caesar  nor  the  Cicero,2  I  will  be  a  less  splendid  but 
a  more  usefull  Cityzen,  the  Lucullus3  of  my  time, 
the  Midwife  of  Talents,  Industry,  and  hidden  virtues. 
Sweet  Elizabeth,  adieu. 

A  luminous  idea  has  just  struck  my  mind  which  I 
only  propose  to  you,  and  of  which  you  may  dispose 
as  you  please;  if  your  eldest  son4  was  sent  abroad 
whilst  I  remain  so  he  might  live  with  me,  and  Mr. 
Lovel  for  one  or  two  hundred  a  year  might  be  his 
mentor — no  one  better  for  it,  either  for  the  morals 
or  intellect  of  your  son.  I  do  but  propose;  do  you 

The  Earl  of  Bristol,  Bishop  of  Derry 

To  Lady  Elisabeth  Foster. 

Dresden,  December  28,  1796. 

I  do  not  expect  peace  to  be  signed  by  that  blun- 
dering attorney,  Lord  Malmesbury,5  too  cunning  to 

1  Thomas  Paine — The  well-known  anti-Christian  writer,  author  of  The  Rights  of 
Man,  The  Age  of  Reason,  &c.  (1737-1809).  2  Cicero— (106  B.C.-43  B.C.). 

3  Lucullus— A  wealthy  Roman  general,  a  patron  of  literature  and  art,  and  friend 
of  Cicero  (115  B.C.-49  B.C.). 

*your  eldest  son— Frederick  Th .  Foster,  now  about  nineteen  years  old  (1777-1853). 

5  Lord  Malmesbury— James  Harris,  the  first  Earl  of  Malmesbury,  diplomatist 


deceive  and  too  crafty  to  be  trusted,  but  in  case  I 
should  be  disappointed  and  the  French  tygers  sub- 
mit to  our  terms,  I  think  it  is  worth  Frederick's 
while  in  time  to  speak  for  the  embassy  to  the  Hague, 
which  is  so  near  England,  he  is  almost  at  home,  and 
may  ever  be  so  in  24  hours;  but  here  are  my 
politicks,  and  if  ever  you  canvass  with  the  Duke  and 
Duchess  or  other  Plenipo,  pray  start  the  question 
and  let  me  know  the  result.  My  idea  is  to  annihi- 
late Holland  as  a  blackguard,  mean,  low,  shabby, 
rival  power,  and  sink  her,  as  she  was  formerly,  into 
the  17  provinces  of  Brabant,  &c,  &c,  then  give 
them  altogether  to  Bavaria,  and  the  Palatinate  to 
the  old  Elector,  an  ignorant  enthusiast,  and  a  Papist 
whose  nonsense,  as  Bishop  Burnet1  says,  suits  their 
nonsense.  Brabant  will  at  length  have  a  Resident 
Sovereign.  The  Palatinate  east  of  the  Rhine  I 
would  give  to  a  young  branch  of  our  Royal  family 
as  being  Protestant;  but  west  of  the  Rhine,  and 
including  all  the  iniquitous,  profligate,  debauched 
bishopricks  and  their  infamous  chapters,  I  would  cede 
to  the  Republick  on  condition,  and  for  this  condition 
I  would  spend  the  last  drop  of  blood  and  money, 
that  they  cede  all  the  Provinces  south  of  the  Loire 
to  Louis  18.  Here  is  France  as  a  maritime  and 
commercial  nation  sunk  for  ever;  the  two  govern- 
ments eternally  at  war  together,  and  doing  the  busi- 
ness for  England;  but  if  France  Is  to  remain  entire — 
oh!  judge  of  her  future  energy  by  her  past,  and 
dread  the  fatal  moment  when  that  restless  people, 

1  Biskap  Burnet— Gilbert  B. ,  author  of  History  of  the  Reformation  and  History 
of  His  Own  Times  (1643-1715). 


having  recruited  her  strength,  pour  all  upon  Eng- 
land: at  all  events,  dear  Elizabeth,  I  hope  your 
torpid  friends,  for  such  I  must  call  them,  will  not 
forget  to  secularize  the  two  very  lucrative  but  tyran- 
nical bishopricks  of  Paderborn  and  Hildesheim  in 
favour  of  two  younger  sons  of  our  Royal  family. 
The  Bishops  expect  it,  the  people  pray  for  it,  and  all 
Westphalia  applaud  it.  Perhaps  that  Log,  Lord 
Grenville,1  does  not  know  that  they  exist  nor  has 
ever  heard  of  the  secularization  of  the  opulent 
bishoprick  of  Magdeburg  in  favour  of  the  house  of 
Brandenburg2  after  the  30  years  [war],  for,  by  all 
accounts  from  my  diplomatick  friends,  a  more  ignorant 
blockhead  does  not  exist;  but,  dearest  Elizabeth,  in 
case  these  torpid  gentlemen  assume  the  courage  to 
secularize  Hildesheim  and  Paderborn,  let  them  not 
over  look  the  small,  low-lived,  ignorant  convent  of 
English  Benedictines  at  Lambsheim(?)  worth  ^3000 a 
year  in  the  heart  of  that  bishoprick,  and  now  possessed 
by  a  whole  sty  of  groveling,  grunting,  Epicurean 
hogs  drawn  out  of  the  counties  of  Lancashire,  West- 
moreland, and  West  Riding  of  York.  If  your 
friends  have  the  courage  to  look  at  such  an  enter- 
prize  you  may  give  them  a  memorandum  for  their 
consideration.  In  the  bishoprick  of  Paderborn  there 
is  another  convent  of  Dominicans  which  I  have  also 
visited,  and  may  be  worth  ,£2500  a  year,  and  is  in 
the  centre  of  the  bishoprick.  The  act  of  seculariza- 
tion depends  entirely  on  the  Emperor,  who  can 
refuse  England  nothing.    The  Chancellor  of  Hanover 

1  Lord  Grenville — William  Wyndham  G. ,  created  Baron  G.  in  1790,  afterwards 
Foreign  Secretary  and  Prime  Minister  in  1806  in  succession  to  Pitt  (1759-1834). 
ihouse  of  Brandenburg — The  royal  family  of  Prussia. 


assured  me  that,  to  his  knowledge,  that  corrupt, 
abandoned  scoundrel,  Lord  Bute,1  had  absolutely  the 
offer  of  a  secularization  in  1 762,  but  refused  it.  Tis 
supposed  he  pocketed  ,£20,000  for  this  infamous 
refusal,  and  the  younger  sons  in  consequence  remain 
a  burthen  on  England.  Oh!  if  your  brother  were 
now  Minister  at  Berlin  what  a  blow  he  might  strike! 
since  I  know  for  certain  and  past  a  doubt  that  my 
landlord  of  Sans  Souci  wishes  nothing  so  much  as  to 
join  in  crushing  the  tigres-singes.  What  a  blunder 
the  sending  of  Hammond,  whom  nobody  could 
understand,  and  who  did  not  understand  neither 
himself  or  others,  and  as  to  the  present 
[Rest  of  this  letter  missing.] 

The  Countess  of  Bristol 

To  Lady  Elizabeth  Foster. 
On  both  my  children's  arrival  in  England,  to  Lady  E.  Foster. 

Wimbledon,  Monday,  1796. 

How  can  I  express  to  you,  my  dear  Elizabeth, 
the  feeling  I  have  for  you  at  this  moment  and  the 
share  I  take  in  your  happiness.  In  every  respect 
your  letter  gives  me  great  satisfaction.  You  happy 
will  be  a  novelty  indeed,  but  you  have  been  patient 
under  your  sufferings  as,  a  wife,  you  have  done  your 
utmost  to  perform  your  duty  as  a  mother,  and  I 
doubt  not  but  that  Providence  has  in  store  a  reward 
for  you,  more  especially  as  you  think  yourself  unde- 

1  Lord  Bute — John  Stuart,  third  Earl  of  Bute,  best  known  as  being  a  most  un- 
popular prime  minister  in  the  beginning  of  the  reign  of  George  III.  (1713-1792). 


serving  of  it,  for  an  humble  confidence  in  God  is 
acceptable  to  Him. 

God  reads  the  language  of  a  silent  tear 
And  sighs  are  incense  from  a  heart  sincere. 

I  had  just  written  you  a  note  to  beg  you  would 
moderate  your  agitation,  and  I  still  hope  you  will 
try  to  do  it,  but  to-morrow  is  so  near,  it  will  be 
difficult.  We  had  been  a  little  distressed  lest  you 
should  see  that  an  Irish  packet  had  been  lost,  and 
not  observe  that  it  was  going  from  England;  how- 
ever, I  thought  it  best  not  to  mention  it,  and  here 
they  are  safe.  I  thank  you,  my  dear  Elizabeth,  for 
sending  the  earliest  notice,  and  congratulate  you 
most  warmly  on  it.  Pray  assure  them  of  my  best 
affection,  and  believe  that  I  shall  be  most  sincerely 
glad  to  receive  you  and  them  together  on  Thursday 
if  that  suits,  but  if  the  House  of  Commons  and 
Louisa's  health  should  be  likely  to  disturb  your 
Wednesday's  party,  let  me  know  it,  and  bring  them 
here,  if  you  like  it  better,  on  that  day.  Adieu,  most 

The  Earl  of  Bristol,  Bishop  of  Derry 

To  Lady  Elizabeth  Foster. 

PLOUEN  ce  12  Jan.  1797. 

I  send  you,  my  dearest  Elizabeth,  as  to  one  of 
the  few  persons  capable  of  relishing  a  great  idea 
worthy  of  either  Cromwell1  or  Chatham,  but  perhaps 
unintelligible  to   your  dull,    formal,    pedantick,    un- 

1  Cromwell— Olivet  C.  (1599-1658). 


comprehending,  and  incomprehensible  Minister  of 
Foreign  affairs,  to  which  department  he  is  as  inade- 
quate as  to  the  Home,  witness  the  insults  offered  to 
the  British  Lion  by  the  Cubs  of  Genoa,  or  the 
Foxes  of  Tuscany.  I  send  you,  I  say,  a  copy  of 
my  letter  to  Frederick  William,  which  has  been 
infinitely  better  understood  and  far  more  relished  by 
him  than  by  that  impenetrable  and  unpenetrating 
blockhead  Lord  Grenville. 

Chere  amie,  je  te  confie  par  une  main  tres  sure 
un  projet  qui  m'est  d'autant  plus  cher  que  je  me 
flatte  qu'il  s'agit  des  veritables  inter^ts  d'un  des  plus 
vertueux  Souverains  de'  Europe  entiere,  et  sans 
contredit  des  inter£ts  de  celui  a  qui  par  gout,  comme 
par  reconnaissance  je  suis  le  plus  attache. 

C'est  beaucoup  dire  pour  un  Anglais  et,  pour  un 
Anglais  aussi  fier  que  moi. 

II  s'agit  done  chere  amie  de  mettre  la  France  hors 
de  combat:  cette  Nation  inquiete  et  inquietante  sera 
tranquille  pour  au  moins  un  siecle. 

II  s'agit  de  la  partager  en  deux — France  Repub- 
licaine  et  France  Monarchique,  l'une  au  nord  de  la 
Loire,  l'autre  au  midi. 

La  Nature  s'y  pr£te  et  la  Politique  s'y  prete,  car  au 
sud  de  La  Loire  il  n'y  a  pas  Fortresse  quelconque 
si  vous  en  exceptez  La  Rochelle — et  Antibes  et 
Toulon,  toutes  les  deux  degarnies  de  leur  artillerie 
pour  subvenir  au  siege  de  Mantoue. 

Ajoutez  que  la  proportion  des  Aristocrats  a  toujours 
ete  et  subsiste  toujours  d'un  superiority  enorme  a  la 
proportion  Democratique. 


La  France  dans  ce  moment  est  terrassee;  elle  est 
aux  abois  et  a  peine  peut-elle  se  soutenir. 

Pour  effectuer  ce  projet  de  partition  il  y'a  deux 
partis  a  prendre. 

Ou  de  s'allier  avec  le  nouvel  Empereur  de  Russie 
et  de  concert  avec  lui,  et  avec  lui  seul  sur  un 
principe  purement  Monarchique,  conduire  le  Roi 
Louis  18,  avec  la  petite,  mais  brave  et  loyale 
armee  de  Conde  travers  la  Suisse  et  le  Piemont 
sans  facon  quelconque  et  le  proclamer  Roy  de  la 
France  meridionale  tout  en  entrant  dans  la  Pro- 

Ou  bien  de  s'allier  avec  l'Angleterre  qui  fera  la 
moitie  des  frais,  et  aideroit  avec  sa  flotte  pour  seconder 
le  m£me  systeme. 

Mais  je  crains  un  Cabinet  aussi  liche,  aussi  equi- 
voque, aussi  indecis  que  celui  de  Londres,  et  je  pre- 
fererois  toujours  un  Cabinet  dont  l'alliance  seroit 
sympatetique  et  oil  les  inter£ts  de  la  Monarchic  serait 
commun  aux  deux  Monarques. 

Alors  je  pretens  que  d'apres  les  connaissances 
que  25  ans  de  voyages  m'ont  donne,  les  frais  de  la 
guerre  doivent  etre  annuellement  aux  depens  de  la 
France  Meridionale. 

Dans  les  annees  1766  et  1767  j'assistais  a  la  tenue 
des  Etats  de  Languedoc. 

Cette  Province  accorda  au  Roi  chaque  annee  la 
somme  de  .£300,000  livres  Sterlines. 

Les  Provinces  de  Guienne  et  de  Gascogne  avec 
la  ville  de  Bordeaux  payerent  en  impots  la  valeur  de 
.£600,000  livres  sterlines. 

Les  Etats  de  Dauphine  et  de  Provence  avec  la 


ville  de  Marseilles  accordaient  au  Roi  la  somme  de 
,£500,000  livres  sterlines — disons  done. 

Languedock,  ....  ^500,000 
Guienne,  &c,  ....  ^600,000 
Dauphind,  &c,         .         .         .         ^500,000 


Doublons  cette  somme  par  le  droit  de  guerre  nous 
aurons  la  somme  complette  £3,200,000  sterlines.  Je 
me  flatte  qu'avec  les  contributions  ordinaires  cela 
suffirait  pour  entretenir  les  deux  armees. 

II  s'agit  a  present  du  Bien  qui  resulterait  a  votre 
ami  de  ce  projet  et  du  Mai  qui  doit  resulter  de  sa 

Par  la  division  de  la  France  en  Republicaine  et  en 
Monarchique  elle  devient  Puissance  tres  secondaire, 
par  consequent  hors  de  combat — encore  plus  si  le 
caractere  inquiet  de  la  Nation  faisait  remuer  la 
Republique.  Voila.  le  Monarque  tout  de  suite  a  son 
dos  pour  revendiquer  ses  anciens  droits,  et  lui  arracher 
quelque  province — en  tout  cas  son  aide  comme  Puis- 
sance secondaire  serait  tres  mince,  tres  Equivoque  et 
peu  a  craindre. 

Mais — laisser  echapper  ce  moment  et  que  la  Re- 
publique reste — une  et  indivisible — quel  en  est  le 
triste  et  fatal  resultat? 

La  France  Republique  devient  mille  fois  plus 
energique,  plus  terrible,  plus  dangereuse  et  plus 
seduisante  durant  la  paix  que  durant  la  guerre. 

Lescommis  voyageurs,  les  negotians,  les  emissaires, 
les  apdtres  de  la  liberte  repandront  a.  droit  et  a 
gauche  ces  principes  de  la  liberte  qui  etouffent  toute 


liberie  et  tres-surement  bouleverseront  les  Mon- 
archies actuelles  et  les  Gouvernmens  Monarchiques. 

Et  dites  moi  quel  sera  1'antidote  a  ce  poison. 

Les  Pays-Bas  seront-ils  cedes  a  la  Republique  ou 
non?  S'ils  sont  cedes  quel  colosse  de  Puissance  et 
ou  est  done  Wesel?     Juliers?     Cleves? 

En  cas  qu'ils  ne  sont  pas  cedes  trois  ans  apres  la 
paix  voila  le  duplicat  du  traite  de  ce  Fanfaron 

Cedez-moi  les  Pays-Bas  dira  la  Republique  qui 
vous  chicanent  tant,  vous  insultent  tant,  et  fonciere- 
ment  vous  rendent  si  peu,  et  je  verse  tous  mes  forces 
pour  vous  donner  un  equivalent  dans  la  Silesie,  la 
Pologne,  &c. 

Mais  on  me  repliquera — La  Russie  ne  le  permette 
pas — La  Russie  l'a  deja  permis  une  fois;  done  la 
Russie  le  peut  encore  permettre.  II  ne  lui  faut  qu'un 
Ministre  corrompu — dans  une  Nation  la  plus  cor- 
rompue  de  toute  1' Europe — ou  bien  accorder  a  la 
Russie  pour  sa  neutrality  Dantzig,  &c,  et  qui  me 
repondra  de  son  amitie  fidele? 

Vaut  il  la  peine  de  risquer  les  evenements  de  la 
guerre  de  sept  ans  ?  Ne  vaut-il  pas  mieux  secouer  ses 
plumes,  aiguiser  son  bee,  et  deployer  ses  griffes,  et 
fondre  une  fois  pour  tout  sur  cet  ennemi  abattu — 
terrasse  mais  toujours  inquiet  perfide  et  ruse,  et  lui 
oter  tout  pouvoir  de  se  relever — Divide  et  impera. 

Dearest  Elizabeth, — My  friend  writes  me  it  has 
made  the  deepest  impression,  and  raised  the  most 
vigorous  resolutions,  but  alas  I  know  him.  One 
hour  in  the  Lap  of  his  Danseuse,  and  he  lies  there  the 


shadow  of  a  king — yet  at  such  a  moment  if  your 
brother,  with  all  his  energy  and  all  his  insinuation, 
was  on  the  spot  to  keep  this  momentary  energy  alive 
to  secure  to  his  interests  she  who  now  opposes  hers, 
to  back  all  my  friend's  exertions, — to  warm  this 
lump  of  inert  matter  and  breathe  into  it  a  per- 
manent fire  with  233,000  men  at  his  back — at  this 
critical  decisive  moment  what  might  not  this  Colossus 
effect,  and  what  honor  to  himself,  and  what  permanent, 
extensive,  substantial  benefit  to  his  country  might 
not  Frederick  achieve :  but  I  am  talking  to  the  Deaf. 
Dearest  Elizabeth,  make  your  friends  speak  out,  if 
possible,  to  the  purport  of  this  memorial — read  well 
yourself,  read  with  Frederick — state  the  objections — 
at  Dresden  at  Berlin  the  idea  has  more  than  pleased: 
perhaps  the  magnitude  of  the  object  deters.  It  would 
not  have  deterred  Lord  Chatham,  but  alas  he  did 
bestride  this  narrow  world  like  a  stage  Colossus, 
and  these  petty  men  do  but  Peep  between  his  legs. 

Tlie  Countess  of  Bristol 

To  Frederick  Foster. 

Wimbledon,  Oct.  19,  1797. 

My  dear  Frederick, — I  imagine  this  will  find  you 
at  Oxford;  and  though  I  am  not  a  very  good  corre- 
spondent when  you  are  in  the  midst  of  your  friends,  I 
hasten  to  you  in  your  Solitude  that  you  may  see  that 
you  and  your  Interests  are  ever  present  to  my  mind. 
I  beg,  therefore,  that  you  will  tell  me  how  you  like 
your  new  situation,  as   soon  as  you  can  form  any 


judgement  of  it,  and  whether  you  have  any  acquaint- 
ance there.  I  wish  I  could  have  given  you  an  intro- 
duction to  anybody  likely  to  prove  a  Companion  and 
friend  to  you,  for  that  is  what  you  want,  and,  indeed, 
what  is  necessary  to  everybody  for  their  comfort  and 
happiness.  You  will  remember  one  Person  whom  I 
cautioned  you  not  to  receive  upon  a  footing  of 
Intimacy,  or  easily  to  believe  what  He  may  tell  you 
either  of  himself  or  other  People.  At  the  same  time 
I  hope  you  will  keep  upon  civil  terms  with  him,  for  I 
dare  say  he  will  be  full  of  profession;  but  you  must 
learn  early  to  keep  certain  Characters  at  a  distance, 
whilst  I  hope  you  will  take  Polonius's  advice  and 
grapple  those  friends  thou  hast  to  thy  Soul  with  hooks 
of  Steel.  Tell  me  how  you  like  your  rooms,  and 
your  reception.  I  shall  really  feel  very  anxious  till 
you  have  got  over  the  first  fortnight,  and  then  I 
hope  you  will  begin  to  distinguish  some  of  your 
Companions,  and  to  enjoy  some  Society. 

I  rejoice  with  you,  my  dear  Frederick,  on  our  late 
glorious  Victory  over  the  Dutch1  Fleet,  which  has 
been  very  compleat,  and  conducted  with  as  much 
skill  and  gallantry  as  possible.  The  English  have 
now  defeated  the  three  Fleets  of  the  Allies  separately, 
and,  I  believe,  indisposed  them  very  much  to  engage 
further  with  us:  this  is  supposed  to  be  the  most 
material  defeat  of  the  three,  and  it  will,  I  hope,  be 
the  preservation  of  your  Country. 

I  conclude  you  passed  your  time  very  pleasantly  at 
Chatsworth,  and  that  you  was  struck  with  the  Place, 
as  it  was  probably  the  finest  you  had  ever  seen.      I 

1  glorious  Victory  over  the  Dutch— PA.  Camperdown,  Oct.  11,  1797. 

,    ,"'-/■'-'     //'/,    -f,//r  t',s/,'/  A't/  ■   .■  fitfr/J/iT     Pfs/rfi'-t  .  ■/,*/•'/  '    //,     S/f     .•.■■.,(;-.    •/        / 


don't  know  whether  you  love  Country  Sports,  but  I 
suppose  you  had  them  in  perfection.  Lady  Hervey, 
Lady  Erne,  and  their  Daughters  are  still  at  Tun- 
bridge.  Your  Uncle  is,  I  believe,  at  Weymouth,  but 
he  has  gone  by  the  Coast,  and  stopped  at  different 
places  for  bathing.  I  am  afraid  he  will  return  to 
Town  with  great  regret  for  the  meeting  of  Parlia- 
ment. Lord  and  Lady  Hawkesbury1  mean  to  be 
there  about  the  28,  and  are  to  leave  Dunleer  on  Mon- 
day. Adieu !  dear  Frederick :  as  I  have  been  very 
ill,  writing  fatigues  me,  so  I  will  only  add  that  I  am 
ever  your  affectionate  G.  Mother. 

I  am  so  glad  that  your  mother  appears  to  be  well, 
and  Augustus  quite  happy  with  his  Colours.  I  hear 
he  has  at  last  the  approbation  of  his  guardians. 

The  Earl  of  Bristol,  Bishop  of  Derry 

To  Lady  Elizabeth  Foster. 


Sans  Souci  and  Sans  Souci  for  ever,  my  dearest 
Elizabeth!  At  last,  on  the  30th  of  October — Sunday, 
noon — here  I  am  truely  worthy  of  this  Philosophic 
Mansion,  without  care,  and  almost  without  thought, 
so  consummately  am  I  Germanized. 

Nothing,  no,  nothing,  not  even  the  plains  of  Thet- 

1  Lord  Hawkesbury — Robert  Banks  Jenkinson,  son  of  the  first  Earl  of  Liverpool, 
whom  he  succeeded  as  second  Earl.  He  was  Prime  Minister  from  1812  to  1827. 
He  had  become  (in  1795)  the  husband  of  Lady  Louisa  Hervey,  youngest  daughter 
of  the  Bishop  of  Derry,  and  aunt  of  the  young  man  to  whom  this  letter  was  written 


ford  or  of  Brandon  can  equal  the  aridness  of  this 
situation,  nor  even  the  Terrace  of  Weybridge  surpass 
the  beauty  and  luxuriancy  of  the  prospect.  Hesperian 
gardens  surround  the  house:  grapes  worthy  our  best 
hothouses,  pine  apples  as  plenty  as  crabs  in  Devon- 
shire or  apples  in  Herefordshire;  we  can  eat  1200  in 
a  year,  and  every  week  at  Pyrmont  we  received  a 
dozen  or  more.  Then  for  game,  the  Basse-cour  at 
Chatsworth  does  not  supply  more  fowl,  ducks,  geese, 
and  capon  than  we  have — partridges,  grouse,  wood- 
cock, &c;  but,  alas!  to-morrow  we  enter  the  eve  of 
November,  and  I  have  those  accumulated  Purgatories 
of  the  Alps  to  pass  before  I  can  enter  that  earthly 
paradise,  Naples.  So  to-morrow  we  decamp,  bag 
and  baggage,  and  no  bad  baggage  is  mine :  geese, 
turkies,  ducks,  shoulders  and  legs  of  mutton  alter- 
nately, preceded  by  two  graduate  cooks,  masters  of 
arts,  who  arrive  just  one  hour  before  us — quanto 
basta,  to  find  our  dinner  as  ready  as  our  appetites. 
Lo,  here  is  our  diary:  At  seven  help  Hyperion  to  his 
horse,  and  then  mount  our  own;  trot  away  15  or  18 
miles  sans  y  penser;  find  excellent  coffee,  and  better 
cream,  and  two  eggs  ready  for  a  rapacious  stomach, 
with  all  its  "sue  gastric"  afloat,  ready  to  consume 
whatever  it  receives.  .  .  .  After  two  hours'  rest, 
but  not  of  our  tongues,  for  we  babble  like  parrots  or 
starlings,  though  our  converse  be  not  quite  sterling; 
on  horseback  anew,  and  even  so  we  dispatch  15  or 
18  miles  more  through  this  ocean  of  sand,  with  now 
and  then  a  village  to  make  the  remaining  solitude 
more  sensible;  at  close  of  day  we  close  our  labors, 
and  then  here  is  our  recompense: 



Bouilli  of  duck  or  goose. 

Mutton  shoulder  or  leg. 

and  a  large  bowl  of  punch,  in  which  we  bury  all 
fatigue,  and  at  length  all  thought,  and  then,  as  the 
clock  strikes  eight,  enter  the  warming  pan,  et  tout 
est  dit,  and  all  night  sleep  in  Elysium  without  one 
single  ghost  in  our  dreams.  And  so,  sweet  Eliza- 
beth, not  to  put  you  to  sleep,  I  close  my  narrative: 
to-morrow  for  Berlin,  next  day  for  Werlitz,  next 
Dessau,  Leipzig,  and  Dresden,  &c,  &c.  Yours  affec- 
tionately, du  fond  de  mon  profond  cceur.  g 

The  Earl  of  Bristol,  Bishop  of  Derry 

To  Lady  Elizabeth  Foster. 

March  20,  1798. 

Dearest  Elizabeth, — Now  or  never  perhaps  may 
you  most  essentially  serve  me.  All  my  effects  at 
Rome  are  under  sequestration  to  the  amount  of 
,£20,000  at  the  very  least.  Could  Mr.  Pitt  be 
induced  to  send  a  Minister  to  congratulate  the 
Roman  people  on  their  emancipation,  and  appoint 
me  to  the  Embassy,  he  would  do  himself  and  me 
a  most  essential  service:  me,  because  I  should  save 
all  that  immense,  valuable,  and  beautiful  property  of 
large  mosaick  pavement,  sumptuous  chimney  pieces 
for  my  new  house,  and  pictures,  statues,  busts,  and 
marbles  without  end,  first-rate  Titians  and  Raphaels, 
dear  Guidos,1  and  three  old  Carraccis2 — gran  Dio!  che 

1  Guido — (1575-1642).  3  Carracci — (1555-1619). 


tesoro;  and  himself,  because  such  an  embassy  would 
wrench  the  Republick  off  the  hands  of  their  tyrant's 
dispoiler  and  merciless  taskmaster,  restore  us  the 
ports  of  Ancona  and  Civita  Vecchia  for  our  manu- 
factures and  codfish,  and  lay  the  foundation  of  a 
treaty  of  commerce,  the  most  beneficial  perhaps  of 
any  in  Europe. 

Now,  if  either  your  friend,  Lord  Spencer,  or,  above 
all,  your  greater  friend,  the  Duke  of  Devonshire,  or 
the  Duchess,  would  effectually  join  in  this  lottery, 
you  see,  dearest  Elizabeth,  I  should  literally  get  the 
^"20,000  prize. 

Dear  girl,  do  what  you  can  for  me.  As  to  the 
Duke  of  Richmond,  I  do  not  suppose  he  has  now 
any  interest,  else  he  could  refuse  you  nothing. 

I  am  on  thorns  till  I  hear  from  you.  A  ransom 
was  offered  by  General  Berthier,1  but  that  is  now 

Lady  Elizabeth  Foster 

To  Augustus  Foster? 

December  4,  1798. 

You  are  eighteen  this  day,  my  own  dear  Augustus 
— many  many  happy  years  may  you  see,  and  may 
those  encreasing  years  ripen  every  virtue  in  your 
breast  and  bring  them  to  their  full  maturity.     Let 

1  General  Berthier— One.  of  Napoleon's  marshals.  He  held  the  first  place  in  the 
confidence  of  Napoleon  (1753-1815). 

2 Augustus  Foster—  Second  son  of  John  Thomas  Foster,  M.P.,  was  Charge' 
d'affaires  at  Stockholm,  1S08-1811;  British  Minister  at  Washington,  1811-1812;  at 
Copenhagen,  1814-1824;  and  at  Turin,  1824-1840  (1780-1848). 

.  i-  ■         .  ,-    -  ,■  ■ 


not  this  anniversary  of  your  birth,  my  dearest  boy, 
pass  without  forming  new  resolutions  for  the  year  to 
come.  Examine  your  own  character;  see  what  you 
think  you  find  there  to  alter  or  amend.  You  are 
young  enough  to  counteract  any  wrong  tendency, 
yet  old  enough  to  be  soon  in  danger  from  the  influ- 
ence of  habits  and  custom;  indulge  in  a  fault  to-day 
it  will  be  harder  to  resist  it  to-morrow;  the  fault 
which  you  acknowledged  to  me,  that  of  too  easily 
giving  way,  would  insensibly  make  you  act  not  only 
according  to  the  errors  of  your  own  judgment  but 
those  of  others;  be  on  your  guard  against  this, 
dearest  Augustus,  yet  the  contrary  extreme,  an  un- 
yielding disposition,  is  still  less  amiable.  Be  firm, 
therefore,  only  when  the  pure  dictates  of  your  heart 
tell  you  that  you  are  wrong,  and  if  ever  wrong,  fear 
not  to  acknowledge  it;  above  all,  fear  it  not  to  me; 
some  means  of  reparation  a  friend  may  generally 
point  out,  but  where  can  you  find  a  friend  so  true 
and  so  affectionate  as  your  mother.  All  the  great 
fundamental  qualities  of  your  character  I  trust  are 
right.  I  have  never  known  you  fail  in  them;  strict 
inviolable  truth,  a  religious  observance  of  one's  pro- 
mise, a  sacred  observance  of  another's  secret,  and 
prudence  for  one's  own;  as  your  situation  and  con- 
nections in  life  enlarge  duties  increase  also,  and 
amongst  the  foremost  I  hope  you  will  ever  feel  the 
purest  [torn  out]  women,  and  never  risk  their  happi- 
ness to  gratify  your  vanity  or  even  passions.  I  was 
pleased  to  hear  W.  Lamb1  say  with  earnestness  that 

1  W.  Lamb — William  Lamb,  afterwards  Viscount  Melbourne,  and  Prime  Minister, 
with  exception  of  a  short  interval,  from  1834-1841  (1779-1848). 


if  he  felt  a  growing  passion  for  his  friend's  wife  he 
would  fly  to  the  further  end  of  the  earth  to  resist  the 
danger.  Dear,  dear  Augustus,  I  fear  I  have  bored 
you,  but  my  heart  is  anxiously  watchful  over  you, 
and  this  day  encreased  the  feeling.  May  Heaven 
ever  guide,  bless,  and  direct  you. 



"  Hush!  forbear  to  tell  the  Story 
Full  of  Horror,  Full  of  Fear. 
Talk  not  to  a  wretch  of  Glory, 
Or  of  Hated  Aboukir. 

Whilst  I  shrink  from  every  morrow, 
Whilst  kind  death  alone  I  claim, 

Conquest  cannot  cure  my  sorrow, 
Nor  Despair  be  soothed  by  Fame. 

I  am  wretched,  past  retrieving; 

He  is  lost  and  I'm  undone; 
All  my  life  will  pass  in  grieving 

For  the  battle  we  have  won. 

Cease  those  cruel  exultations, 
Cease  this  mockery  and  boast; 

What's  to  me  the  fate  of  nations, 
When  to  me  my  Love  is  lost." 

Whilst  poor  Laura's  frenzied  ditty 
Mingled  with  the  sounds  of  glee, 

Many  a  heart,  subdued  to  Pity, 
Altered  said,  I  pity  thee. 


Gallant  was  thy  Lover's  story, 
Bravely  did  he  Life  resign. 

Cheer  thee,  maid,  he  died  for  glory, 
But  his  latest  sigh  was  thine. 

Lady  Elisabeth  Foster 

To  Augustus  Foster. 

Devonshire  House,  February  2,  1799. 

.  .  .  Mr.  Pitt's  admirable  speech,  though  firm, 
is  not  so  strong  an  appeal  to  the  good  sense  of  the 
Irish,  and  so  far  from  any  violence  that  no  violent 
measures  need  be  apprehended;  and  it  makes  me 
regret  the  more  that  a  question  of  such  importance 
to  the  welfare  of  a  whole  country  should  have  been, 
by  the  efforts  of  party,  refused  a  fair  hearing.  I 
think  your  reasoning  upon  it  very  just.  I  do  not 
find  that  Lord  Hawkesbury  acknowledges  Lord 
Castlereagh1  to  be  in  any  scrape,  so  I  hope  the  fears 
I  heard  expressed  were  exaggerated;  the  violence 
in  the  House  was  very  great.  .     .     . 

Augustus  Foster 

To  Lady  Elizabeth  Foster. 

Weimar,  March  19,  1799. 

.     .     .     I  introduced  myself  to  Kotzebue2  at  our 

ball,  for  he  was  invited  with  his  wife  there.    I  talked 

a  good  deal  to  him  since  about  his  plays;  he  says  he 

likes  always  the  last  written  of  them  the  best.     He 

1Lord  Castlereagh — (1769-1822). 

5  Kotzebue— August  K.,  well  known  as  a  prolific  German  dramatist  (1761-1819). 


has  entered  into  an  engagement  with  Harris  of 
Covent  Garden.  Harrison  had  been  desired  by 
Sheridan  to  treat  with  him,  but  Kotzebue  told  me 
that  he  had  heard  that  Sheridan  was  not  remarkably 
strict  in  paying  his  debts,  and  he  thought  it  better 
receiving  half  sure  from  Harris  than  double  from 
Sheridan.  I  promised  to  send  him  Pizarro  in  a  day 
or  two,  for  he  has  not  seen  it  yet.  It  is  droll  that 
Rolla  has  had  very  bad  success  in  Germany. 

.  .  .  Kotzebue,  when  he  heard  that  Miss  E. 
Gore  was  going  to  get  the  portrait  of  him  copied  in 
order  to  give  me  for  you,  proposed  sitting  himself 
again  for  another  portrait,  as  he  was  discontented 
with  the  first. 

Lady  Elizabeth  Foster 

To  Augustus  Foster. 

Colchester,  August  7,  1799. 

We  left  Ickworth  yesterday  a  little  after  twelve 
and  arrived  about  six;  we  travelled  rather  with  heavy 
hearts,  for  there  had  been  unpleasant  letters  from  my 
father,  and  my  dear  mother  was  low  and  unwell. 
I  cannot  tell  you  at  present  what  they  were,  but 
most  certainly  he  is  a  cruel  man.  .  .  .  General 
Hervey  and  Lady  Erne  are  there,  and  I  hope  the 
Hawkesburys  are  going  next  week.  My  mother 
has  need  of  all  the  comfort  which  her  children  can 
give  her,  and  it  is  the  most  sacred  duty  we  can 
fulfill.     .     .     •     Dear  Lord  Howe1  is  dead.     There 

1  Lord  Howe— (1725-1799). 


is  a  brave  man  lost  to  his  country:  it  is  at  a  mo- 
mentous time  too.  The  combined  fleets  are  out  40 
strong  and  sailing  from  Cadiz  north-west;  supposed, 
'  therefore,  for  Ireland.  What  our  Channel  fleet  is  I 
don't  know,  but  Lord  Keith,  it  is  said,  was  not  far 
behind;  the  extraordinary  thing  is  how  they  can 
have  missed  them.  The  secret  expedition  is  near 
its  embarkation.  A  camp  of  18,000  men  is  now  on 
Barham  downs. 

Thursday,  %th. 

Lord  Hawkesbury,  whom  we  met  going  to  town 
the  day  we  came  here,  is  now  returned.  He  brings 
us  very  particular  news.  It  was  supposed  that  the 
French  meant  to  get  into  Brest  harbour  with  the 
Spanish  fleet,  to  be  prepared  for  an  attack  on  Ire- 
land, but  we  shall  soon  have  a  fleet  of  full  thirty  sail 
of  the  line  in  the  channel.  Lord  Keith1  is  trying  to 
get  up  to  him.  Lord  Chatham  is  going  with  this 
expedition,  some  are  already  embarked,  and  the 
others  are  to  go  as  soon  as  possible,  but  Lord  H. 
swears  that  nobody  knows  where  it  is  going  except 
the  directors  of  it;  you  will  soon  know  of  its  disem- 
barkation. .  .  Sheridan's  Pizarro  I  think  you 
must  like;  17,000  copies  have  been  sold.  Sheridan 
is  now  adapting  the  Virgin  of  the  Sun  for  the  stage. 
It  seems  again  doubtful  whether  the  Duke  of  York 
goes  with  this  secret  expedition.  Lady  Anne  Fitz- 
roy  is  to  be  married  this  day  to  Cullen  Smith,  so 
they  are  both  of  them  consoled  for  their  faithless 
former  loves. 

1  Lord  Keith — (1746-1823). 


Augustus  Foster 

To  Lady  Elizabeth  Foster. 

Weimar,  Nov.  22,  1799. 

.  .  .  I  don't  know  if  I  may  risk  telling  you  as 
news  that  Buonaparte1  has  overthrown  the  whole  of 
the  French  Constitution.  His  life  was  attempted  in 
the  Council  of  500  at  St.  Cloud,  where  he  and  the 
Antients  have  assembled  them,  by  the  deputy  Arena,2 
who  threw  himself  upon  Buonaparte  with  a  dagger 
in  his  hand,  and,  if  it  was  not  for  a  grenadier  officer, 
who  received  the  blows  in  his  coat,  would  have  killed 
him.  He,  Sieyes,  and  Roger  Ducos3  form  the  new 
triumvirate — but  it  is  foolish  telling  you  all  this,  for 
you  must  have  it  already  in  your  papers.  B.  is  an 
extraordinary  man  indeed;  he  will  fill  up  many  pages 
in  history.  What  if  he  should  act  the  part  of  Crom- 
well or  Julius  Caesar?4  but  I'm  afraid  he  wants  the 
talents.  Mounier  don't  know  what  to  think  of  it. 
He  supposes  that  there  may  be  perhaps  a  Constitu- 
tion like  that  of  America.     .     .     . 

1  Buonaparte — (1769-1821). 

lArina — Barthelemi  A.,  a  native  of  Corsica,  was  accused  with  his  brother  Joseph 
of  conspiracy,  and  of  attempting  to  stab  Napoleon  on  the  18th  Brumaire  while 
dissolving  the  council  of  500  of  which  B.  A.  was  a  member ;  but  he  always  denied 
the  charge  and  died  in  obscurity,  though  his  brother  Joseph  was  executed. 

3  He,  Sieyes,  and  Roger  Ducos — Members  of  the  consulate,  Napoleon  being  First 
Consul.  4  Julius  Caesar — (100  B.C.-44  B.C.). 


Lady  Elizabeth  Foster 

To  Augustus  Foster. 

Dec.  6,  1799. 

.  .  .  I  envy  you  having  got  acquainted  with 
Kotzebue.  I  should  have  liked  to  have  told  him 
that  if  fame  came  into  his  calculation  that  he  had 
better  have  received  half  from  Sheridan  than  any 
sum  from  Covent  Garden.  Pray  tell  me  what  he 
says  to  Sheridan's  Pizarro.  I  suppose  you  have 
frequently  met  at  Weimar.  I  do  wonder  that  Rolla 
should  not  have  succeeded  in  Germany.  Don't  fail 
to  bring  his  picture.     .     .     . 

Augustus  Foster 

To  Lady  Elizabeth  Foster. 

Weimar,  Dec.  14,  1799. 

I  wonder  you  have  not  in  any  of  your  letters 
mentioned  anything  about  Bonaparte's  return,  and 
the  changes  in  France.  I  should  have  thought  you 
would  all  have  been  enthusiastic  about  him  in 
England,  Lady  Anne  Hatton  particularly,  who  was 
so  dazzled  with  him.  Notwithstanding  what  you 
say  about  the  Expedition,1  and  the  courage  of  the 
troops,  I  can't  help  thinking  that  from  what  we  hear 
on  this  side,  the  Expedition  was  but  badly  conducted, 
and  that  they  might  have  made  a  better  and  more 

1  the  Expedition — The  expedition  to  Holland  under  the  Duke  of  York,  which 
was  a  complete  failure. 


creditable  retreat.  You  ask  me  Mounier's  opinion 
about  the  late  Revolution.  He  liked  it  at  first, 
because  it  was  at  least  a  change,  and  that  Sieves 
and  Bonaparte  seemed  more  moderate  and  cleverer 
men  than  the  others;  but,  since  the  violent  trans- 
portation of  so  many  Jacobins,  without  form  or 
process,  into  Guiana,  he  thinks  there's  as  little  liberty 
as  ever.  ...  I  sent  Pizarro  the  other  day  to 
Kotzebue,  for  he  had  not  yet  read  it.  It  was  an 
odd  idea  of  Sheridan's,  but  I  am  told  that  he  got 
Pizarro  translated  into  German,  and  sent  it  as  a 
present  to  Kotzebue. 

There  are  three  new  tragedies  coming  out  here 
this  winter:  Mary  Queen  of  Scots  by  Kotzebue, 
Gustavus  Vasa  by  Schiller,1  and  a  translation  of 
Mahomet  by  Goethe.2     .     .     . 

Lady  Elizabeth  Foster 

To  Augustus  Foster. 

Dec.  27,  1799. 

I  suppose,  dearest  Augustus,  that  you  are  now  at 
Minden.  I  do  not  wonder  that  you  went,  for  the 
review  of  such  an  army  must  be  a  fine  sight.  The 
eagerness  for  news  increases  in  proportion  to  the 
importance  of  the  crisis,  and,  particularly,  every 
body  here  is  anxious  for  news  of  the  fleets.  Lord 
St.  Vincent3  has  with  him  probably  at  this  moment 

1  Schiller— (tjSg-iSos).  '  £<««*-(  1749-1832). 

3  Lord  Si.  Vincent— {1732-1823). 


50  sail  of  the  line.  How  mean  and  pitiful  of  the 
French  the  sending  the  unfortunate  Pope1  to  an 
hospital  in  France  at  80,  not  to  allow  him  to  end 
his  days  in  a  convent  in  his  own  country;  but 
the  French  do  not  know  the  greatness  of  treating 
humanely  a  fallen  foe.  Mr.  Henry  Foster  and  his 
adopted  daughter  went  with  me  to  the  opera. 
Pizarro  the  21st  night  has  been  as  full  nearly  as  the 
first.  Pray  send  me  any  anecdotes  you  can  pick  up 
about  Kotzebue.  There  is  no  other  subject  scarcely 
of  conversation,  by  which  you  will  understand  that 
there  are  various  opinions  on  the  subject.  The 
violent  Ministerialists  are  angry  that  Sheridan  should 
have  such  applause;  the  violent  oppositionists  are  as 
angry  at  the  loyalty  of  the  Play;  and  the  rigid  and 
censorious  are  suspicious  of  such  pure  morality  and 
mild  religion  from  the  pen  of  a  person  esteemed 
profligate.  To  bring  up  the  rear,  authors  are  jealous 
of  his  success,  and  cry  out  it  is  Kotzebue  and  not 
Sheridan's  merit:  so  Sheridan  says — I  am  but  a 
translator:  but  then,  such  a  translation!  As  soon  as 
it  comes  out  I  will  send  it  to  you.  William  Lamb 
foolishly  distrusts  it — foolishly,  because  it  is  attributed 
to  pique  at  the  failure  of  the  Epilogue;  the  poetry  of 
this  was  pretty,  but  it  wanted  strength.  I  dined 
yesterday  at  Richmond  House  with  the  Melbournes,2 
and  there  it  had  a  grand  discussion. 

.     .     .     A  very   odd    story    has  just   come  out. 

1  the  unfortunate  Pope — Pope  Pius  VI. ,  who  was  taken  prisoner  by  the  French 
general  Berthier,  and  carried  away  from  Rome  to  Valence,  in  France,  where  he  died 

2  the  Melbournes— -Viscount  and  Lady  Melbourne,  parents  of  William  Lamb, 
who  became  afterwards  prime  minister. 


Lady  Holland1  yesterday  restored  to  Sir  G.  Webster 
a  child  whom  she  had  always  told  him  was  dead:  it 
is  a  little  girl,  whom  she  lay  in  of  in  Italy,  and  when 
she  was  coming  home,  conscious  that  she  was  to  be 
parted  from  Sir  Godfrey,  and  being  doatingly  fond 
of  this  child,  she  contrived  to  have  it  pass  for  dead, 
and  had  it  brought  to  England  under  a  feigned 
name,  and  has  constantly  seen  it;  but  at  last,  con- 
vinced she  was  acting  in  a  most  unjustifiable  manner 
both  to  Sir  Godfrey  and  the  child,  she  owned  the 
whole  thing,  and  the  child,  now  six  years  old,  is 
restored  to  its  father,  who  received  it  with  transport; 
but  did  you  ever  hear  of  so  odd  a  thing?     .     .     . 


You  will  be  surprized  to  hear  that  I,  who  never  go 
to  balls  or  assemblies,  went  to  the  masquerade.  Lady 
Bessborough2  said  she  would  not  unless  I  did,  and 
Lady  Anne  would  not  go  with  her.  We  let  every- 
body go,  and  then  disguised  ourselves  very  well 
indeed,  and  went  half  an  hour  after  them.  I  was  not 
found  out  the  whole  night.  When  Lady  B.  was 
discovered,  they  took  me  for  Lady  Anne,  and  it  was 
good  fun  to  hear  Lord  Morpeth3  say  low  to  Lady 
Bessborough,  "She  can't  disguise  herself;  her  way  of 
fanning  herself  betrays  her".  I  assure  you  I  did  not 
know  I  was  so  good  a  mimick,  and  Cullen  Smith 
said,  "There  is  Lady  Anne  taking  off  Lady  Elizabeth". 

1  Lady  Holland— Elizabeth  Vassall,  daughter  of  Richard  Vassall  of  Jamaica,  and 
wife  of  Sir  Godfrey  Webster,  after  her  divorce  from  whom  she  married  secondly 
Henry  Richard  Fox,  Baron  Holland.  Holland  House  was  for  a  very  lengthened 
period  a  hospitable  resort  for  the  distinguished  in  literature  and  politics  (1770-1845). 

2  Lady  Bessborough— -Henrietta  Frances,  daughter  of  John,  first  Earl  Spencer, 
d    !82i.  3  Lord  Morpeth— Afterwards  Earl  of  Carlisle  (1802-1864). 


We  attacked  the  Duchess,1  and  she  did  not  know  us 
for  a  long  time.  The  masquerade  was  a  good  one, 
but  the  house  was  not  quite  lighted  enough.    ,     .     . 

Augustus  Foster 

To  Lady  Elizabeth  Foster. 

[Fragment  of  a  letter.] 

.  .  .  He2  was  dressed  in  a  blue  coat  faced  with 
white,  two  gold  epaulets,  white  waistcoat,  &c,  and 
English  riding  boots,  no  ornament  in  his  hat;  he  is 
a  very  dirty  [illegible]  and  his  hair  looks  as  if  it  never 
was  combed.  When  the  officers  had  withdrawn, 
Buonaparte  retired  to  put  on  his  Consular  dress, 
scarlet  with  rich  gold  embroidery,  and  soon  after 
we  were  all  of  us,  with  the  different  Ambassadors, 
ushered  into  the  Salle  des  Ambassadeurs,  where  we 
found  Buonaparte  and  his  two  inferior  Consuls.3  I 
was  presented  one  of  the  first  after  Lord  Cowper, 
but  it  was  done  in  such  a  hurried  manner  by  Mr. 
Jackson,  who  generally  answered  the  questions  made 
by  Buonaparte  himself,  that  we  had  none  of  us, 
except  Mr.  Blayden,  an  author,  the  honor  of  a  con- 

1  the  Duchess — Of  Devonshire.  2  He — Bonaparte. 

3  his  two  inferior  Consuls — When  the  consulate  of  three  members  was  first  con- 
stituted as  the  supreme  power  in  France,  on  the  i8th  Brumaire  (November  9th), 
1799,  it  consisted  of  the  Abbe1  Sieves,  Bonaparte,  and  Roger  Ducos,  with  equal 
authority.  Sieves  resigned  within  a  month,  and  on  Dec.  13th,  1799,  Bonaparte, 
Cambaceres,  and  Lebrun  were  elected  first,  second,  and  third  consuls  respectively, 
each  being  elected  for  ten  years,  and  being  re-eligible.  In  May,  1802,  Bonaparte 
was  re-elected  for  ten  additional  years,  and  in  August  of  the  same  year  he  was  made 
consul  for  life  by  3,568,885  out  of  a  possible  total  of  3,577,259  votes.  Finally,  on 
May  i8tb,  1804,  he  was  made  Emperor. 


versation.  To  him  he  spoke  a  good  deal  about  Sir 
Joseph  Banks,1  who,  he  said,  was  much  esteemed  in 
this  country.  I  ought  to  give  you  a  description  of 
his  person,  but  I  don't  know  anybody  he  resembles 
unless  it  is  to  my  uncle  a  little,  I  think.  He  is  under 
the  middle  size,  has  light  gray  eyes,  brown  hair 
and  light-coloured  eyebrows,  sallow  complexion  and 
nearly  a  straight  nose.  I  think  he  would  be  good- 
looking  if  he  had  complexion.  He  has,  in  my  opinion, 
the  air  of  a  gentleman,  and  certainly  the  manners  of 
one.  When  he  came  near  the  American  minister, 
who  is  deaf  and  don't  speak  French,  he  asked  him 
how  he  did  in  French.  The  American,  straining 
every  sinew  in  his  ear  in  vain,  turned  for  explanation 
to  his  interpreter,  who  shouted  out  amazing  loud, 
"The  First  Consul,  Sir,  asks  you  how  you  are".  The 
gravity  of  the  man's  manner  in  delivering  this  made 
everybody  laugh.  The  Prince  of  Orange  was  there, 
and  seemed  considerably  chagrined.  The  Consul 
spoke  more  with  him  than  anybody  else.  None  of 
the  Eno-lish  dined  with  him  but  such  as  had  been 
already  presented  the  last  time.  Yesterday  the 
Bishops  were  restored,  or  at  least  the  treaty  with 
the  Pope  to  that  effect  published. 

1  Sir  Joseph  Banks— -The  distinguished  naturalist,  who  had  sailed  with  Captain 
Cook  round  the  world  (1743-1820). 


Countess  of  Erne 

To  Frederick  Foster. 

Ickworth  Park,  Oct.  20th,  1800. 

I  send  you  a  line,  my  dear  Frederick,  to  acquaint 
you  with  the  grievous  loss  we  have  all  sustained  in 
the  death  of  the  best  beloved  Mother.  It  happened 
suddenly  early  yesterday  morning  from  a  spasm  in 
her  stomack.  What  my  grief  and  suffering  is,  no 
words  can  say,  as  no  mother  could  be  a  greater  loss 
to  a  daughter  than  she  is  to  me.  I  am  sure  you  will 
share  in  it,  my  dear  lad,  and  lament  her  who  was 
every  way  so  deserving  of  affection  and  veneration 
from  every  part  of  her  family. — Yours  sincerely  and 
affectionately,  Mary  C.  Erne. 

Lady  Elizabeth  Foster 

To  Frederick  Th.  Foster. 
Devonshire  House,  Saturday,  1801. 
I  wrote  to  you  yesterday,  dearest  Frederick,  in 
the  greatest  hurry  and  vexation.  Your  uncle  had 
been  with  me  a  great  while,  and  though  I  admire, 
as  I  always  have  done,  his  motives,  yet  I  regret  to 
the  greatest  degree  his  decision.  However,  it  is 
done  now,  and  I  shall  close  my  lips  and  comfort 
myself  with  the  conviction  that  in  any  and  every 
situation  he  will  do  himself  credit.  The  danger  has 
been  owing  to  Pitt's  high  sense  of  honor.  He  had 
pledged  himself,  I  hear,  to  the  Catholic  emancipa- 
tion.    He  could  not  carry  his  point  in  the  Cabinet; 


the  King  had  been  firm,  and  Pitt  sent  in  his  resigna- 
tion. His  first  idea  and  wish  was  to  go  out  alone  in 
order  to  preserve  to  the  country  the  measures  and 
system  he  thought  essential  to  it,  but  a  large  pro- 
portion of  the  Cabinet  Ministers  resigned  with  him, 
and  several  of  his  friends;  he  has,  however,  urged 
many  to  remain,  and  this  occasions  much  conversa- 
tion, and  has  created  a  kind  of  third  party,  as  Lord 
Hawkesbury,  Addington,1  &c,  say  they  are  Pitt's 
real  friends,  and  the  others  are  Canning's  party. 
This  is  hard  on  those  who,  as  Canning2  says,  sacrifice 
their  interest  to  their  principles.  Canning  says 
Addington  ought  to  fall  at  the  King's  knees  and  ask 
pardon  for  his  annoyance.  It  is,  indeed,  most  extra- 
ordinary. You  have  no  idea  of  the  state  of  party, 
and  all  the  variety  of  conjectures  formed.  I  think 
Pitt  has  acted  nobly,  but  almost  too  much  so.  He 
is  advising  and  helping  his  successor,  and  opens  the 
budget  himself,  so  that  he  only  goes  out  Thursday. 
Lord  St.  Vincent  is  first  Lord  of  the  Admiralty, 
Lord  Hawkesbury,  Secretary  of  State  for  the 
Foreign  Department.    .    .    . 

Lady  Elizabeth  Foster 

To  Augustus  Foster. 

Feb.  19,  1801. 

My  dear  Child,  ...  I  think  it  a  shame  that 
Addington  has  accepted  the  situation  that  William 
Pitt  held,  because  his  merits  are  confined  to  those 

^  Addington— Henry  A.,  Viscount  Sidmouth,  prime  minister  from  1801  to  1803 
(1757-1843).  »  Canning— George  C,  prime  minister  in  1827  (1770-1827). 


which  were  necessary  and  sufficient  as  a  Speaker, 
and  yet  which  are  very  inadequate  to  being  Prime 
Minister;  a  mild,  well-tempered,  candid,  upright  man 
forms  a  good  Speaker,  but  where  are  the  talents,  the 
abilities,  the  wonderful  resources  with  the  genius  of 
Mr.  Pitt  to  be  found?  Who  is  there  can  say  that 
they  look  up  with  confidence  to  Mr.  Addington,  or 
indeed  to  any  one  of  the  new  administration,  except 
Lord  St.  Vincent  and  the  law  department;  besides 
was  not  Addington  Pitt's  creature?  and  though  Pitt, 
with  a  romantick  disinterestedness,  has  urged  all 
these  people  to  stay  in,  does  not  one's  heart  prefer 
those  who  have  gone  out?  Mr.  Elliott,  Lord  Heath- 
field's  son,  alas,  is  desired  by  his  father  to  stay  in. 
I  don't  think  that  all  who  have  remained  in  have 
done  so  from  interested  motives,  but  yet  I  think  that 
had  not  their  hearts  leaned  that  way  they  would 
have  felt  at  once  that  if  Pitt  resigned  because  he 
could  not  carry  this  measure  which  he  thought  so 
essential,  that  they  who  would  certainly  have  sup- 
ported him  in  it  should  have  gone  out  too,  and  then 
perhaps  the  King  would  have  yielded.  The  bishops 
and  archbishops  got  hold  of  him,  and  persuaded  him 
that  Catholic  emancipation  would  endanger  the  Pro- 
testant religion.  Pitt  felt  himself  pledged  to  Ireland, 
and  nobly  went  out  upon  it.  It  is  supposed  that, 
sanguine  as  he  is,  he  did  not  fully  take  the  king's 
opinions  till  it  was  too  late.  Some  people  think  the 
new  administration  will  try  for  peace;  they  expect 
some  good  news  from  the  Mediterranean  and  of  the 
French  squadron.  I  have  given  you  a  full  dose 
now.    .    .    . 


Frederick  Foster 

To  Augustus  Foster. 

St.  PETERSBURGH,  January  10,  1802. 

My  dear  Augustus,  .  .  .  The  weather  has 
been  at  times  extremely  cold,  20  and  23  degrees, 
and  several  people  have  been  frozen,  and  it  is  not  an 
uncommon  thing  to  have  one's  cheek  or  ear  or  tip  of 
the  nose  frozen;  the  remedy  is  to  rub  it  instantly 
with  snow,  for,  if  neglected,  it  may  mortify.  ,  .  t 
The  other  day  I  went  to  see  the  Palace  of  St. 
Michael,  which  the  Emperor  Paul1  built.  It  is  an 
immense  pile,  something  like  the  Queen's  House  in 
London,  but  twice  as  large.  The  inside  is  very  fine, 
several  of  the  rooms  inlaid  with  Porphyry,  Marble, 
Lapis  Lazuli,  and  Malakite.  It  was  in  this  Palace  that 
he  was  murdered,  and  by  the  greatest  chance  in  the 
World,  for  his  favorite  had  received  a  letter  with  an 
account  of  the  whole  Conspiracy,  and  the  names  of 
all  the  Conspirators,  which  he  neglected  to  open; 
and  even  when  they  did  come,  Paul  had  concealed 
himself  behind  a  screen,  and  the  Conspirators  were 
going  away  in  despair  when  one  of  them  perceived 
his  legs;  nay,  further,  though  discovered,  yet  so 
accustomed  had  they  been  to  fear  him  that  he  had 
completely  awed  them,  and  was  going  away,  when  a 
Georgian  chief  flung  a  club  at  his  head  and  knocked 
him  down,  upon  which  the  others  ran  in  and  com- 
pleted their  work.     An   Hanoverian,  of  the  name 

1  the  Emperor  Paul— The  murder  of  the  Emperor  Paul  I.  took  place  on  March  24, 
1801.     His  tyrannical  rule  had  caused  much  discontent  (1754-1801). 


Benixin,1  was  the  man  who  conducted  the  whole,  and 
most  probably  if  he  had  not  been  in  the  room  Paul 
would  have  escaped.  The  present  Emperor  was 
immediately  proclaimed. 

John  Leslie  Foster,  afterwards  Baron  F. 

To  his  sister  Harriet,  afterwards  Countess  de  Salis. 

Paris,  April  6,  1802. 

My  dear  Harriet,  ...  I  hope  the  last  long 
letter  I  wrote  to  you  found  you  perfectly  recovered, 
and  there  is  at  least  one  letter  from  you  on  its  road 
to  me.  I  send  you  an  account  of  pomps  and  vanities, 
and  what  you  will  think  my  great  good  fortune.  I 
was  yesterday  presented  to  Buonaparte,  but,  before 
I  give  an  account  of  your  Protege,  you  shall  endure 
a  chronological  history  of  the  means  that  brought 
me  there.  The  1 5th  of  every  month  the  first  Consul 
receives  in  the  Court  of  the  Tuilleries  the  Consular 
guard,  that  is  a  selection  of  5000  or  6,000  men  from 
all  the  armies  of  France  accoutred  at  an  expense  and 
with  a  magnificence  that  I  suppose  was  never  before 
lavished  on  an  equal  number  of  soldiers.  After  that 
he  holds  a  Levee  of  the  French  Generals,  the 
Foreign  Ambassadors,  and  such  strangers  as  they 
present  to  him.  The  Etiquette  of  a  Court  and 
Court  dress  are  strictly  observed,  and  every  one 
agrees  that  the  splendour  of  the  Court  of  the  Tuilleries 
is   much  greater  than  ever  was  the  old  Court  of 

1  Benixin — More  correctly  Bennigsen. 


France.  Having  an  introduction  to  our  Minister,  I 
was,  of  course,  among  the  Anglais  to  be  presented. 
At  a  previous  ceremony  we  were  all  introduced  to 
Talleyrand-Perigord,  Minister  for  Foreign  Affairs, 
the  day  before.  I  shall  not  delay  you  with  an  account 
of  the  Renegade  Bishop  of  Autun.  He  is  not  worth 
it;  it  is  enough  to  say  of  him  that  he  was  pompous, 
awkward,  and  uncivil.  The  scarlet  and  silver  in 
which  he  was  dressed  only  made  him  appear  to 
greater  disadvantage.  His  person  is  as  crooked  as 
his  principles,  and  his  face,  unhappily  for  his  beauty, 
a  faithful  Picture  of  his  Heart.  The  next  Day, 
Monday  the  5th,  Augustus  and  I  went  to  the  Tuilleries 
at  eleven  o'clock,  and  were,  luckily  for  us,  by  mistake 
admitted  into  the  Salle  des  Generaux  instead  of  the 
Salle  des  Ambassadeurs,  which  gave  us  an  additional 
two  hours'  contemplation  of  Buonaparte.  At  twelve 
we  passed  through  the  Room  to  the  Parade.  It 
lasted  but  an  Hour.  Buonaparte,  mounted  on  a 
noble  white  Horse,  and  surrounded  by  his  Aides  de 
Camp  and  Generals,  formed  the  first  Part  of  it.  At 
one  o'clock  he  returned  to  the  Salle  des  Generaux. 
He  spoke  to  almost  every  one  in  it,  and  with  a  Grace 
for  an  account  of  which  you  must  wait  a  little  longer. 
I  followed  him  everywhere  in  the  Crowd,  and  hardly 
lost  an  expression  of  his  countenance.  At  two  he 
retired  to  change  his  dress  previous  to  receiving  the 
strangers,  who  were  supposed  to  be  all  the  time  in 
the  Salle  des  Ambassadeurs.  I  went  down  to  them 
to  fall  into  the  Ranks,  found  about  20  Anglais, 
among  them  Lord  Blayney,  Lord  Cowper,  Lord 
Arch.    Hamilton,    Mr.    Cust,    a    Cambridge   friend, 


Luttrell,  &c.  The  Ambassadors  were  all  there. 
Among  them  were  three  celebrated  characters; 
D'Armfeldt  the  Swede,  Markoff  the  Russian,  and 
Lucchesini  the  Prussian.  The  Prince  of  Orange 
was  also  there.  The  most  brilliant  of  the  company 
was  Demidoff,  a  Russian  nobleman.  He  had  on  his 
breast  a  single  Diamond  valued  at  ,£30,000.  In 
half  an  hour  we  were  shown  upstairs,  found  a  large 
Circle,  and  were  taken  by  the  first  Consul  in  the 
order  that  we  stood.  The  Ambassador  of  each 
Nation  presented  his  own  countrymen;  the  first 
Consul  said  something  to  almost  every  one,  and  not 
much  to  any  one.  Now  for  his  Person,  what  is  he 
like?  I  will  first  tell  you  what  he  is  unlike.  In  the 
first  place  he  is  unlike  every  other  Person  in  the 
World,  and  in  the  second  place  he  is  perfectly  unlike 
every  Painting,  Print,  and  Bust  that  has  been  taken 
of  him.  I  cannot  say  why  so  many  artists  have  so 
entirely  failed,  but  if  we  may  judge  from  the  past, 
Posterity  will  have  no  idea  of  the  countenance  of 
Buonaparte;  if  Painting  has  failed,  no  words  can 
succeed.  However,  I  am  bound  to  tell  you  what  I 
think  of  him.  He  is  about  5  feet  7  inches  high, 
delicately  and  gracefully  made;  his  hair  a  dark  brown 
crop,  thin  and  lank;  his  complexion  smooth,  pale, 
and  sallow;  his  eyes  grey,  but  very  animated;  his 
Eye  Brows  light  brown,  thin  and  projecting.  All  his 
Features,  particularly  his  Mouth  and  Nose,  fine,  sharp 
defined  and  expressive  beyond  description;  expressive 
of  what?  Not  of  anything  perce  as  the  Prints  ex- 
pressed him,  still  less  of  anything  mediant;  nor  has 
he  anything  of  that  Eye  whose  bend  doth  awe  the 


World.  The  true  expression  of  his  countenance  is 
a  pleasing  melancholy,  which,  whenever  he  speaks, 
relaxes  into  the  most  agreeable  and  gracious  smile 
you  can  conceive.  To  this  you  must  add  the  appear- 
ance of  deep  and  intense  thought,  but  above  all  the 
predominating  expression  a  look  of  calm  and  tran- 
quil Resolution  and  Intrepidity  which  nothing  human 
could  discompose.  His  address  is  the  finest  I  have 
ever  seen,  and  said  by  those  who  have  travelled  to 
exceed  not  only  every  Prince  and  Potentate  now 
being,  but  even  all  those  whose  memory  has  come 
down  to  us.  He  has  more  unaffected  dignity  than 
I  could  conceive  in  man.  His  address  is  the  gentlest 
and  most  prepossessing  you  can  conceive,  which  is 
seconded  by  the  greatest  fund  of  levee  conversation 
that  I  suppose  any  Person  ever  possessed.  He 
speaks  deliberately,  but  very  fluently,  with  particular 
emphasis,  and  in  a  rather  low  tone  of  voice.  While 
he  speaks  his  features  are  still  more  expressive  than 
his  words.  .  .  . 

Augustus  Foster 

To  Lady  Elizabeth  Foster. 

Paris,  April  13,  1802. 

I  thank  you  a  thousand  times  for  your  kind  letter, 
and  many,  many  thanks  for  letting  her1  send  a  few 
lines  enclosed  in  it.  If  you  knew  how  happy  it 
made  me  when  I  saw  her  handwriting;  but,  however, 
as  you  think  there  may  be  an  impropriety  in  their 

1  her— Corisande  de  Gramont,  daughter  of  the  Duke  de  Gramont.     She  became 
the  wife  of  the  Earl  of  Tankerville. 

174  THE   TW0   DUCHESSES. 

being  frequent,    I   yield,  only  I    hope  it  would  not 
appear  wrong  my  writing  a  little  message  now  and 
then  just  to  say  that  I  am  alive.      I  long  very  much 
to  hear  about  her  mother's  answer,  which  will  decide 
in  a  great  measure  whether  I   am  to   be  happy  or 
not.     .     .     .      Lord   Cowper   I    dined   with    to-day. 
He  is  not  very  well,  and  talks  of  not  going  to  Italy 
till  next  year.      He  has  quite  had  his  dose  of  Paris, 
and   now   says   that   he   shall   probably  go   back  to 
London  in  May.      How  very  little  one's  happiness 
depends  on  the  quantity  of  gold  or  silver  dross  one 
has  in  one's  pocket:  he,  with  all  his  riches,  rank,  and 
titles,  seems  to  ennuy  in  every  place  he  happens  to 
be  in.     At  London  he  wished  to  go  to  Paris  and 
Italy,   and   at  Paris  he  wants  to  go  back  again  to 
London.     I  am  sure  any  situation  is  better  than  that 
of  a  discontented  rich  man,  because  with  all  the  idea 
that  he  ought  to  be  happy  he  never  is  so.     ...     I 
have  not  seen  Bonaparte  since  the  presentation,  but 
there  is  to  be  a  grand  ceremony  next  Sunday  that  I 
shall  move  Heaven  and  Earth  to  get  at — the  cele- 
bration of  the  Peace,  and  of  the  re-establishment  of 
Religion,  together,  in  the  Cathedral  of  Notre  Dame. 
The  Consuls  are  to  attend,  the  Legates,  Cardinals, 
&c,   and  the  Archbishop  of  Aix  is  to  preach  the 
sermon.  ,     .     The  people  here  seem  to  think  of 

nothing  but  how  they  may  amuse  themselves  most. 
I  wonder  if  any  Englishman  ever  yet  preferred 
France  or  any  other  country  for  living  in  to  Eng- 
land? As  for  me,  I  only  feel  the  superiority  of 
England  everywhere  I  go,  and  if  I  had  a  large 
fortune    I    think    I    should    never    stir    out    of    it. 


Madame  de  Stael1  said  t'other  day  that  there  were 
only  two  countries  free  in  the  World,  l'Angleterre  et 
l'Amerique.  Menou  is  expected  daily  at  this  Hotel 
with  his  Egyptian  spouse.  ...  I  dined  at  Madame 
de  Stael's  yesterday.  I  was  the  only  Englishman. 
We  had  a  bad  dinner  at  a  little,  narrow  table,  many 
of  the  men  in  boots.  I  don't  admire  Madame  de 
Stael  much;  she  may  have  a  vast  deal  of  esprit,  but 
shews  a  vast  deal  too  much  of  it,  I  think;  or,  in  other 
words,  is  a  great  bavard,  and  in  my  humble  opinion 
is  a  very  disgusting  woman.  ...  I  have  taken 
great  pains  to  find  out  whether  the  people  here,  in 
passing  the  Place  de  la  Concorde,  where  Louis  was 
guillotined,  took  off  their  hats,  and  I  can  assure  you 
that  I  never  saw  any  one  do  so,  and  have,  on  inquiry, 
never  heard  that  any  one  did.  It  is  surprizing  why 
people  will  circulate  such  lies  in  London.  It  would, 
at  any  rate,  be  a  very  equivocal  proof  of  their  loyalty, 
as  the  Jacobin  would  equally  have  reason  to  doff  his 
hat  to  the  place  which  gave  him  liberty.  .  .  . 
Remember  me  to  all  my  friends  at  Devonshire 
House,  and  tell  Corise  that  I  have  read  her  little 
note  over  at  least  20  times. 

1  Madame  de  Stael — The  celebrated  French  authoress,  daughter  of  Necker,  the 
famous  financier  and  minister  of  France,  and  wife  of  Baron  de  Stael  -  Holstein, 
Swedish  minister  at  Paris  (1766-1817). 


Augustus  Foster 

To  Lady  Elizabeth  Foster. 

April,  ?  1802? 
[A  Fragment.] 

Paris  must  be  much  changed  since  you  have  been 
here,  for  several  buildings  have  been  pulled  down, 
particularly  about  the  Tuileries,  and  in  many  parts 
new  streets  and  fine  hotels  have  been  erected. 
Shocking  marks  of  devastation  among  the  chateaux 
and  churches  all  along  the  road  from  Calais.  At  St. 
Denis  the  Cathedral  has  been  pillaged  and  every 
statue  or  ornamental  monument  demolished;  the 
sepulchres  torn  open,  and  the  bodies  of  the  Kings 
of  France  taken  and  burnt  with  lime  and  buried  in 
the  churchyard.  I  saw  the  ruins  of  Chantilly,  where 
I  stopped  one  night.  That  magnificent  building, 
which  cost  near  4  millions  with  the  gardens,  sold  to 
a  carpenter  and  ironmonger  for  1 30,000  livres!  They 
employed  2000  men  to  destroy  it  in  order  that  they 
might  sell  the  materials  before  they  were  deprived 
of  them  by  a  new  revolution.  The  gardens  were 
ruined  by  the  inhabitants  of  a  village  opposite  the 
chateau,  and  who  lived  by  the  Prince's  bounty.  It 
is  astonishing  how  the  French  bear  their  misfortunes; 
some  of  them  live  in  miserable  little  holes,  perhaps 
near  their  former  magnificent  hotels,  and  yet  they 
are  as  lively  and  gay  as  ever,  and  even  laugh  at 

their     .     .     . 

Monday,  April  5,  1802. 

I  have  delayed  sending  this  in  order  that  I  might 
acquaint  you  of  my  presentation,  which  took  place 


to-day.  Yesterday  there  were  about  sixteen  English 
in  all  presented  to  Talleyrand1  Perigord:  he  is  a 
shocking  ugly  fellow,  with  both  his  feet  turned  in- 
wards. This  morning  I  repaired  in  full  dress  at 
half  past  n  to  the  Tuileries  with  J.  Leslie  Foster.2 
The  troops  were  fast  assembling;  we,  contrary  to 
custom  for  foreigners,  but  much  to  our  own  advan- 
tage, and  indeed  from  ignorance,  went  up  the  grand 
staircase  into  the  Salle  des  Officiers  Generaux  instead 
of  going  below  into  a  little  room,  where  we  should 
have  seen  nothing.  There  were  assembled  all  the 
great  generals  and  whole  Etat  major.  Moreau  was 
not  there,  but  I  saw  Massena,3  and  many  others  of 
note  whose  names  I  could  not  find  out.  Their 
uniforms  surpassed  my  ideas  far — all  in  blue,  richly 
embroidered  with  gold.  I  did  not  see  the  parade 
very  well,  but,  however,  the  passing  of  the  regiments 
before  the  ist  Consul  I  saw  pretty  well  from  the 
windows.  Previous  to  his  mounting  he  passed 
through  the  Salle,  where  we  were,  with  a  quick  step, 
and  a  little  after  we  saw  him  on  his  beautiful  dun 
horse  riding  among  the  ranks  attended  by  eight  or 
ten  officers  and  one  Mameluc  richly  dressed;  it 
rained  hard,  unfortunately,  but,  however,  it  was  a 
magnificent  sight.  As  for  me,  it  appeared  to  me 
like  a  dream  to  find  myself  in  the  midst  of  the 
conquerors  of  Italy  and  Germany,  with  Buonaparte 
at  their  head.     The  famous  regiment  which   stood 

1  Talleyrand— One  of  the  greatest  diplomatists  of  the  period,  at  one  time  a  warm 
supporter  of  Bonaparte  (1754-1838). 

"J.  Leslie  Foster — Baron  first  of  the  Court  of  Exchequer  in  Ireland,  and  after- 
wards of  the  Court  of  Common  Pleas. 

3  Mussina. — One  of  the  most  celebrated  of  Bonaparte's  generals,  called  by  him 
"Enfant  de  la  Victoire"  (1758-1817). 



the  brunt  at  the  battle  of  Marengo  was  among  them. 
There  were  about  4000  men,  Cavalry  and  Infantry, 
all  very  simply  but  very  well  dressed.  This  lasted 
for  an  hour,  when  Buonaparte  returned  to  receive 
petitions  and  talk  to  the  generals,  and  I  am  sure  no 
King  or  Emperor  ever  went  through  a  levee  better: 
he  seemed  to  speak  to  every  one,  and  not  a  repetition 
of  the  same  fulsome  stuff  to  each,  but  something 
which  appeared  adapted  to  each  person,  and 
evidently  sent  them  away  pleased  with  him  and 
themselves.  He  is  like  the  picture  that  was  in 
Piccadilly,  but  that  gives  him  a  severer  countenance 
than  he  has,  for  I  think  his  face,  which  don't  give 
me  the  idea  of  heroic  courage  so  much  as  of  cool 
intrepidity  and  collectiveness,  is  very  expressive  of 
good  nature.  He  has  a  very  unaffected  dignity  in 
my  opinion,  and  appears  perfectly  at  his  ease,  and 
never  at  a  loss  for  anything  to  say.  He  had  several 
petitions  given  him,  which  he  read  all  on  the  spot. 
I  shall  write  to  you  to-morrow  about  my  presentation. 
At  the  time  of  his  receiving  the  petitions  he  put  me 
in  mind  of  Julius  Caesar  the  day  he  was  assassinated, 
I  am  quite  enthusiastic  about  him. 

Augustus  Foster 

To  Lady  Elizabeth  Foster. 

Paris,  April  18,  1802. 

Vive  1'effronterie;  sans  elle  je  n'aurais  rien  vu  de 

la  fete.     On  m'a  repousse  de  porte  en  porte  me 

disant  que  mon  billet  d'entree  ne  valoit  rien  a.  chaque 

endroit  au  quel  je  me  presentois,  et  enfin  j'ai  mis 


1'important  et  je  leur  criois,  Messieurs  je  ne  puis 
pas  passer  si  vous  de  me  faites  pas  de  place,  je  suis 
de  l'Ambassade  Angloise,  laissez  moi  passer  s'il  vous 
plait.  Alors  me  voyant  aussi  dans  un  riche  uniforme 
les  soldats  se  sont  empresses  de  me  faire  de  la  place. 
John  Leslie1  que  j'avois  ammene  avec  moi  me  suivois 
en  me  tenant,  et  nous  sommes  arrives  heureusement 
a  l'endroit  ou  se  placaient  les  Ambassadeurs  dans  le 
fond  de  Notre  Dame  vis  a  vis  de  la  Chaire.  Now, 
in  plain  English,  I  can  only  write  a  few  lines  to  tell 
you  that  it  was  a  very  magnificent  and  unique  sight; 
but  to  me  it  appeared  that  the  idea  of  Religion  was 
not  in  the  least  connected  with  it.  There  was  a 
great  crowd  in  the  body  and  galleries  of  the  Church 
— on  both  sides  of  the  altar  were  the  Canopies;  one 
on  the  right,  crimson  and  gold  for  the  legate  Caprera ; 
on  the  left  gold  and  crimson  canopy  supported  by 
five  pillars,  and  underneath  three  chairs,  the  middle 
for  the  First  Consul,  the  other  two  for  the  secondary 
Consuls.  It  is  now  midnight  and  a  half.  P.  goes  at 
three.  Therefore  I  shall  send  you  a  longer  account 
to-morrow.  The  Archbishop  of  Aix,  now  of  Tours, 
preached  an  excellent  sermon,  in  the  opinion  of 
several  not  enough  thankful  to  the  Government,  but 
attributing  all  to  the  powerful  effect  of  Religion  and 
the  natural  consequence  of  things.  Bonaparte  and 
the  other  two  walked  under  a  crimson  canopy  sup- 
ported by  four  priests — the  Archbishop  of  Paris, 
Dubelloy,  holding  the  Cross  before  him — all  yielded 

1/ohn  Leslie— John  Leslie  Foster,  cousin  of  Augustus  Foster,  and  Baron  suc- 
cessively of  the  Courts  of  Exchequer  and  Common  Pleas  in  Ireland. 


Augustus  Foster 

To  Lady  Elizabeth  Foster. 

Paris,  April  19,  1802. 

.     .  Yesterday,  as  I  wrote  you  word,  was  the 

great  ceremony  of  celebrating  the  peace  and  the 
establishmentof Religion.  Mounier,  Camille Jourdan,1 
and  most  of  that  set  consider  it  as  a  deathblow  to 
the  hopes  of  Louis  18,2  who  is  now  called  le  Pre- 
tendant,  as  he  went  till  now  hand  in  hand  with 
religion,  and  as  religion  was  the  principal  link  which 
connected  his  interests  with  those  of  the  Honnetes 
Gens  of  France,  because  Atheism  was  encouraged 
and  Piety  laughed  at.  Now  that  the  Government 
proclaims  Liberty  of  Conscience,  that  the  bishops 
have  taken  the  oath  of  preserving  the  Constitution 
and  religion,  and  that  they  see  that  they  may  pray 
without  the  aid  of  Louis,  it  will  weaken  his  interest 
very  much  in  the  country.  The  ceremony  was  very 
magnificent  and  well  ordered,  but  it  struck  me  as 
resembling  anything  rather  than  a  religious  cere- 
mony, and  the  strange  medley  of  military,  armed  cap 
a  pied,  and  of  priests  in  petticoats  was  very  ridiculous. 
Buonaparte  ordered  beforehand  that  no  Minister  or 
Ambassador  should  go  to  Notre  Dame  without  four 
horses  to  his  carriage — he  himself  had  eight — and 
besides,  six  saddle  horses,  led  each  by  a  Mameluc 
before  the  carriage,  there  were  only  the  other  two 
Consuls  with  him.    The  people,  who  would  cry  Vive 

1  Camille  Jourdan — a  French  writer  (1771-1821). 
8  Louis  JrF///.-(i7S5-i824). 


to  a  Dog  if  a  Dog  were  an  amusement  to  them, 
shouted  Vive  Buonaparte!  Vive  laRepublique!  When 
he  got  to  the  door  of  Notre  Dame  four  priests  met 
him,  supporting  a  sort  of  Canopy  under  which  he 
went,  and  behind  him  Cambaceres1  and  Le  Brun,2 
and  thus  he  marched,  preceded  by  Dubelloy,  Arch- 
bishop of  Paris,  who  held  the  Cross,  through  the 
aisle  to  the  throne,  drums  beating,  arms  presented, 
and  organs  playing;  it  was  altogether  very  fine. 
The  Bishops  all  took  the  oaths  before  him,  and 
bowed  to  him  and  the  Cross;  he  himself  took  the 
oath  and  kissed  the  book  to  preserve  the  religion. 
The  Archbishop  of  Aix  read  the  sermon  extempore; 
it  was  very  good,  but  the  noise  so  great  scarce  half 
of  it  could  be  heard.  Many  reckoned  it  too  little 
complimentary  to  Buonaparte;  he  seemed  to  con- 
sider it  as  a  matter  of  right  and  necessity  the  return 
of  religion  into  the  country.  I  spoke  to  him  after  it 
was  over.  Poor  old  man,  he  thought  nobody  heard 
him.  I  pleased  him  by  telling  him  that  I  heard 
tolerably  well.  I  saw  Massena  and  M' Donald.3  The 
last  resembles  Lord  Morpeth,  I  think;  he  is  fair 
faced  and  gentlemanlike-looking.  Massena  is  black- 
faced  and  seems  a  scoundrel.  Buonaparte  I  still 
admire.  His  face  was  perfectly  grave  during  the 
whole  ceremony.  After  it  was  over  he  pleased  every- 
body by  his  condescension  in  speaking  to  them. 
What  was  rather  mockery,  I  think — I  did  not  see  it 
myself — but  Camille  Jourdan  told  me  that  he  crossed 
himself  several  times  as  well  as  Cambaceres.     That 

1  Camhacirh — Second  consul  (1753-1824). 

5  Le  Brun — Third  consul  (1739-1824). 

8 M'Donald— Marshal  M'Donald  (1765-1810). 


was  trop  fort  for  one  once  a  professed  Turc.  Madame 
Buonaparte1  dresses  very  lightly;  seems  to  have  been 
pretty;  she,  with  Madame  Joseph,2 1  think  her  daugh- 
ter, and  Madame  Murat,3  her  sister-in-law,  and  Louis 
Buonaparte4  with  several  ladies,  was  placed  in  a 
gallery  a  little  above  the  altar  on  the  left;  she  only 
came  with  two  horses  to  her  carriage.  The  Duchess 
of  Cumberland5  is  here;  the  princes  of  Orange  and 
Weimar.  .  .  .  Don't  let  Corise  forget  me,  and  tell 
her  that  she  is  never  absent  from  my  thoughts  in 
the  middle  of  all  this  bustle.  .  .  . 

Augustus  Foster 

To  Lady  Elizabeth  Foster. 

.  .  .  What  say  you  to  the  Catholic  Question? 
In  my  opinion  no  one  solid  argument  has  been 
brought  forward  against  the  Emancipation.  Grattan6 
was  a  flower  of  eloquence,  but  I  fear  sadly  they  will 
lose  Ireland  by  the  refusal,  if  so  'che  sfortunato  Re'. 
Nelson  has  been  displaying  his  great  name  in  the 
Western  World.  He  has  appeared  and  gone  again 
like  a  comet  without  doing  mischief,  but  I  sadly  fear 
they  will  get  to  Ireland  before  him.  .  .  .  The 
Americans  are  sending  across  the  continent  to  find 
the  source  of  the  great  river  Missouri,  the  elder 
branch  of  the  Mississippi,  and  their  people  have 
written  from  1600  miles  up  its  banks. 

1  Madame  Bonaparte — Josephine  (1763-1814). 

2  Madame  Joseph — Wife  of  Joseph  Bonaparte. 

3  Madame  Murat — (1782-1839).  4  Louis  Bonaparte — (1778-1806). 
6  Duchess  of  Cumberland — Frederica  of  Mecklenburg  Strelitz. 

6  Grattan — (1750-1820). 


Augicstus  Foster 

To  Lady  Elizabeth  Foster. 

Boyukdere,  June  10,  1803. 

.  .  .  I  should  not  forget  to  tell  you  that  I  saw 
the  slave  market  about  three  days  ago :  an  officer  of 
the  Reis  Effendi1  took  us  in  there.  There  were 
great  numbers  of  blacks  enforced  to  sale  in  the  halls 
and  whites  within  the  rooms;  there  was  no  one  very 
handsome,  they  all,  I  thought,  looked  excessively 
melancholy.  I  got  our  Dragoman  to  question  a 
white  lady,  not  ugly,  that  was  sitting  cross-legged  in 
one  of  the  rooms.  She  told  us  that  she  was  a  Cir- 
cassian. He  said  that  we  came  with  a  commission  to 
see  and  buy  slaves,  and  she  begged  that  we  might 
take  her;  however,  it  is  not  permitted  to  a  Christian 
to  buy,  he  may  commission  his  Janizary  to  purchase 
for  him;  it  would  be  rather  a  bore,  however,  to 
depend  upon  his  taste,  and  beauties  are  bought  up 
before  they  land  for  the  pashas  and  Grand  Signors; 
it  is  very  seldom  that  any  very  handsome  are  to  be 
found  in  the  market.  Our  Turk  had  promised  that 
we  should  see  one  more  lovely  than  a  Sultana,  or  in 
other  terms,  as  he  expressed  himself,  one  so  fair  that, 
as  she  drank  water,  one  might  see  it  gurgle  down 
her  pearly  throat;  the  price  of  such  a  one  may  be 
about  ,£1000;  the  common  run  of  pretty  ones  is 
from  ^300  to  ,£600,  and  a  black  may  be  had  for 
^50.  As  we  were  returning  we  saw  a  man  who,  dis- 
contented with  his  slave,  was  refusing  her  upon  the 

1  Reis  Effendi — The  title  of  the  Turkish  minister  of  foreign  affairs. 


plea  that  she  was  sickly,  desiring  the  merchant  to 
feel  her  pulse  and  examine  her  hand;  the  other 
vociferated  that  he  ought  to  stick  to  his  bargain. 
The  girl,  by  her  motions,  was  explaining  what  she 
was  fit  for — sewing,  working,  washing,  &c.  She  was 
a  very  pretty  slender  Circassian.  I  could  have  beat 
the  man  for  his  bad  taste  in  giving  her  back;  it  is 
quite  like  a  sale  of  horses,  or  any  other  cattle.  The 
Blacks  are  innumerable,  according  to  the  different 
nations,  more  in  features  distinguished  from  one 
another  than  I  thought  such  complexions  would 
admit  of.  The  market  place  has  four  sides,  and  a 
sort  of  booth  or  collection  of  coffee-houses  in  the 
middle.  We  examined  and  even  entered  into  the 
halls  and  rooms  on  three  sides,  but  on  the  fourth 
some  Turks  rather  roughly  objected  to  our  going 
into  the  rooms  as  the  Firman  did  not  mention  that; 
however,  we  saw  all  that  was  worth  seeing.  This 
and  the  printing  office  at  Scutari  are  among  the 
most  curious  things  that  I  have  seen.  The  Turks 
have  learned  from  us  to  make  Geographical  Charts; 
the  first  they  ever  did. 

Charles  James  Fox'1 

To  Georgiana,  Duchess  of  Devonshire. 

1803.    St.  Anne's  Hill,  August  12. 
My  dear  Duchess, — I  have  no  intention  to  abuse 
you  for  a  neglect  which  was  in  itself  so  unimportant, 

1  Charles  James  Fox — Burke  called  him  the  greatest  debater  the  world  ever 
saw ;  and  Sir  James  Mackintosh  said  he  was  the  most  Demosthenic  speaker  since 
Demosthenes  (1749-1806). 

FROM  THE  EARL  OF  ABERDEEN.         185 

but  am  very  sorry  you  have  such  an  excuse  to  make 
as  Lady  Georgiana's  illness.  I  should  have  had  no 
curiosity,  much  less  anxiety,  upon  the  matter  if  it  had 
not  been  that  I  wished  to  know  whether  the  lan- 
guage, which  I  knew  Sheridan  would  hold  to  him, 
had  any  effect  and  what.  I  think  I  can  see  by  the 
newspaper  accounts  of  the  debate  that  Sheridan  dis- 
liked Francis1  pressing  him  on  the  subject  of  the 
Prince  very  much,  and  that  if  there  was  any  difficulty 
he  got  very  well  out  of  it. 

I  am  very  sorry  the  Duke  has  so  bad  a  fit  of  the 
gout.  I  do  not  believe  the  French  will  come:  if 
they  do,  by  what  I  see  they  will  find  us  as  unpre- 
pared as  ever  owing  to  the  last  foolish  manoeuvres 
of  the  Doctor.2 

Yours  ever, 

C.  J.  Fox. 

P.S. — I  hear  an  admirable  quotation  of  yours 
upon  S.  and  his  prepared  Uniform.  Motley  your 
only  wear  should  be  his  motto. 

The  Earl  of  Aberdeen* 

To  Augustus  Foster. 

Edinburgh,  August  14,  1804. 

Dear  Augustus, — You  will  participate  in  my  grief 
when  I  tell  you  that  I  arrived  last  night  at  Edin- 

1  Francis — Sir  Philip  F.,  supposed  author  of  the  celebrated  Letters  of  Junius 

*the  Doctor—  Henry  Addington,  prime  minister  from  1801  to  1803  (1757-1844). 

3  The  Earl  of  Aberdeen — George  Hamilton  Gordon,  Earl  of  Aberdeen,  prime 
minister  from  1852  to  1855.     He  was  a  man  of  culture,  a  student  of  Greek  architec- 


burgh,  which  is  of  all  places  the  most  horrible. 
There  is  a  most  plentiful  crop  of  grass  in  the  streets, 
which  the  painter  of  the  panorama  has  omitted,  much 
to  the  injury  of  the  Rurality  of  the  scene. 

I  am  going  to-morrow  into  Aberdeenshire.  Do 
not  imagine  I  shall  really  die,  for  I  shall  contrive  to 
vegetate  and  give  you  accordingly  some  signes  de 

Pray  remember  me  to  Lady  Elizabeth  and  to  the 
Duchess  when  you  see  them  next,  and  tell  them  that 
if  any  wayward  friend  is  obstinately  bent  upon  visit- 
ing our  northern  wilds  to  send  him  to  me,  and  I  will 
do  my  best  to  entertain  him,  that  is  to  say,  give  him 
good  shooting.  Bid  them  think  what  a  state  the 
Belle  Nature  of  that  country  must  be  in,  when 
murder  is  the  only  amusement. 

Were  I  not  in  possession  of  a  calendar,  but  was  to 
judge  from  my  sore  lips  and  red  nose,  I  should  be 
tempted  to  set  out  instantly  for  London,  thinking 
Christmas  past;  reflection,  however,  informs  me  that 
five  or  six  gloomy  months  must  pass.  Although  I 
cannot  in  strict  justice  say 

Ye  gods,  annihilate  both  time  and  Space 
And  make  two  lovers  happy, 

yet  I  am  persuaded  that  no  Lover  ever  preferred  the 
request  with  more  fervency.  Having  now  poured 
forth  my  sorrows,  I  beg  you  will  write  to  me,  and 
about  your  own  plans,  when  you  go  to  your  Exile 
and  how.    My  direction  is  Haddo  House,  Aberdeen- 

ture  and  antiquities,  and  had  visited  Athens  by  this  time ;  hence  Byron  designated 
him  as  "the  travelled  thane,  Athenian  Aberdeen  "  (1784-1860). 

FROM  THE  EARL  OF  ABERDEEN.         1 87 

shire.     I  shall  also  expect  to  hear  from  you  as  soon 
as  you  have  touched  Philadelphia  ground. 
Believe  me,  ever  most  truly  yours, 


PS. — If  I  am  not  lost  and  benighted  in  my  own 
deserts,  I  will  write  shortly  after  my  arrival,  in  hopes 
of  its  finding  you  still  in  England.     Adieu. 

The  Earl  of  A  berdeen 

To  Augustus  Foster. 
Cromarre,1  August  20,  1804. 

Dear  Augustus, — I  wrote  you  from  Edinburgh  a 
letter  which  might  be  called  the  Lamentations  of 
Jeremiah,  so  dismal  were  the  contents;  however,  I 
am  now  rejoiced  at  the  intelligence  that  you  are  not 
to  Columbize,  for  I  this  evening  received  your  letter 
after  a  mountain  massacre.2  I  do  not  find  this 
country  so  horrible  as  I  imagined,  or  as  you  seem  to 
think,  and  there  is  a  sensible  pleasure  at  standing  to 
look  around  one  and  being  able  to  see  nothing  but 
one's  own. 

What  can  you  be  about  at  Gell's?3  I  hope  and 
trust  you  will  come  down  here:  throw  yourself  into 
the  Mail  and  you  will  arrive  at  Aberdeen  in  three 
days  and  a  half.  Nothing  would  give  me  half  so 
much  pleasure  as  to  see  you.  My  Constantinopoli- 
tan   plan   is   in   statu   quo,   that    is   to   say,   nothing 

1  Cromarre — A  district  of  Aberdeenshire,  on  the  Dee. 

a  vtountain  massacre — Of  grouse. 

3  Gelt — Sir  William  Gell,  a  learned  classical  antiquary  (1777-1836). 


certain,  at  all  events  it  probably  is  stopped  until  next 
Spring.  London  must  be  wretched  at  present, 
which  makes  me  hope  you  will  not  be  so  averse  to 
quit  it,  therefore  (Si  quis  adhuc  precibus  locus)  come. 
Congratulate  Lady  Elizabeth  from  me  at  your  escape 
from  eating  entrails,  like  the  Esquimaux,  or  bedaub- 
ing your  face  with  Tallow,  like  the  Iroquois.  I 
should  think  there  could  not  be  much  difficulty  in 
despatching  you  eis  ten  poling  and  that  you  will 
soon  be  restored  to  the  beauties  of  the  Bosphorus. 

I  am  now  midst  "  Mountains  vast  and  Bogs  Ser- 
bonian  ",  but  am  going  into  the  low  country  in  a  few 
days.  In  the  meantime,  pray  write,  and  tell  me  all 
the  news.    Farewell,  and  believe  me,  with  the  greatest 



The  Earl  of  Aberdeen 

To  Augustus  Foster 

KlNRARA,2  Sept.  22,  1804. 

Dear  Augustus, — I  have  for  the  last  month  been 
speculating  as  to  your  fate,  which,  when  you  wrote 
last,  appeared  to  be  as  uncertain  as  one  could  well 
desire.  I  send  you  this  epistle  in  order  to  be  in- 
formed both  of  it  and  a  variety  of  events.  I  am 
here  at  the  Duchess  of  Gordon's  cottage  in  the 
Highlands  for   two  or  three  days:    she  means  to 

Leis  tin  folin — The  Greek  words  for  "to  the  city"  This  expression  being 
constantly  in  people's  mouths  in  ancient  times  gave  origin  to  the  names  Istamlol, 
Stamloul,  for  Constantinople ;  hence  the  use  of  these  words  in  the  letter. 

^Kinrara — In  Inverness-shire,  near  the  Spey,  now  the  property  of  the  Duke  of 
Richmond  and  Gordon,  one  of  whose  titles  is  Earl  of  Kinrara. 

FROM  THE  EARL  OF  ABERDEEN.         1 89 

reappear  in  London  next  winter  if  she  can  procure  a 
house  large  enough  for  the  magnificent  fetes  which 
she  proposes  to  give.  From  this  I  go  to  Blair  (the 
Duke  of  Athol's)  in  order  to  massacre  a  few  red  deer, 
but  shall  quickly  proceed  to  my  own  retreat  of  Vail 
Ombrosa,  near  Dunira,  than  which  nothing  can  be 
more  beautiful.  With  regard  to  any  external  mo- 
tions, I  am  very  uncertain  if  I  shall  again  walk  the 
olive  groves  of  Academia,1  or  freeze  midst  hyper- 
borean snows,  or  inhale  the  smoke  of  London — per- 
haps the  last.  Is  Gell  gone  to  Zante,  as  the  time 
which  he  proposed  for  departing  is  arrived?  Tell 
me  what  is  doing  in  Babylon,2  though  I  suppose  you 
will  say  nothing,  but  that  is  not  sufficient.  Your 
ancient  flame  is  at  last  gone,  and  I  can  only  hope 
that  you  have  none  of  the  veteris  vestigia  flammae 
remaining.  Are  the  French  come?  for  it  would 
appear  as  if  you  expected  them  every  day. 

But  perhaps  you  are  already  gone,  and  this  mis- 
sive may  find  you  after  an  interview  with  his  most 
Catholic  Majesty  at  the  Buen  Retiros  or  L'Escurial. 
God  knows,  however,  if  you  may  not  have  crossed 
the  Atlantic  and  heard  the  muddy  notions  of  the 
Americans  about  Liberty,  how  unlike  our  Athens; 
but  wherever  you  may  be,  believe  me  to  be,  with 
great  friendship, 


Should  you  perchance  be  still  in  London,  I  beg  to 
be  remembered  to  Lady  Elizabeth  and  the  Duchess. 

1  olive  groves  of  Academia — That  is  whether  he  shall  again  go  to  Athens. 
1  Balylon — London. 


The  Earl  of  A  berdeen 

To  Augustus  Foster. 

Haddo,1  Nov.  20,  1804. 

Dear  Augustus, — I  long  very  much  to  know  how 
you  are  satisfied  with  the  Terra  Australis,  and  how 
you  like  your  situation;  if  you  are  content  I  shall 
feel  real  pleasure.  Tell  me  something  about  your 
Society:  in  what  does  the  haut  ton  Americain  con- 
sist? You  see  that  I  am  still  buried  in  these 
Northern  Wilds,  but  am  now  meditating  a  flight  to 
London,  where  I  shall  stay  five  or  six  months,  at  the 
end  of  which  I  should  hope  to  be  able  to  undertake 
the  Grecian  expedition.  Gell  is  gone  with  Mercer 
and  Baker. 

I  have  always  been  of  opinion  that  Russia  will  do 
nothing,  and,  though  I  hope  not,  yet  fear  that  idea 
will  be  confirmed.  I  understand  that  the  King  has 
not  been  quite  so  well  of  late,  but  at  all  events  the 
reconciliation  between  him  and  the  Prince  has  done 
much  good.  I  cannot  speak  with  certainty  as  to  the 
appointment  of  Lord  Moira  and  Tierney2  in  Ireland: 
if  Lord  Moira  wishes  it  he  will  get  it  certainly:  but 
I  do  not  apprehend  that  he  is  anxious  about  it. 

I  belong  this  winter  to  the  Duchess's  boxes  at  the 
Play,  where,  however,  I  shall  but  too  often  miss  you; 
it  is  really  lamentable  the  great  distance  at  which 
you  are,  which  so  entirely  precludes  all  my  exertions 
to  see  you.     .     .     . 

1  Haddo — The  family  residence  of  the  Earls  of  Aberdeen  in  Aberdeenshire,  near 
the  river  Ythan. 
*  Tierney — George  T.,  statesman  and  political  critic  (1761-1830). 


If  there  is  anything  you  wish  done  with  dispatch, 
accuracy,  and  good -will,  pray  write  to  me,  and  you 
may  depend  upon  my  doing  everything  to  shew  you 
with  what  sincerity  of  friendship  I  am,  and  shall  be, 

ever  y°urs'  Aberdeen. 

Lady  Elizabeth  Foster 

To  Augustus  Foster. 

December  5,  1804. 

We  have  been  in  town  now  but  a  few  days,  and 
we  removed  from  Chiswick  sooner  than  we  expected, 
in  consequence  of  the  melancholy  event  that  hap- 
pened there.  Poor  John  Brown,  the  Duke's  faithful 
servant,  fell  from  his  horse  in  an  apoplectic  fit,  and 
died  the  fourth  day.  It  was  very  shocking,  and  he 
is  sincerely  regretted  by  all  the  servants.  I  have 
been  nervous  and  hurried  for  some  time  past  owing 
to  an  arrangement  that  is  about  to  be  made  for  the 
payment  of  the  Duchess's  debts.  There  never  was 
anything  so  angelic  as  the  Duke  of  Devonshire's 
conduct,  and  the  many  conversations  I  had  with  him 
on  the  subject,  though  it  made  me  so  nervous  at  the 
time,  have  made  me  happier  now,  and,  if  possible, 
increased  my  admiration  and  attachment  to  him.  I 
feel  secure  now  that  she  will  avoid  things  of  this 
kind  for  the  future,  and  though  the  sum  is  great,  yet 
it  will  end  well  I  am  convinced.  I  know  so  well 
your  feelings  about  them  that  I  have  a  pleasure  in 
telling  you  what  has  passed. 

As  for  politicks,  though  every  day  an  account  of 


Bonaparte's  coronation  and  Russia's  decision  is  ex- 
pected, nothing  hardly  is  seen  or  talked  of  but  this 
young  Roscius.1  I  saw  him  his  first  night  as  Achmet 
or  Selim  in  Barbarossa;  I  saw  him  last  night  as 
Norval  in  Douglas.  He  is  but  thirteen,  and  yet  I 
never  saw  anything  to  compare  to  him;  his  is  the 
inspiration  of  genius,  with  the  correctness  of  taste 
belonging  generally  to  experience  and  study  alone, 
feeling  far  beyond  his  years,  and  a  knowledge  of  the 
stage  equal  to  any  performer,  and  far  more  graceful : 
in  short,  he  has  changed  the  life  of  London;  people 
dine  at  four,  and  go  to  the  Play,  and  think  of  nothing 
but  the  play.  How  I  wish  you  were  here!  Frederick 
is  just  returned  from  Ickworth,  but  I  have  not  seen 
him.  I  have  sent  to  ask  him  to  the  Play.  The 
Hawkesburys  stay  in  town  for  this  boy's  acting  all 
next  week.  Sheridan  took  him  to  Carleton  House, 
and  the  Prince  told  me  that  his  manner  was  perfect; 
it  was  simple,  graceful,  and  unaffected.  As  to  the 
applause,  the  Pit,  which  is  filled  with  men,  not  con- 
tent with  applauding,  over  and  over  again  cry  out 
Bravo !  Bravo !  I  don't  suppose  such  applause  could 
ever  be  exceeded.    ,    .    . 

Lady  Elizabeth  Foster 

To  Augustus  Foster. 

Devonshire  House,  Dec.  18,  1804. 

...     I  suppose  before  the  day  that  the  Mails 
are  closed  for  America  that  the  Spanish  War  will  be 

•■young  Roscius— William  Betty,  the  boy  actor.    See  Appendix. 


officially  declared.  .  .  .  Parliament  meets  the 
15th,  and  the  Session  is  expected  to  be  stormy; 
some  rumours,  however,  are  still  afloat  of  peace, 
general  peace,  and  that  France  will  make  the  over- 
tures. Pitt  will  have  to  contend  with  a  strong 
opposition  probably,  though  probably  also  he  will 
have  enticed  over  some  of  those  who  never  could 
resist  the  attraction  of  power,  place,  or  Court  favor. 
I  should  not  be  surprised  if  an  Earl  nearly  connected 
with  Devonshire  House  should  be  one.  He  is  under 
the  influence  of  the  love  of  those  three  things  just 
named,  and  also  that  of  a  fair  lady,  whose  yearly 
visits  at  his  Country  House  have  often  directed  his 
Politicks,  and  a  little  Scotch  blood  in  her  veins 
makes  her  sensible  to  the  good  things  of  this  world. 
I  beg  dear  Lord  Aberdeen's  pardon  for  this  reflec- 
tion :  he  has  only  the  good,  and  none  of  the  bad,  of 
Scotch  inheritances. 

December  19. 

.  .  .  All  politicks  have  given  way  to  ad- 
miration and  interest  and  curiosity  about  young 
Roscius.  The  most  unbelieving,  like  General  Fitz- 
patrick,1  have,  on  seeing  him,  confessed  that  he  is 
admirable  as  an  actor,  and  cease  talking  of  him  as 
a  boy.  General  Fitzpatrick  wrote  to  Charles  Fox 
that  he  had  been  astonished  and  delighted.  Mr. 
Fox  came  to  town  to  see  him,  but  the  dear  boy  was 
ill  and  confined  to  his  bed.  Every  precaution  was 
taken  to  prevent  any  tumult  from  disappointment, 
and  Wroughton  read  the  physician's  letter,  in  which 

1  General  Fitzpatrick— -Wit  and  politician,  the  most  intimate  friend  of  Charles 
James  Fox. 



he  said  the  boy  could  not  act  without  great  risk,  and 
Mr.  Jordan  acted  in  both  play  and  farce.  How  I 
wish  you  could  see  him!  It  is  the  inspiration  of 
genius  with  perfect  nature  and  a  grace  of  action 
unequalled,  never  forced  in  any  character. 

Lady  Elizabeth  Foster 

To  Augustus  Foster. 

December  25,  1804. 

I  must  begin  by  hoping  that  this  may  have  been 
a  happy  Christmas  to  you,  and  many  may  you  see. 
There  have  been  so  many  rumours  of  changes  here 
that  I  waited  a  little  to  know  what  was  truth  before 
I  wrote  again.  Two  days  ago  the  Prince  of  Wales 
sat  some  time  with  me  in  my  room,  and  told  me  that 
Addington  and  Pitt  shook  hands,  and  had  dined  at 
Lord  Hawkesbury's.  This  seemed  so  strange  that 
I  thought  it  one  of  those  rumours  with  which  people 
about  him  amuse  his  idle  hours,  but  yesterday  it  was 
declared,  and  the  papers  at  least  attribute  the  recon- 
ciliation to  the  King.  That  men  who  have  opposed 
each  other  violently  should  become  friends  is  not  a 
matter  of  surprise  or  novelty,  but  to  forgive  cold, 
unpitying  scorn  and  contempt  has  been  hitherto 
unheard  of,  and  the  Morning  Chronicle  will  not  let 
it  be  forgot  that  Pitt  applied  the  most  contemptuous 
terms  to  Addington  and  his  administration.  If  the 
Doctor1  comes  into  office  he  will  have  a  majority  of 
the  Cabinet,  and  I  should  not  be  surprised  if  he  in 

*  the  Doctor — A  nickname  of  Addington. 


a  few  months  turned  out  Pitt.  The  report  is  also 
that  Lord  Hawkesbury  returns  to  the  foreign  depart- 
ment. All  I  feel  to  care  for  in  this  is  whether  it  is 
a  favorable  change  to  you.  Kind  as  Lord  Harrowby 
was,  I  should  hope  relationship  might  do  still  more 
— at  least  it  is  a  fair  claim  for  promotion.  Poor 
Lord  Harrowby  fell  down  stairs  as  I  told  you,  but 
he  was  sufficiently  recovered  to  be  removed  yester- 
day. The  Princess  Charlotte1  of  Wales  is  at  Carleton 
House,  and  played,  poor  little  thing,  on  the  Piano- 
forte to  the  Prince  to-day.  She  is  pretty,  I  hear,  and 
clever.  The  King  wanted  to  have  her  given  up  to 
him.  The  Prince  does  not  consent  to  that,  but 
appoints  as  nearly  as  he  can  all  the  persons  whom 
the  King  would  have  named  about  the  little  Princess. 
I  believe  that  Miss  Trimmer  will  be  sub-preceptress. 
The  Duke  of  Portland  has  been  in  a  very  bad  state 
of  health  and  retires.  What  the  King's  real  state  is 
I  don't  know,  but  he  went  to  the  Play  in  an  admiral's 
uniform,  which  he  never  did  before.  Sometimes  he 
wears  the  uniform  of  the  Oxford  Blues,  and  the 
other  day  received  Sir  Charles  Poole  on  some  naval 
business  in  an  old  naval  uniform  of  Lord  Howe's 
time,  These  are  facts  which  tell,  yet  what  is  to  be 
done  whilst  he  can  talk  collectedly  on  business? 
Young  Roscius  is  still  ill ;  that  is  the  worst  news,  and 

very  ill.    .    .    . 


The  Morpeths,  Lady  Bessborough,  Lord  Cowper, 
and    Mr.    Ward    supped    here.      Mr.    Ward    told 

1  The  Princess  Charlotte— The  only  child  of  the  Prince  Regent,  afterwards  George 
IV.  She  was  married  to  Leopold,  king  of  the  Belgians,  but  died  at  the  age  of 
twenty-one  (1796-1817). 


Henry  Dillon  he  was  afraid  the  fame  of  his  pam- 
phlet would  outlive  the  stability  of  his  principles, 
and  Lord  St.  Vincent  wrote  to  a  friend  three  days 
ago,  "  Addington  in  opposition  is  a  very  different 
man  from  what  he  was  in  power;  he  will  be  firm  and 
steady,"  e  ben  trovato.  Canning  and  Lord  Granville1 
will  be  miserable  at  this;  it  lowers  so  Pitt's  fine,  lofty 

Corisande  is  still  unmarried.  Ossulston2  is  gone 
to  Cambridge  for  a  week  or  ten  days.  I  daresay  he 
won't  marry  till  March,  because  he  then  expects  a 
little  money,  but  it  is  sad  dawdling. 

Augustus  Foster 

To  Lady  Elizabeth  Foster. 

Washington,  Dec.  30,  1804. 

.  .  .  I  have  at  last  reached  this  soi-disant  city, 
as  you  perceive,  and  am  settled  with  Toujours  Gai,s 
but  such  a  place;  you  can  have  no  imagination  of  it, 
it  is  so  unlike  every  other  sort  or  description  of  a 
heap  of  human  abodes  calling  itself  a  city.  I  made 
a  visit  yesterday  to  the  only  pleasant  family  in  the 
place,  who  live  five  miles  off — a  Mrs.  Barry,  an  Irish 
woman,  who  has  got  a  pretty  daughter  (that  I  mean 
to  carry  with  me  as  cara  sposa  all'  Inghilterra);  the 
badness  of  the  weather  and  the  roads,  and  the 
wretchedness  of  the  carriages,  will  be  the  most  power- 

1Lord  Granville — Granville  Leveson  Gower,  Earl  Granville,  diplomatist  (1773- 

2  Ossulston — Lord  Ossulston,  son  of  the  Earl  of  Tankerville,  to  which  title  he 
succeeded  (1776-1859).  3  Toujours  Gai — A  punning  designation. 


ful  obstacles  to  this  intention  of  mine.  I  wrote  to 
you  from  Norfolk  last.  At  Baltimore  I  got  into  a 
round  of  assemblies  for  five  or  six  days  that  I  stayed 
there,  and  among  the  rest  beheld  Madame  Jerome1 
Buonaparte,  who  has  not  a  good  figure,  but  a  very 
delicate  skin,  and,  I  think,  very  pretty  little  features. 
Jerome2  was  confined.  They  have  both  been  sadly 
tantalized  about  getting  away.  They  were  ship- 
wrecked once,  and  are  afraid  to  go  out  in  a  frigate 
that  lies  in  the  Chesapeake.  The  French  Minister 
did  not  return  his  visit,  so  I  suppose  that  he  is  in 
high  disgrace  with  the  Emperor.  This  is  a  sad 
distance  to  be  at  from  all  the  civilized  world,  and 
whenever  I  think  of  Europe,  I  always  think  I  see 
an  immense  swell  of  sea  between  me  and  it.  This 
place  looks  like — what,  in  fact,  it  is — an  infant  colony. 
Every  man  has  built  his  house  of  wood  or  brick  just 
where  his  fancy  chose,  so  that  there  are  hardly  six 
buildings  together  in  the  whole  of  this  immense 
space.  I  was  presented  to  the  President,3  who 
behaved  to  me  very  civilly  in  general.  Merry  says 
he  has  not  spoken  to  others  he  introduced  to  him. 
He  is  dressed  and  looks  extremely  like  a  very  plain 
farmer,  and  wears  his  slippers  down  at  his  heels: 
only  think  what  must  have  been  poor  Toujours  Gai's 
embarras  when  at  his  first  audience  he  went  all 
bespeckled  with  the  spangles  of  our  gaudish  Court 

*  Madame  Jerome— Daughter  of  Mr.  Patterson,  a  rich  Baltimore  merchant. 

i  Jerome— Youngest  brother  of  Napoleon.  He  was  king  of  Westphalia  from 
1807  to  1813.  He  married  a  princess  of  Wurtemburg  while  his  first  wife  was  still 
alive,  the  marriage  with  Miss  Patterson  being  declared  null  and  void  by  Napoleon 
after  he  had  become  emperor  (1784-1860). 

3  the  President— Thomas  Jefferson,  president  of  the  United  States  from  1801 
to  1809  (1743-1826). 


dress:    the  door  opened  suddenly  too.     He  thrust 
out  his  hand  to  me  as  he  does  to  everybody,  and 
desired  me  to  sit  down.     Luckily  for  me   I    have 
been    in    Turkey,   and    am  quite  at   home    in   this 
primeval    simplicity   of   manners.      However,    they 
ought  to  establish  some  rule  for  foreign  ministers  if 
they  will  copy  at  all  the  customs  of  civilized  Courts. 
As  to  this  variegated  nation — composed  of  British 
of  all  descriptions,  of  French,  Dutch,  Swiss,  Africans, 
&c,  I  can  form  not  the  least  idea  as  yet:  all  I  know 
is   that  I  have  been  disappointed  in  some  things, 
particularly  in  their  want  of  land  eternally,  and  their 
thieving,  which  is  carried  to  such  an  extent  that  there 
is  no  keeping  even  standing  corn  at  a  distance  from 
your  house  here.     Poor  Mr.  Merry  is  in  perpetual 
alarm    lest    his    disorder   should    return,    and    Mrs. 
Merry  has  had  a  very  violent  fever  with  which  she 
still  is  confined  to  her  bed.    He  really  is  a  very  good 
man,  though  [not?]  the  most  methodical  in  the  world. 
We  live  pretty  well,  but  I  have  only  got  one  room, 
and  unluckily  I  sent  my  books  and  most  of  my  things 
from  Norfolk  up  the  Potomac,  so  that  they  are  not 
yet  arrived.    .    .    . 

Lady  Elizabeth  Foster 

To  Augustus  Foster. 


.  .  .  The  cultivation  of  the  muses  would  most 
agreeably  occupy  your  leisure  moments,  and  lead 
you  to  a  study  of  all  that  can  form  and  refine  your 


taste;  it  would  encourage  also  the  enthusiasm  which 
I  think  so  necessary  to  your  happiness  in  every 
situation  ...  a  really  true  enthusiastic  mind  will 
never  want  an  object  for  its  enthusiasm:  you  may 
be  an  enthusiast  in  friendship,  an  enthusiast  in  love, 
in  the  forming  of  one's  own  character  to  the  practice 
of  every  virtue  and  the  fulfilling  of  every  duty;  and 
enthusiasm  is,  in  fact,  what,  well  directed,  leads  to  the 
attainment  of  every  virtue,  and  enables  the  possessor 
of  it  to  walk  out  of  the  common  track  of  common 
characters  who  rest  satisfied  with  doing  what  is 
required  of  them,  but  never  are  equal  to  that  most 
generous,  most  rare  of  all  qualities  l'oubli  de  soi 
meme  (unselfishness) :  it  also  leads  to  a  great  indul- 
gence for  others,  and  a  great  severity  to  one's  self. 
In  short,  enthusiasm  appears  to  me  (perhaps  you 
will  say  I  am  pleading  my  own  cause)  the  vivifying 
heat  that  must  bring  forth  the  seed  of  all  that  is 
good  in  our  natures,  and  lead  to  the  imitation  of  all 
we  see  good  in  others.  The  enthusiasm  which  in- 
spired you  with  some  of  those  very  beautiful  lines 
on  the  deserted  plains  of  Thebes  would,  if  cherished, 
equally  fill  your  mind  at  home  with  admiration  of 
the  Duke  of  Devonshire's  admirable  taste  and  under- 
standing, and  constant  friendship  of  Mr.  Hare,  and 
the  various  excellencies  of  Mr.  Fox's  patriotism  and 
transcendent  abilities,  Mr.  Pitt's  wonderful  talents, 
&c,  &c,  and  would  also  make  you  determine  to 
distinguish  yourself.  ...  I  shall  perhaps  write  again 
and  again  on  this  subject,  for  pray  remember,  when 
you  say  that  my  enthusiasm  has  had  a  fair  and  well- 
shaped  channel,  that  I  was  younger  than  you  when 


I  was  without  a  guide;  a  wife  and  no  husband;  a 
mother  and  no  children;  travelling  for  my  health, 
which  was  impaired  by  sorrow,  and  by  myself  alone 
to  steer  through  every  peril  that  surrounds  a  young 
woman  so  situated: — books,  the  arts,  and  a  wish  to 
be  loved  and  approved;  an  enthusiastic  friendship 
for  these  my  friends;  a  proud  determination  to  be 
my  own  letter  of  recommendation;  these,  with  per- 
haps manners  that  pleased,  realized  my  projects,  and 
gained  me  friends  wherever  I  have  been — but  adieu, 
I  must  go.  Read  Candide  as  an  amusement,  but 
Voltaire  will  only  amuse  but  never  improve  except 
in  tragedies — a  firm  and  manly  trust  in  the  provi- 
dence of  God  will  give  you  happier  hours  than  ever 
Candide's  philosophy  can.  Heaven  bless  and  direct 



Hark!  'twas  the  Knell  of  Death!     What  spirit  fled 
And  burst  those  shackles  man  is  doomed  to  bear? 
Can  it  be  true,  and  midst  the  senseless  Dead 
Must  sorrowing  Thousands  count  the  Loss  of  Hare? 

Shall  not  his  Genius  Life's  short  Date  prolong — 
Pure  as  the  aether  of  its  kindred  Sky? 
Shall  Wit  enchant  no  longer  from  his  Tongue 
Or  beam  in  vivid  Flashes  from  his  Eye? 

Oh,  no,  that  mind  for  every  Purpose  fit 
Has  met,  alas,  the  universal  Doom. 
Unrivalled  Fancy,  Judgment,  Sense,  and  Wit 
Were  his,  and  only  left  him  at  the  Tomb. 


Rest,  Spirit,  rest,  for  gentle  was  thy  Course ; 
Thy  Rays,  like  temper'd  Suns,  no  Venom  knew; 
For  still  Benevolence  alloy'd  the  Force 
Of  the  keen  Darts  thy  matchless  Satire  threw. 

Yet  not  alone  thy  Genius  I  deplore; 
Nor  o'er  thy  various  Talents  drop  the  Tear; 
But  weep  to  think  I  shall  behold  no  more 
A  lov'd  Companion  and  a  Friend  sincere. 

[James  Hare,  1749-1804,  was  a  friend  of  the  Two  Duchesses,  of  Charles  James 
Fox,  and  of  many  others  of  his  eminent  contemporaries.] 



When  a  Peerage  they  give  to  some  son  of  the  earth, 

Yet  he  still  is  the  same  as  before; 
'Tis  an  honour  if  gained  as  the  premium  of  worth, 

But  exposes  a  blockhead  the  more. 

Lady  Elizabeth  Foster 

To  Augustus  Foster. 

February  4,  1805. 

The  ferment  continues  about  Young 
Roscius,  and  to-morrow  he  acts  Octavian  again.  It 
is  the  only  character  I  have  seen  him  in  in  which 
the  beauties  of  his  acting  could  not  surmount  the 
disadvantages  of  his  extreme  youth.  He  spoke,  and 
the  tones  of  his  voice  went  to  the  heart  as  a  man 
reduced  to  madness  from  unhappy  love;  but  he 
looked  a  boy,  and  they  had  made  Mrs.  St.  Leger, 
who  acts  in  Valentine  and  Orson,  do  the  part  of 
Floranthe  with  him — she  is  six  feet  high. 



I  ought  to  talk  of  politicks  to  you,  but  all  con- 
versation begins  and  ends  with  Roscius.  There 
never  was  anything  like  the  beauty  of  his  acting  last 
night,  yet  it  is  a  wretched  play.  Mr.  Fitzpatrick 
went  to  the  boy's  room  to  be  acquainted  with  him. 
His  manners  are  those  of  a  young  man  of  the  first 
fashion  and  good  breeding.  He  is  an  astonishing 
creature,  and  you  would  admire  him,  I  am  sure. 
Think  of  his  feeling,  too.  When  he  first  rehearsed 
Hamlet,  he  had  so  worked  himself  up  that  when,  in 
the  closet  scene,  he  says,  "On  him!  on  him!  look 
how  pale  he  glares!"  he  fainted  in  the  arms  of  his 
friend.  Mr.  Hough,  the  prompter,  caressed  and 
soothed  him,  and  said  he  should  rehearse  no  more 
that  night;  and  next  day  he  said,  "What,  my  dear 
boy,  moved  and  affected  you  so  last  night?"  "Why," 
he  said,  "I  thought  I  did  see  my  father's  ghost." 
Caroline  Wortley  tells  me  that  his  acting  Hamlet  is 
the  finest  piece  of  acting  she  ever  saw  or  can  con- 

Well,  now,  as  to  other  things.  Pitt  is  said  to  have 
written  two  letters  to  the  King  urging  the  making 
Prettyman  Archbishop  of  Canterbury,  which  he 
refused  doing,  and  Sutton  is  appointed.  Lord  Mel- 
ville is  said  to  have  recommended  Admiral  Cochrane 
to  go  out  to  the  West  India  Fleet,  and  this  is  not 
done.  The  rumour  for  some  days  was  that  Pitt 
must  go  out,  but  I  do  not  think  it.  You  will  see  a 
contradiction  of  the  statement  in  Cobbett's1  paper 
about  Canning.      I  have  avoided  asking  about  it  out 

1  William  Coibett — Political  and  miscellaneous  writer  (1762-1835). 


of  delicacy  to  the  Hawkesburys,  but  I  believe  there 
were  friends  of  Canning's  that  would  not  let  it  rest 
so.  I  believe  Wallace  has  been  indiscreet,  else  I 
know  not  how  Cobbett  could  have  had  possession  of 
the  transaction,  or,  at  least,  of  what  was  said  of  it. 
Next  Friday  Mr.  Grey's1  motion  on  the  Spanish 
papers  comes  on.  They  are  rejoicing  it  is  not 
Thursday,  as  Roscius  acts  Romeo!  Opposition  will 
divide  strong,  I  should  think.  .  .  .  All  here  is  as 
you  left  it.  Corisande  still  unmarried,  and  Ossulston 
without  money  to  marry:  how  long  he  thinks  he  can 
go  on  so  I  know  not:  it  makes  her,  poor  little  thing, 
feel  very  uncomfortable.  Dune,  seems  a  little  smitten 
with  your  friend  Mrs.  Payne;  but  her  manner  is 
quite  proper.  B.  North  looks  in  despair;  I  believe 
she  has  cut  him  quite;  and  Lord  and  Lady  Villiers 
look  happiness  itself.  Lady  Boringdon  very  hand- 
some and  happy,  and  he  seems  proud  and  fond  of 
her.     H.  Dillon  has  hid  himself. 

Augustus  Foster 

To  Lady   'Elizabeth  Foster. 

Washington,  February  8,  1805. 

.  .  .  Though  I  have  not  as  yet  seen  much  of 
this  country,  I  have  seen  enough  to  be  convinced 
that  it  will  not  do  to  stay  a  great  while  in  it.  This, 
undoubtedly,  is  a  miserable  place,  but  the  elect  of  all 

1  Mr.  Grey— Afterwards  Earl  Grey,  prime  minister  when  the  great  Reform  Bill 
of  1832  was  passed  (1764-1845). 


the  States  are  assembled  in  it;  and  really  such  a 
gang  to  have  the  affairs  of  an  Empire  wanting  little 
of  the  size  of  Russia  entrusted  to  them  makes  one 
shudder.  Imagination  is  dead  in  this  country;  wit 
is  neither  to  be  found  nor  is  it  understood  among 
them;  all  the  arts  seem  to  shrink  from  it,  and  you 
hear  of  nothing  but  calculation  and  speculation  in 
money  or  in  Politics.  When  I  am  introduced  to  a 
person  here,  I  am  quite  at  a  loss  what  to  converse 
with  him  upon.  Their  depth  of  reading  generally 
goes  no  further  than  Tom  Paine's  muddy  pamphlets, 
or  more  generally  their  own  still  more  muddy 
political  newspapers.  If  they  go  as  far  as  books  of 
travels  and  magazines  it  is  a  very  great  deal.  I 
have  frequently  attended  their  Congress.  There  are 
about  five  persons  who  look  like  gentlemen;  all  the 
rest  come  in  the  filthiest  dresses,  and  are  well  indeed 
if  they  look  like  farmers,  but  most  seem  apothecaries 
and  attorneys.  There  is  only  one  man  who  can 
speak  well;  he  is  the  leader  of  the  Republicans,  or, 
as  the  Federalists  call  them,  Democrats — Randolph.1 
He  is,  I  believe,  going  to  England  and  to  France 
with  a  little  nephew  who  is  deaf  and  dumb,  but 
extremely  intelligent,  to  take  him  to  Lizard.  I  shall 
give  him  a  letter  for  you,  for,  though  the  strangest- 
looking  Demagogue  you  ever  set  eyes  on,  he  is  very 
gentlemanlike,  and,  for  this  country,  a  prodigy.  He 
has  a  little  of  the  affectation  of  a  self-taught  and  late- 
taught  politician,  but  he  is  certainly  clever,  and,  as  a 

^Randolph — John  Randolph,  an  American  statesman  distinguished  for  his  elo- 
quence, wit,  sarcasm,  and  eccentricity,  and  for  thirty  years  more  talked  and  written 
of  than  any  other  American  politician.  He  boasted  that  the  Indian  Princess 
Pocahontas  was  one  of  his  ancestors  (1773-1833).     (From  Chambers'  Cyclopaedia^. 


descendant  of  the  Indian  Queen  Pocahontas,1  you  will 
be  interested  about  him.  .  .  .  I  do  not  think  that 
this  ever  will  become  a  great  city.  The  Demon  of 
speculation  has  already  fixed  himself  here;  and, 
instead  of  giving  premiums  for  building,  the  land  is 
very  dear.  There  is  no  commerce  whatever,  and  all 
the  increase  arises  from  the  demand  for  houses  for 
the  members  of  Congress,  and  those  whom  they 
bring  here;  but  I  heard  so  bad  an  account  of  this 
wretched  settlement,  that  the  only  thing  I  was  dis- 
appointed in  was  the  hope  of  finding  great  forests  of 
fine  trees,  instead  of  which  the  land  is  mere  waste  in 
the  city,  and  all  the  trees  have  been  cut  for  fire.  In 
short,  if  I  don't  fall  in  love  very  soon  the  dullness 
that  stares  you  in  the  face  in  this  letter  will  irrevoc- 
ably get  hold  of  me.  I  do  nothing  but  read  the 
Tempest  and  Midsummer  Night's  Dream  and  Virgil 
to  try  and  keep  alive  the  embers  of  imagination;  but 
really  there  is  in  this  demi-city  demi-wilderness  so 
lovely  a  damsel  of  parti-coloured  extraction — Irish 
and  Portuguese — that  I  won't  quite  be  sure  of  not 
melting  a  little;  if  so,  I  shall  be  destined  to  be  always 
falling  in  love  with  Roman  Catholics.  She  is  the 
most  determined  devotee  in  existence,  almost  starves 
herself  on  fast  days,  but  certainly  is  beautiful;  how- 
ever son  ancora  intatto  per  sicuro. 

''■Pocahontas— Daughter  of  Powhatan,  an  Indian  chief  of  Virginia,  married  to 
John  Rolfe  in  1613,  and  baptized  by  the  name  of  Rebecca  (1595-1617). 


Augustus  Foster 

To  Lady  Elizabeth  Foster, 

Washington,  Feb.  15,  1805. 

I  saw  Jerome  Bonaparte  last  night.  You  seem 
to  be  interested  about  him  in  England.  Those 
letters  are  undoubtedly  authentic,  though  he  tries 
to  persuade  Madame  and  his  friends  that  they 
are  forgeries.  He  has  made  several  attempts  to 
go  away,  and  now  says  he  will  go  with  her  in 
three  months.  He  is  in  size  rather  smaller  than 
Napoleon,  and  very  like  Lord  Bristol1  in  figure. 
He  is  only  like  Bonaparte  in  the  lip.  The  French 
Minister  and  his  affect  to  call  his  wife  Miss 

Patterson  in  speaking  to  others  of  her.  They  are 
both,  I  think,  very  much  to  be  pitied;  and  though 
he  has  been  extravagant  here,  yet  he  has  in  general 
conducted  himself  in  company  modestly  and  unas- 
suming; but  that  and  his  youth  cannot  save  him 
from  the  ill-nature  of  these  most  ill-natured  rene- 
gades from  all  countries  under  the  sun,  the  American 
inhabitants  of  towns.  His  daughter  is  wife  of  an 
Irish  refugee,  who  came  over  here  in  a  very  low 
situation,  indeed,  as  some  say,  hostler;  but  at  present 
against  his  character  thers  is  not  the  least  imputation: 
however,  truth  is  hard  to  be  got  at  here.     .     .     . 

1  Lord  Bristol — The   Bishop  of  Derry  had  died  in  Italy  in  1803,  and  his  son 
Frederick  was  now  Earl  (and  afterwards  marquis)  of  Bristol  (1769-1859). 

FROM  THE  EARL  OF  ABERDEEN.        207 

Lady  Elisabeth  Foster 

To  Augustus  Foster. 

March  3,  1805. 

.  .  .  Miss  Drummond  is  in  love,  they  say, 
with  Young  Roscius,  so  that  all  her  lovers  must 
despair.  He  is  truly,  as  Mr.  Pitt  says,  a  prodigy, 
and  I  do  grieve  that  you  are  not  here  to  see  and 
admire  him.  It  has  made  a  change  in  London  life, 
and  the  theatre  is  now  the  great  topic  of  conversa- 
tion and  the  favorite  amusement.  Even  Grassini1 
complains  that  he  has  spoiled  the  Opera,  and  is  the 
great  attraction  to  all  people.  I  assure  you  that  the 
great  politicians  consult  what  day  he  acts  that  they 
may  not  give  their  dinners  on  those  days.  We  saw 
him  the  other  day  at  Lady  Abercorn's.  Lady 
Hamilton  did  her  attitudes,  and  the  Boy  was  asked 
to  recite.  He  refused  a  great  while.  At  last  his 
father  asked  him.  He  said,  "  I  must  do  whatever 
my  father  desires  me,"  and  came,  not  over-pleased,  to 
the  room  where  people  were  waiting  to  see  him,  and 
then  he  recited  a  speech  of  Hassan's. 

The  Earl  of  A  berdeen 

To  Augustus  Foster. 

March  4,  1805. 

My  dear  Augustus, — It  is  but  two  days  since  I 
emerged    from    obscurity   and   resumed    my   place 

1  Grassini — Josephina  Grassini,  the  finest  Italian  singer  of  her  time  (1775-1850). 


amongst  the  constellations  which  adorn  Babylon. 
That  you  wallow  in  space  is  most  true,  but  that  you 
embrace  the  Heavenly  Goddess  of  Liberty  I  beg 
leave  to  doubt;  it  must  be  a  painted  representation, 
no  more  like  her  than  a  Volunteer  is  to  a  Soldier. 
Your  Republic  is  certainly  in  her  childhood,  but  she 
has  nothing  of  infancy  but  its  frowardness,  and  in- 
stead of  the  strength  and  vigour  of  youth  she  has 
nothing  but  its  insolence  and  ignorance.  The  re- 
semblance of  Washington  to  Rome  is  a  good  bur- 
lesque. As  for  my  Plans  they  are  far  from  being 
decided,  whether  I  go  to  Happy  climes  or  remain 
here,  whether  I  roam  in  Liberty  amongst  the 
Beauties  of  the  Day  or  content  myself  with  the 
possession  of  one  object.  The  thermometer  of  my 
affections  is  not  very  far  from  the  freezing  point,  and, 
what  is  worse,  I  fear  the  mercury  is  still  sinking.  I 
saw  your  former  flame  at  Devonshire  House  looking 
very  well,  but  no  Ossulston.  ...  It  is  a  great  con- 
solation that  your  women  are  pretty.  As  for  their 
expecting  you  to  be  enamoured  at  the  first  glance  it 
is  no  objection,  provided  they  comply  equally  soon; 
Whittington  desires  to  be  remembered.  The  tooth 
of  a  Mammoth  would  highly  gratify  him.  If  you 
meet  with  the  seeds  of  plants  which  are  very  rare  in 
this  country  send  me  a  few  for  a  beautiful  Dame 
who  has  nothing  but  vulgar  roses  and  lilies  in  her 
cheeks.  Write  me,  and  believe  me  your  most  sin- 
cere and  faithful  friend, 



Lady  Elizabeth  Foster 

To  Augustus  Foster. 

Devonshire  House,  March  25,  1805. 
.  .  .  Dear  Lord  Aberdeen  really  seems  quite 
anxious  (about  the  illness  of  Georgiana,  Duchess  of 
Devonshire).  He  had  been  one  of  the  few  infidels 
about  the  young  Roscius,  but  he  is,  I  hear,  won  over, 
and  acknowledges  his  merit.  Mr.  Crawford  saw 
him  for  the  first  time,  and  in  Hamlet,  the  other  night. 
He  said  that  he  expected  to  be  disappointed,  having 
heard  so  much  and  remembering  Garrick  so  per- 
fectly, but  that  he  was  astonished  and  delighted,  and 
that  in  many  parts  he  thought  him  not  even  inferior 
to  Garrick.1  There  never  certainly  was  so  extraor- 
dinary a  being,  and  the  more  one  thinks  of  it  the 
more  extraordinary  it  appears.  Sir  Walter2  and  Dr. 
Blane3  have  just  been  here.  The  Duchess  is  really 
better,  but  yet  they  think  there  must  be  more  pain, 
but  not  so  bad  as  before — at  least  I  am  willing  to 
think  not.  They  had  a  budget  of  news.  Lord 
Chatham  has  the  government  of  Plymouth  vacant 
by  the  death  of  Lord  Lennox;  that  the  Russians 
will  certainly  co-operate  with  us  and  send  100,000 
men  into  the  field,  and  that  Sir  S.  Craig  is  to  com- 
mand the  expedition:  he  is  first  to  take  Minorca, 
and  then  proceed  to  Malta  to  combine  where  to 
meet  the  Russians  and  their  future  operations.     Of 

1  Garrick— David  Garrick;  Pope  said  of  him  after  seeing  him  act  in  Richard  II., 
"That  young  man  never  had  his  equal  as  an  actor,  and  will  never  have  a  rival" 

2  Sir  Walter— Six  Walter  Farquhar,  the  physician  mentioned  previously. 
3Dr.  Blane— Afterwards  Sir  Gilbert  Blane,  a  celebrated  physician  (1749-1834). 



all  the  Convoy,  it  is  now  known  that  the  French 
took  three  ships,  and  allowing  to  the  bravery  of  the 
Arrow  sloop  and  Acheron  brig.     .     .     . 

March  28. 

The  publick  go  on  being  delighted  with  young 
Roscius,  Parliament  discussing  the  Militia,  the  papers 
are  dwelling  on  the  tenth  report,  and  Buonaparte  is 
adding  more  crowns  to  his  Imperial  Diadem.  It  is 
a  fortnight,  I  believe,  since  I  have  stirred  from 
home,  so  I  can  only  give  you  outlines  of  news.  A 
poem1  has  just  appeared  of  Walter  Scott's,  which  is 
said  to  be  good,  but  till  I  hear  a  little  more  of  it  I 
shall  not  send  it  as  it  is  very  long. 

Lady  Elizabeth  Foster 

To  A  ugustus  Foster. 

April  5,  1805. 

The  fifth  representation  of  Hamlet  has  filled  the 
house  more  than  I  have  yet  seen  it.  I  never  saw 
him  act  so  well  as  to-night,  and  Lord  Aberdeen  was 
quite  delighted  with  him,  of  course,  you  know  that 
I  mean  Roscius.  ...  I  am  afraid  Lord  Aberdeen 
is  vexed  about  Lord  Melville.2  I  send  you  the 
paper  with  his  letter.  The  tenth  report2  is  as  yet 
too  large,  but  when  the  extract  or  abridgement  comes 
out  I  will  send  it  you.     Lord  Suffolk  chose  to  move 

'poem — The  Lay  of  the  Last  Minstrel. 

*  Melville~-Ylenry  Dundas,  Viscount  Melville,  long  prominent  in  the  political 
world.  He  was  impeached  for  crimes  and  misdemeanours  committed  while  acting 
as  treasurer  of  the  navy,  but  was  acquitted.  The  ' '  tenth  report "  refers  to  the  pro- 
ceedings in  regard  to  this  trial  (1740-1811). 


in  the  House  to-night  for  the  authentic  letter,  the 
one  which  has  been  published  in  the  papers  being, 
he  said,  a  forgery,  as  it  criminated  Lord  M.  more 
than  he  was  before  it.  Some  think  it  clears  him  at 
least  from  having  speculated  for  himself. 

News  is  come  of  the  French  attack  on  Dominica. 
The  Toulon  fleet  was  said  to  have  passed  the  straits 
of  Gibraltar  in  order  to  join  the  Rochefort  squadron 
in  the  West  Indies,  but  some  reports  say  that  it  is 
gone  back.  The  present  moment  is  not  a  bright  one 
for  Ministers.  They  are  in  need  of  some  coup  d'etat 
to  help  them  on.  One  of  the  rumours  of  the  day  is 
that  Lord  Wellesley1  has  declared  himself  Sovereign 
of  India;  then  he  and  Holkar2  may  fight  it  out. 
Your  friend  Lord  A.3  braves  the  Duchess  of  Gordon,4 
and  flirts  with  Harriet5  more  than  ever.  I  admire 
his  spirit,  but  I  am  sorry  the  papers  have  got  hold 
of  it,  and  amiable  and  delightful  as  he  is,  he  would 
not  be  a  good  match  for  her.  Lord  Tankerville6  has 
not  relented,  and  I  have  no  guess  how  that  will  end. 
.  .  .  Speaking  of  Jerome  "yet  he  has  in  general 
conducted  himself  in  company  modestly  and  unas- 
suming", it  should  be  either  modestly  and  unassum- 

1  Lord  Wellesley — The  Marquis  Wellesley,  the  famous  governor-general  of  India, 
and  eldest  brother  of  the  Duke  of  Wellington.  He  returned  from  India  in  1805, 
having  been  about  eight  years  there  (1760-1842). 

2  Holkar — Jeswunt  Rao  Holkar,  Maratta  ruler  of  Indore,  who  gave  much  trouble 
to  the  British,  and  gained  a.  rather  important  victory  over  the  Colonel  Monson 
mentioned  here. 

^your  friend  Lord  A. — Lord  Aberdeen. 

*  The  Duchess  of  Gordon — She  probably  wished  him  to  marry  a  daughter  of  her 
own.  The  Duchess— Jane  Maxwell — was  famous  as  a  successful  match-maker,  and 
was  in  several  ways  somewhat  notorious. 

5  Harriet — Lady  Harriet  Cavendish,  daughter  of  the  fifth  Duke  of  Devonshire. 

6  Lord  Tankerville — He  appears  to  have  been  against  the  marriage  of  his  son 
Lord  Ossulston  with  the  Corisande  several  times  referred  to  in  the  correspondence, 
but  the  marrriage  took  place. 


ingly,  or  in  company  he  is  modest  and  unassumi 
These  are  only  little  inaccuracies  and  inelegan 
which  you  require  to  avoid,  by  having  the  habit 
writing  correctly  at  all  times,  and  this  would  prev 
your  having  even  any  trouble  in  avoiding  them,  i 
as  you  seem  to  have  acquired  a  love  and  habit 
study  and  application,  do,  my  dearest  child,  put  t 
time  to  profit  in  every  way,  and  the  very  dulln 
you  naturally  complain  of  will  then  turn  to  yi 
advantage — set  doggedly  to,  as  Johnson  called 
not  only  to  translate  Cicero,  but  to  transcribe  Li 
Chesterfield.  Transcribing  forms  the  style  as  tra 
lating  does  the  judgment  and  taste.  If  you  acqu 
a  habit  of  correct  and  elegant  writing  now  it  is  dc 
for  life;  your  style  is  natural  and  agreeable;  i 
construction  of  your  phrases  is  all  that  requi 
attending  to;  whatever  is  simplest  is  best,  but  tr 
the  grammatical  part  should  be  pure  and  correct 
the  utmost.  You  must  forgive  these  criticisms,  1 
consequence  of  materno  affetto  which  is  watchi 
over  you  most  anxiously.  Let  me  know  where  y 
are  likely  to  go  in  the  spring  that  I  may  follow  y 
on  the  map.  You  will  hear  of  the  reverses  in  Inc 
and  the  shocking  fate  of  Colonel  Monson's  detai 
ment.  Lord  Cornwallis1  is  going  to  give  peace,  a 
hope,  to  that  desolated  country;  would  the  oli 
branch  could  be  extended  over  Europe.     .     .     . 

1Lord  Cornwallis — He  was  appointed,  in  1804,   governor-general  of  Indi; 
succession  to  the  Marquis  Wellesley,  but  died  in  1805. 

FROM  THE  EARL  OF  ABERDEEN.        213 

The  Earl  of  Aberdeen 

To  Augustus  Foster. 

Watier's  Club,  April  6,  1805. 

My  dear  Augustus, — I  heard  of  you  lately  from 
Lady  Elizabeth,  and  am  sorry  that  you  continue  to 
dislike  the  Metropolitan  residence  of  Washington, 
although  in  one  respect  it  should  give  me  pleasure, 
as  it  will  lessen  the  impediments  to  your  return. 
There  is  nothing  of  great  consequence.  I  am  not 
sanguine  about  Russia,  but  combined  expeditions 
are  talked  of,  and  we  have  already  despatched  some 
thousand  men.  The  most  atrocious  virulence  which 
ever  disgraced  a  party  has  been  exerted  against 
Lord  Melville,  but  he  will  ultimately  triumph — 
Magna  est  Veritas  et  praevalebit.  The  Duchess,  you 
will  have  heard,  has  been  very  ill,  but  is  now  much 
recovered.  Your  old  flame1  is  still  in  statu  quo, 
although  Lord  Tankerville,  I  understand,  now  con- 
sents. I  think  Grantham  is  very  far  gone  with  Miss 
Pole,  who  is  certainly  the  prettiest  girl  in  London. 
Au  reste  there  have  been  produced  but  few  beauties 
this  spring.  Lady  Charlotte  Gower  will  be  pretty; 
there  are  two  Lady  Fitzgeralds  greatly  celebrated, 
but  without  much  reason.     .     .     .         Aberdeen. 

1  Corisande  de  Gramont. 


Lady  Elizabeth  Foster 

To  Augustus  Foster. 

Devonshire  House,  April  10,  1805 

.  .  .  I  finished  the  last  letter  on  Monday  tl 
8th.  That  eventful  day!1  we  received  in  the  cour 
of  the  evening  several  notes  from  the  House 
Commons  saying  that  the  opinion  of  the  Hou 
seemed  to  go  very  much  with  them  (opposition)  ai 
that  Pitt  had  spoke  without  one  solitary  cheer, 
thing,  I  suppose,  unknown  to  him  before.  Lo 
Henry  Petty  spoke  admirably,  and  Lord  John  wrc 
us  word  that  he  thought  that  they  would  divide  17 
a  strong  division  for  opposition.  Mr.  Pitt  w 
keeping  his  friends  together  saying  that  the  ne 
question  he  should  have  to  carry  was  so  and  s 
whatever  it  was  I  forget  it  now.  The  question  w 
called  for  before  five;  a  great  and  awful  silen 
ensued.  The  Speaker  rose  and  said  that  the  motii 
for  a  secret  committee  had  appeared  to  him  to  be 
fair  and  equitable  measure,  but  that  the  charge  whi 
had  been  brought  before  him  was  so  strong  he  mu 
according  to  his  conscience,  give  his  vote  for  t 
question.  The  ayes  have  it.  They  had  divid 
equally,  and  he  gave  the  casting  vote.  He  was  p; 
as  ashes,  and  you  might  have  heard  a  pin  drop;  it 
an  event  that  occupies  every  creature.     The  Hou 

1  That  eventful  day — Eventful  in  the  proceedings  against  Lord  Melville. 
Whitbread  moved  certain  resolutions  censuring  the  conduct  of  Lord   M.; 
moved  the  previous  question  ;  and  the  votes  being  equal  the  Speaker  (Mr.  Abl 
afterwards  Lord  Colchester)  gave  his  casting  vote  in  favour  of  Mr.  Whitbre; 
motion.     Lord  M.  at  once  resigned  the  post  of  First  Lord  of  the  Admiralty, 
his  name  was  erased  from  the  list  of  members  of  the  Privy  Council,  but  L 
Aberdeen's  confidence  in  his  ultimate  triumph  was  not  misplaced. 


sat  again  to-day.  I  saw  my  sister  in  the 
she  was  extremely  low.  I  told  her  what' 
feel,  that  I  was  nervous  and  agitated,  and  that  I 
believed  whoever  knew  Lord  Melville  felt  concern 
and  regard,  and  I  for  my  own  part  feel  a  disbelief 
that  he  would  have  profited  by  the  peculation,  how- 
ever wrong  it  was  to  pass  it  over  in  another  so 
lightly.  She  said  certainly  it  was  very  wrong,  but 
that  she  hoped  nothing  more  would  be  done,  as  the 
national  justice  might  now  be  satisfied.  I  saw  her 
and  Mr.  Grey  to-day,  but  I  don't  know  what  they 
mean  to  do.  Only  think  of  Lord  Melville  being 
obliged  to  have  a  great  dinner  on  the  next  day. 
How  I  do  feel  for  them.  Lady  Hawkesbury  said 
they  got  through  it  pretty  well. 


Mr.  Whitbread's  motion,  you  will  see,  he  consented 
to  withdraw,  and  only  moved  that  the  resolutions 
should  be  carried  up  to  the  King  to-morrow.  This 
Pitt  agreed  to.  The  debate  was  animated.  Mr. 
Grey,  Duncannon,  and  Lord  Ossulston  supped  with 
us  afterwards.  Mr.  Grey  said  that  Canning's  had 
been  the  most  intemperate  attack  upon  him  and 
very  unexpected,  as  lately  there  had  been  much 
intercourse  between  them  of  a  very  friendly  kind, 
and  certainly  what  he  advanced  had  nothing  to  do 
with  the  present  case.  The  temper  of  the  House 
was  milder.  Wilberforce  said  that  as  the  national 
justice  was  satisfied  he  wished  the  question  not  to  be 
pressed  further.  Fox's  was  very  brilliant  and  very 
severe.     How  sorry  I  am  for  Lord  Aberdeen;  he 


will  feel  this,  I  am  sure,  deeply.  Lord  Melville  wa 
so  kind  to  him,  and  he  has  so  much  heart.  Th 
impression  is  beyond  the  giving  you  an  idea  of. 

Chiswick,  April. 

Lord  Aberdeen  called  on  me  to-day.  On  takini 
my  hand,  I  felt  his  as  cold  as  marble;  he  thre^ 
himself  on  a  chair  and  said  what  miserable  sa' 
things  have  passed  since  I  saw  you.  It  made  me  s 
nervous  I  could  hardly  speak,  but  I  told  him  that 
could  not  express  to  him  how  much  I  felt  for  Lon 
Melville;  that  those  who,  like  me,  had  seen  hir 
in  his  private  life  must  feel  a  regard  and  affectioi 
for  him  that  nothing  could  alter;  and  I  owned  als< 
that  I  felt  a  disbelief  that  he  ever  enriched  himsell 
though  I  own  I  thought  opposition  right  in  doini 
what  they  had  done.  Oh!  good  God,  yes,  he  said 
he  was  condemned  on  his  own  confession  of  breac 
of  an  Act  of  Parliament  and  allowing  Trotter1  t 
speculate  with  the  publick  money;  it  was  right,  i 
was  necessary  he  should  go  out  and  that  there  shoul 
be  this  censure.  I  should  not  have  mentioned  thi; 
but  I  cannot,  cannot  bear  that  a  suspicion  shoul 
rest  on  anybody's  mind  that  he  could  enrich  himsel 
Those  who  knew  him  will  not  believe  he  did. 
said  I  hoped  it  might  be  proved,  but  thought  Pitt' 
speech  had  been  a  weak  one.  He  said  he  wa 
frightened  for  the  first  time  in  his  life;  dismay  an 
horror  were  in  his  looks,  he  never  raised  his  eye 
from  the  ground,  and  next  day  when  he  called  o 
Lord  Melville  he  was  some  time  without  uttering 

1  Trotter — Paymaster  of  the  navy  under  Lord  Melville. 


I  asked  him  how  Lord  Melville  bore  it;  he  said 
well;  that  he  reproached  them  for  their  melancholy 
countenances,  and  said  it  looked  as  if  they  thought 
him  guilty;  indiscreet  he  had  been,  but  he  had 
not  been  more.  I  do  assure  you,  dear  Augustus, 
I  was  nervous  and  agitated  to  a  great  degree.  I 
felt  for  him  as  his  and  as  your  friend,  and  I  am 
sorry  for  Lord  Melville;  it  is  the  deathblow  to  his 
greatness.  He  falls,  as  Wolsey  did,  never  to  rise 
again,  and  like  him  with  too  much  of  former  power 
and  with  some  great  and  good  qualities.  The  im- 
pression on  the  public  mind  is  beyond  all  belief;  it 
occupies  everybody  and  all  day  long;  it  is  a  fearful 
example  of  the  vicissitude  of  human  prosperity.  He 
was  a  man  who  had  a  real  pleasure  in  obliging  and 
in  doing  a  kind  thing.  I  hear  that  he  will  be  re- 
gretted in  the  navy,  where  every  thing  went  on  well 
and  with  kindness  to  the  officers  and  men.  Adieu, 
my  dearest  Augustus.  As  this  is  a  chance  letter,  I 
will  say  no  more  now.  I  asked  Lord  Aberdeen  to 
find  out  for  me  if  they  would  like  to  receive  me  as 
they  are  going  to  Wimbledon,  and  I  would  drive 
there  from  here,  though  it  would  be  a  nervous  visit. 
Adieu,  adieu.  I  never  remember  a  question  in 
which  I  thought  opposition  right  would  give  me  so 
much  pain. 

Lady  Elizabeth  Foster 

To  Augustus  Foster. 

Chiswick,  April  22,  1805. 
Lord  Aberdeen  dined  here  yesterday,   and  was 
introduced  to  the  Duke,  who  I  heard  liked  him  very 


much.  I  had  a  wretched  sick  headache  from  cryir 
at  the  play  of  Zara,  in  which  Roscius  in  the  last  A 
outdid  himself,  and  I  was  so  undone  by  it  I  cou 
not  leave  my  room,  but  Caro  told  me  it  all  went  c 
very  well :  he  was  shy,  to  be  sure,  and  during  dinn 
did  not,  I  am  told,  talk  much,  but  that  is  no  fau 
young  as  he  is,  and  after  dinner  he  was  at  his  eas 
and  Caro,  Harriet,  Georgiana,  and  he  had  a  gre 
deal  of  conversation,  and  you  know  how  good  h 
conversation  is.  Mr.  Bennet  dined  here,  and  tl 
Duchess  wanted  Lord  A.  to  sleep  here,  but  he  w; 
going  on  to  Wimbledon:  his  feeling,  yet  candou 
about  all  that  business  of  Lord  Melville,  is  mo 
amiable.  He  told  me  that  it  was  going  on  rath 
better,  and  that  Trotter  now  was  willing  to  make  i 
affidavit  that  Lord  Melville  had  no  share. 

The  Duke  has  been  to  the  Installation.  It  was 
very  magnificent  sight,  and  it  all  went  off  very  we 
Nothing  extraordinary  in  the  King's  behaviour  e: 
cept  wearing  the  most  wonderful  wig  ever  seen,  ar 
which  attracted  every  body's  notice  as  soon  as  1 
appeared.  .  .  .  Next  day  the  Prince  and  Dul 
of  Clarence1  dined  at  Chiswick.  Pitt  is  to  anticipa 
the  motions  which  opposition  meant  to  bring  forwar 
and  moves  for  continuing  the  naval  commission  ar 
instituting  inquiries  into  the  war  department.  S 
Charles  Middleton  is  to  be  First  Lord  of  the  A' 
miralty,  but  he  is  supposed  to  be  a  creature  of  L01 

^■Duke  of  Clarence — Afterwards  King  William  IV.  (1765-1837). 



Lord  Aberdeen,  Ossulston,  Lord  H.  Petty,  W. 
Lamb,  and  Lord  Brook  supped  here  after  the  Opera. 
The  news  of  the  day,  and  this  Lord  R.  Spencer  had 
told  me  before  dinner,  is  that  Addington  and  Lord 
Buckinghamshire  have  resigned.  I  asked  Lord 
Henry  P.,  and  he  said  he  believed  it  was  certain, 
and  on  the  grounds  that  Pitt  required  a  support  of 
Lord  Melville  which  Addington  could  not  conscien- 
tiously give.  Lord  Aberdeen  told  me  that  some  con- 
dition for  favouring  Lord  St.  Vincent  had  not  been 
complied  with,  and  that  he  imagined  that  they  cer- 
tainly would  go  out,  for  their  conversation,  he  says, 
does  not  agree  with  the  votes  they  give,  nor  were 
those  votes  of  all  their  friends.  It  excites  some 
curiosity,  as  you  may  believe. 


All  this  morning  the  resignation  appeared  certain, 
but  Pitt  was  known  to  have  gone  to  Richmond 
(where  Addington  lives),  and  conferences  of  various 
kinds  were  held.  Four  of  the  Cabinet  Ministers 
were  sent  for  from  the  Academy  dinner  yesterday  to 
attend  a  Cabinet  Council,  and  about  six  to-day  it  was 
known  that  a  reconciliation  had  been  effected.  Has 
Pitt  or  Addington  yielded?  Will  Sir  C.  Middleton 
remain  First  Lord  of  the  Admiralty?  Voila  ce  qu'il 
faut  resoudre  et  qui  sera  probablement  connu  demain. 
Meanwhile  more  letters  are  come  from  America  and 
none  from  you,  but  Lady  Hawkesbury  tells  me  such 
a  panegyric  of  you  as  gave  her  the  greatest  satis- 
faction.    I  long  to  read  the  letter. 


May  2nd. 

You  will  see  by  the  papers  all  the  rumours  of  th 
French  fleet  and  of  ours.  Dieu  sait  ce  qui  sera  d 
nous,  but  if  the  French  can  get  out  when  they  choos 
why  should  our  blockading  system  continue  whic 
so  fatigues  ships  and  men.  .  .  .  The  Duke  and  a 
of  us  are  going  to  see  young  Roscius  to-night  in  th 
character  of  Richard  the  Third.  It  is  a  bold  undei 
taking,  but  his  Genius  justifies  his  daring.  God  bles 
you,  my  dear  child,  and  may  you  soon  quit  those  in 
hospitable  climes  you  are  in,  though  I  hear  that  evei 
the  Americans  are  delighted  with  you,  and  wonde 
we  don't  always  send  our  young  men  of  fashion  ther 
rather  than  to  France  or  Italy. 

Lady  Elizabeth  Foster 

To  Augustus  Foster. 

Devonshire  House,  May  21,  1805. 

.  .  .  Since  my  last  letter  there  was  anothe 
question  lost  by  Ministers,  and  the  motion  for  taking 
Lord  Melville's  name  out  of  the  list  of  Privy  Coun 
cillors  was  carried.  Indeed  Pitt  announced  that  h< 
gave  way,  and  had  advised  the  King  to  do  so. 
hope  there  will  be  no  need  of  any  thing  further.  H< 
is  obliged  to  sell  his  house  in  town,  to  let  Wimbledon 
and  is  going  somewhere  to  the  sea  side  with  her 
It  is  a  most  melancholy  vicissitude,  and  I  do  fee 
for  him  to  my  heart.  Lord  Aberdeen  comes  hen 
to-night.  There  is  a  little  dance  after  the  Opera.  ] 
know  not  why,  but  we  have  not  seen  so  much  o 


him  lately,  which  I  regret  very  much,  and  am  afraid 
there  are  plots  to  keep  him  away.  The  day  before 
yesterday  Madame  Jerome  Bonaparte  landed  at 
Dover.  She  had  been  to  Lisbon,  and  not  allowed 
to  land  there.  I  hear  she  then  went  to  Holland,  and 
orders  were  sent  there  not  to  receive  her,  and  at  last 
the  ship  put  into  the  Downs,  and  orders  were  sent 
for  her  landing  and  every  attention  to  be  paid  her, 
though  I  heard  Lord  Hawkesbury  say  he  should  not 
allow  any  of  the  men  to  land,  but  I  hope  that  this  is 
not  so,  as  I  see  by  the  papers  that  her  brother  and  a 
physician  are  on  board  with  her.  What  a  strange 
fate  hers  seems  to  be.  I  should  like  to  see  her,  but 
I  am  afraid  they  won't  let  her  come  to  London, 
which  seems  to  me  very  extraordinary.  I  should 
like  to  talk  to  her  of  you,  and  I  feel  inclined  to  like 
her  from  what  you  said  of  her  and  from  her  unhappy 
situation.  He  is  supposed  to  be  gone  on  to  Madrid. 
As  to  publick  affairs,  the  combined  fleets1  are  said 
certainly  to  be  out  of  Cadiz,  and  Lord  Nelson  cer- 
tainly to  have  passed  the  straits  and  to  be  coming 
homewards.  Whether  this  means  that  the  enemy 
intend  a  great  junction  of  all  their  fleets  to  make  an 
attack  on  Ireland,  or  that  some  are  gone  to  make  a 
great  attack  on  Jamaica,  nobody  seems  able  to  guess, 
but  there  is  a  look  of  anxiety  amongst  Ministers 
which  gives  an  idea  of  alarm,  and  the  total  want  of 
information  of  where  the  combined  fleets  are  gone 
adds  to  that  apprehension.  However,  with  Lord 
Nelson  near  us,  I  think  we  need  not  fear  our  own 
shores,  but  think  what  a  blow  Jamaica  would  be  to 

1  The  combined  fleets — French  and  Spanish. 


Charles  Ellis,  and  indeed  to  hundreds  of  others — m; 
speriamo.  ...  Of  private  news  already  I  havi 
told  you  that  Caroline  Ponsonby1  is  to  be  married  t< 
William  Lamb,  now  an  elder  brother.  It  is  to  b< 
next  week,  and  Lord  Cowper's  marriage  is  declarec 
with  Emily  Lamb,  and  they  are  all  to  be  here  to 
night.  These  are  certainly  two  as  pretty  marriage 
as  possible.  The  Melbournes,  as  the  Queen  good 
naturedly  said,  wanted  this  consolation  after  thei: 
trying  misfortunes,  and  they  are  very  happy  with  it. 


Madame  Jerome  is  come  to  London.  I  wish  \ 
knew  how  to  get  acquainted  with  her.  We  are  al 
very  much  occupied  at  present  with  the  story  of  ar 
American  lady,  a  Mrs.  Randolph,  who  is  daughter  tc 
English  parents,  their  birth  and  fortune  considerable 
They  changed  their  name  on  going  from  Englanc 
to  America.  She  was  daughter  to  a  Duchess  anc 
married  an  Earl's  second  son,  and  this  third  daughtei 
married  a  Mr.  Randolph.  The  estate  in  Virginia,  1 
think,  was  disputed ;  they  lost  it,  and  the  lawsuit  cos 
a  great  sum,  and  they  were  ruined.  The  yellow 
fever  carried  all  off  but  this  young  woman,  to  whorc 
on  dying  her  mother  revealed  her  family  name,  bu 
made  her  promise  never  to  reveal  it.  She  came  tc 
England,  as  she  supposed,  to  a  friend  of  her  mother 
and  on  her  landing  read  her  death  in  the  papers 
She  wandered  about  till,  fainting  through  want,  sh( 
knocked  at  the  door  of  Mr.  Mansbridge  to  ask  hin 
a  permission  for  the  parish  infirmary.     Her  appear 

1  Caroline  Ponsonby — See  Appendix  (d.  1828). 


ance  and  story  strongly  interested  him,  and  Mr. 
Trumbull  of  America  was  with  him.  He  promised 
to  inquire  about  her,  and  has  written  from  America 
that  all  she  has  told  is  true.  I  wish  you,  too,  would 
inquire  about  her  family.  They  lived  chiefly,  I  think, 
in  Virginia  and  Philadelphia,  and  were  well  known 
and  in  great  consideration.  I  never  heard  a  more 
melancholy  story,  and  Mrs.  Randolph  is  a  widow  of 
one  and  twenty. 

June  2. 

I  have  seen  Mr.  Trumbull's  letters,  which  mention 
Mrs.  Randolph  as  being  known  to  several  persons 
and  very  much  respected  by  them,  but  the  mystery 
is  not  yet  cleared,  though,  by  circulating  the  paper 
which  gives  an  account  of  her,  they  hope  some  of 
her  father  or  mother's  family  may  claim  her. 

Caroline  Ponsonby  is  to  be  married  to-morrow; 
she  looks  prettier  than  ever  I  saw  her.  Sometimes 
she  is  very  nervous,  but  in  general  she  appears  to  be 
very  happy.  W.  Lamb  seems  quite  devoted  to  her. 
They  supped  here  last  night,  and  she  received  her 
presents  and  gave  some.  Lord  Morpeth  gave  her 
a  beautiful  acqua  marina  clasp.  I  gave  her  a  little 
pearl  cross  with  a  small  diamond  in  the  middle. 
Caroline  gives  a  hair  bracelet  with  amethyst  clasp. 
Lord  Melbourne  gave  her  a  beautiful  set  of  ame- 
thysts, and  Lady  M.  a  diamond  wreath.  The  Duke 
of  Devonshire  gives  her  her  wedding  gown,  and  the 
Duchess  a  beautiful  veil.  Harriet  gives  a  beautifull 
burnt  topaz  cross,  and  then,  &c.  &c.  What  a  com- 
fort to  have  her  so  near,  and  yet  what  a  trial  to  poor 
Lady  Bessborough. 


June  z,tk 

The  marriage  was  on  the  3d  at  half  after  seven 
8  in  the  evening.  We  went  to  Cavendish  Squa: 
and  besides  the  Devonshire  House  party  were  or 
the  Melbournes,  Morpeths,  Fitzwilliams,  Lord  Spe 
cer,  Lady  Sara  and  Lord  Althorpe,  Lord  Cowper 
trustee,  and  your  brother  by  Caroline's  own  invitatic 
They  set  out  about  nine;  she  was  dreadfully  nervoi 
but  his  manner  to  her  was  beautifull,  so  tender  ai 
considerate.  There  was  a  great  crowd  assemble 
and  the  favours  looked  very  gay  and  pretty.  Th 
went  to  Brocket  Hall,1  and  will  stay  there,  I  belie\ 
about  a  fortnight.  The  Melbournes  fit  up  the  midc 
apartment  at  Whitehall  for  them.  As  to  poor  Cori 
all  goes  on  the  same.  She  looks  thin  and  ill,  I  thin 
He  has  no  money  to  marry,  and  his  father  is  obstina 
The  family  praise  her  very  much.     .     .     . 

The  only  news  here  is  that  Lord  Melville  is 
appear  at  the  bar  of  the  House  of  Commons  ai 
make  a  speech  in  his  own  defence.  Probably  tl 
will  save  him  from  being  impeached.  Yesterd 
dispatches  were  received  from  Nelson,  and  he  w 
pursuing  the  combined  fleet,  yet  very  unlikely  is 
that  he  should  meet  with  it;  great  movements  a 
seen  in  all  the  fleets  nearer  home,  but  invasion 
scarcely  now  believed  in.     .     .     . 

Lord  Aberdeen  is,  I  am  afraid,  in  a  grand  flirtati* 
with  Lady  Catherine  Hamilton.  They  make  hi 
great  advances,  and  a  person  here  whom  I  h 
hoped  he  liked  or  seemed  inclined  to  like  is  fr 
proud  to  seem  to  care  if  not  certain  of  being  pi 

^Brocket  Hall— The  country  seat  of  Lord  Melbourne  in  Hertfordshire. 


ferred,  so  the  others  have  champ  libre,  and  as  it  is  a 
connection  as  to  Politicks  that  his  friends  would  like 
I  dare  say  it  will  do,  but  he  is  too  good  for  them;  I 
don't  say  for  her,  for  she  is  pretty  and,  I  believe, 
amiable,  but  I  am  very  sorry  for  her.  I  think  him 
delightful,  and  I  am  sure  he  likes  the  society  here. 

Augustus  Foster 

To  Lady  Elizabeth  Foster. 

Washington,  June  2,  1805. 

Aberdeen's  plan  of  going  abroad  I  was 
always  afraid  would  be  only  a  bubble,  though  I  think 
the  Russian  scheme  would  have  suited  him  very  well. 
I  am  sorry  for  this  affair  of  Lord  Melville's.  He 
would  have  held  out  a  very  good  ladder  for  Aber- 
deen in  politics.  Now  he  has  only  got  Mr.  Pitt,  but 
he,  you  will  say,  is  everything.  So  Roscius,  a  boy 
of  13,  has  changed  your  hours  and  manner  of  living 
in  London,  brought  you  down  to  plain  country  five 
o'clock.  Can  any  of  the  bishops  say  as  much,  I 
pray?  but  this  is  the  age  of  wonders.  Lord  Hawkes- 
bury,  Lord  of  the  Admiralty,  or  what  you  please,  sir. 
Is  it  strange  or  not  that  he  should  thus  be  hopping 
about  all  the  stepping-stones  of  the  Administration? 
The  Secretaries  here  are  astonished  that  he  should 
have  such  variegated  talents,  but  I  tell  them  that 
with  us  every  Minister  of  State  must  be  thoroughly 
acquainted  with  our  whole  system,  and  it  is  very 
true.  Here  none  of  the  men  in  office  at  all  are 
allowed  a  seat,  and  therefore  are  not  obliged  to  know 


everything.  .  .  .  It  is  an  absolute  sepulchre  th 
hole.  I  am  going  next  week  to  the  Falls  of  Potom; 
at  Harper's  Ferry,  and  to  Philadelphia  the  wee 
after.  The  season  has  been  delightful  here,  an 
when  these  degenerate  sons  of  our  ancestors  arriv 
at  a  little  taste  this  situation  will  be  one  of  the  fine; 
in  America.  Mrs.  Merry  is  now  recovering  fast:  sr 
suffers  more  than  I  can  describe  from  this  countr 
The  women  here  are  in  general  a  spying,  inquisitivi 
vulgar,  and  most  ignorant  race,  and  yet  as  cen 
monious  as  ambassadresses.  Even  you  with  a 
your  resources  and  powers  of  self-amusement  woul 
absolutely  be  puzzled  here.  You  can  bear  man 
things,  but  you  cannot  bear  vulgarity.     .     .     . 

Augustus  Foster 

To  Lady  Elizabeth  Foster. 

Washington,  June  30,  1805. 
I  made  a  little  excursion  to  Harper' 
Ferry  where  the  Shenandoagh  and  Potomack  joi 
and  rush  through  the  mountains,  if  mountains  the 
can  be  called.  The  country  is  very  woody,  but  ha 
more  cultivated  spots  than  I  expected  to  find.  Popu 
lation  does  not  increase,  however,  very  rapidly  i: 
this  part  of  the  United  States.  The  acquisition 
which  these  absorbers  of  land  are  perpetually  making 
have  thrown  open  such  an  extensive  field  for  specu 
lation  that  the  farmers  absolutely  wanton  in  th 
excess  of  it.  An  Irishman,  when  he  first  lands 
without  speaking  a  word  of  English,  which  few  wh 


come  here  can,  makes  signs  with  his  spade  in  his 
hand  that  he  wants  work,  and  obtains  a  dollar  a  day, 
or  45.  6d.  With  such  high  wages  he  soon  is  enabled 
to  buy  a  little  land,  and  when  he  has  got  rich  upon 
that  he  tires  of  it  and  removes  some  miles  farther  to 
a  better  soil,  and  so  goes  on  gradually  to  the  Missis- 
sippi. This  is  the  process  that  the  settlers  of  every 
nation  go  through  except  the  Germans,  who  plant 
themselves  at  once,  and  there  they  stick,  good  or 
bad.  They  tug  away  jog  trot  at  the  soil  till  they  die, 
when  their  sons  march  off  to  the  towns  or  to  the 
back  country.  With  such  a  rambling  disposition  you 
will  easily  conceive  that  they  can't  have  much  attach- 
ment to  home.  In  fact,  you  nowhere  find  the  rustic 
simplicity  which  pleases  so  much  and  is  everywhere 
else  found  in  the  world.  There  are  no  natural 
manners,  no  peculiarities  that  mark  the  country. 
You  are  always  among  the  inhabitants  of  towns, 
though  you  strike  upon  a  Log  House  in  the  most 
distant  woods,  and  as  the  houses  are  of  such  perish- 
able materials  there  is  nowhere  any  building  to  mark 
long  residence.  Anywhere  but  in  America  I  could 
bear,  I  think,  seclusion,  but  I  cannot  bear  to  be 
eternally  among  knowing  people,  and  what  is  worse, 
too,  there  is  no  spot  so  retired  among  these  "regener- 
ated races  ",  as  they  are  called,  where  you  don't  find 
drunkenness.  I  always  have  Mr.  Fox  in  my  mind 
when  I  think  of  the  United  States.  I  know  that  he 
has  a  strong  prejudice  in  favor  of  this  country,  but  I 
should  like  to  know  whether  it  is  not  confined  merely 
to  the  theory  of  the  Constitution  which  they  possess. 
That  I  think  excellent,  but  they  surely  have  become 


independent  too  soon  for  their  own  happiness.  The 
strongest  Party  in  this  country  is  now  making  violent 
efforts  to  change  that  Constitution,  as  I  believe  I 
told  you,  by  limiting  the  influence  of  the  Senate  and 
making  the  judges  more  dependent.  The  possibility 
of  a  division  is  even  openly  talked  of  in  the  public 
papers,  and  recriminations  are  exchanged  between 
the  Eastern  and  the  Southern  States;  in  short,  they 
seem  ripe  for  dissension.  Of  all  the  members,  about 
130  Representatives  and  34  Senators  assembled 
here  last  winter,  there  really  was  not  a  single  one 
that  we  should  look  up  to  as  a  man  of  great  talent 
in  England,  nor  is  it  to  be  expected  that  there 
should,  as  they  most  of  them  exercise  two  or  three 
professions  besides,  and  are  almost  all  speculators; 
however,  there  were  some  very  worthy  men,  and  no 
doubt  of  great  integrity.  It  is  really  too  great  a 
sacrifice  of  the  best  years  of  life  to  remain  long  here. 
If  the  Congress  met  at  Philadelphia  one  might  em- 
ploy one's  time,  but  here  there  is  absolutely  nothing, 
not  even  books,  to  be  had.  I  shall  forget  almost 
how  to  be  cheerful  in  this  sink  of  imagination;  how- 
ever, it  will  certainly  be  an  interesting  country  to  us 
at  no  very  distant  period,  and,  therefore,  well  worth 
the  visit.  In  a  week  we  go  to  Philadelphia.  The 
French  Minister  and  his  wife  have  been  exposing 
themselves  shamefully  here  by  their  domestic  quarrels. 
He,  it  seems,  is  of  the  true  Jacobin,  Godless  and 
licentious  cast,  and  she,  it  is  said,  forced  herself  into 
where  he  was  assisting  at  dancing  in  his  own  house 
of  not  the  most  reputable  ladies,  when  he  beat  her 
most  unmercifully  and  forced  her  to  fly  the  house. 


tie  has  been  abusing  him  from  house  to  house 
;re,  even  his  valet  told  her  that  she  was  a  Canaille; 
short,  they  are  in  complete  disgrace  with  the 
mericans,  and  she  is  to  be  shipped  off  for  France, 
believe.  I  don't  know  whether  I  have  asked  of 
)u  already  to  send  me  over  the  newest  Country 
'ances  and  Cotillon  music,  which  is  what  they 
mce  most  here.     .     . 

Augustus  Foster 

To  Frederick  Foster. 

Washington,  July  1,  1805. 

I  don't  know  whether  I  have  yet 
ansmitted  to  you  an  account  of  the  installation  of 
le  successor  of  Montezuma1  in  last  March.  On  the 
:h  he  proceeded  on  horseback  from  the  Palace, 
hich  is  of  white  stone,  and  the  largest  building  here, 
id,  attended  by  his  secretary  and  groom,  rode  up 
ie  long  Avenue  of  Pennsylvania  to  the  Capitol, 
hich  is  an  unfinished  rival  in  stone  of  the  Roman 
jilding  of  that  name,  and  dressed  in  black  and  silk 
ockings,  delivered  a  speech  of  some  length,  which 
xi  have,  to  a  mixed  assemblage  of  Senators,  Popu- 
ce,  Representatives,  and  ladies.  It  was  too  low 
>oken  to  be  heard  well;  he  then  kissed  the  book 
id  swore  before  the  Chief  Justice  to  be  faithful  to 
e  Constitution,  then  bowed  and  retired  as  before, 
hen  he  received  levee  at  which  all  who  chose 
tended,   and  even    towards    the  close  blacks  and 

The  successor  of  Montezuma — Meaning  Thomas  Jefferson,    President   of  the 
dted  States,  who  had  now  entered  on  his  second  term  of  office  (1743-1826). 


dirty  boys,  who  drank  his  wines  and  lolled  upon  his 
couches  before  us  all;  the  jingling  of  a  few  pipes  and 
drums  finished  the  day.  There  was  nothing  digni- 
fied in  the  whole  affair.  He  is  about  65  years  old, 
and  affects  great  plainness  of  dress  and  manners. 
Au  reste  he  is  a  philosopher  of  the  politico  specula- 
tive kind.  Unbounded  freedom  reigns  in  this  un- 
bounded land,  and  the  shameless  abuse  and  [torn.V.F.] 
in  their  papers  is  not  at  all  creditable  to  the  country. 
I  thank  you  and  Duncannon  for  your  exertions 
about  a  curricle.  I  shall  wait  its  arrival  with  im- 
patience, though  the  roads  are  so  execrable  and  the 
streets  worse  that  I  dare  say  I  shall  not  be  able  to 
use  it  much,  particularly  as  I  have  not  served  an 
apprenticeship  of  driving  in  England. 

Lady  Elizabeth  Foster 

To  Augustus  Foster. 

Devonshire  House,  July  13,  1805. 

.  .  .  I  have  this  moment  received  your  letter, 
my  dear,  dear  Augustus,  of  June  2nd,  just  two  days 
before  our  hero  of  the  Nile  arrived  at  Barbadoes  to 
liberate  the  West  Indies.  .  .  .  Lord  Aberdeen 
was  wretched  during  all  the  business  about  Lord  Mel- 
ville. He  is  in  Scotland  preparing  for  his  marriage 
with  Lady  Catherine  Hamilton.1  Never  were  father 
and  son-in-law  so  different  surely  as  these  two  are. 
Mr.  Bennet  is  miserable  at  the  marriage,  and  thinks 
he  will  be  lost  to  all  his  friends  by  it.     Lord  Ennis- 

1Lady  Catherine  Hamilton— -Daughter  of  the  first  Marquis  of  Abercorn  (d.  1812). 


killen  marries  Lady  Charlotte  Paget,  and  Lord 
Grantham  Lady  Harriet  Cole.  I  suppose  letters 
and  papers  enough  will  reach  you  to  tell  you  that 
the  impeachment  was  carried,  and  that  Lord  Melville 
will  be  impeached  the  opening  of  next  Sessions. 
Lord  Sidmouth1  resigned  a  week  ago.  Pitt  has 
patched  up  his  present  administration  amongst  his 
own  people;  no  new  person  is  added.  The  rumour 
of  the  day  is  that  he  had  again  spoke  to  the  King 
about  Fox;  that  the  King's  objections  were  done 
away;  that  this  was  to  lead  to  a  grand  union  as 
proposed  last  year,  and  that  either  active  war  would 
be  carried  on,  with  Russia  to  help  us,  or  a  grand 
Congress  at  which  Fox  would  be  Ambassador  in  his 
character  of  Secretary  of  State. 

Georgiana  is  recovered  from  her  fourth 
lying  in,  and  is  well  except  a  cold.  Harriet  and 
Caro  have  their  flirtations,  and  are  in  extreme  good 
looks.  Corise,  to  whom  I  shall  tell  the  interest  you 
take  in  her  happiness,  is  quite  satisfied  with  his 
conduct;  he  seems  more  attached  to  her  than  ever, 
and  only  wants  to  borrow  a  small  sum  of  money  to 
marry  her  directly.  He  says  Lord  Tankerville 
continues  inflexible,  but  Lady  T.  expressed  great 
interest  about  her. 

Emily  Lamb  is  to  be  married  next  Satur- 
day to  Lord  Cowper,  Caroline  and  Corise  brides- 

I  don't  wonder  the  Americans  were  surprised  at 

1  Lord  Sidmouth — Formerly  known  as  Henry  Addington,   Prime  Minister  from 
1801  to  1803  (1757-1844). 


the  projected  changes;  however,  Lord  Hawkesbury 
has  remained  as  he  was,  and  Sir  C.  Middleton  was 
made  Lord  Barham.  He  is  eighty,  so  he  brings  the 
weight  of  experience.  We  were  in  great  joy  at 
hearing  of  Nelson's  arrival  in  the  West  Indies,  and 
now  all  is  despondency  again  because  he  has  not 
overtaken  and  beat  the  French  and  Spaniards,  but 
he  drove  them  away.     .     .     . 

Augustus  Foster 

To  Lady  Elizabeth  Foster. 

Washington,  Julv  30,  1805. 

I  cannot  fancy  Lady  Caroline  married.  I  cannot 
be  glad  of  it.  How  changed  she  must  be — the 
delicate  Ariel,  the  little  Fairy  Queen  become  a  wife 
and  soon  perhaps  a  mother.  I  had  just  finished 
a  letter  to  her  as  Lady  Caroline  Ponsonby  yester- 
day in  answer  to  her  pretty  one  of  March.  I 
cannot  tear  it,  and  so  pray  do  not  betray  my 
secret,  and  let  it  pass  as  if  I  knew  nothing  in  this 
remote  country  of  her  marriage;  as  it  is  not  a  love 
letter  it  may  go,  and  if  I  don't  answer  so  I  never 
can  to  her  now  she  is  under  the  laws  of  a  Man. 
It  is  the  first  death  of  a  woman.  They  must  die 
twice,  for  I  am  sure  all  their  friends,  their  male  ones 
at  least,  receive  a  pang  when  they  change  character 
so  completely.  I  inclose  it  under  cover  to  you,  as 
well  as  one  to  Caroline,  and  what  you  tell  me  about 
Aberdeen  distresses  me.  Surely  they  can't  have 
worked  on  his  feelings  about  Lord  Melville  to  keep 


him  from  Devonshire  House.  I  am  grieved  at  his 
only  having  received  one  letter  from  me.  I  have 
written  to  him  so  often.  He  is  very  young,  but  he  has 
shewn  some  character  with  regard  to  the  Duchess  of 
Gordon.  I  only  hope  in  you.  Keep  him  to  Devon- 
shire House,  where  I  pride  myself  on  having  intro- 
duced him,  and  he  will  do.  It  is  dreadful  to  be  so 
distant.  Aberdeen  appears  to  me  to  be  of  that  class 
of  persons  that  are  made  to  be  an  honor  to  their 
country.  Who  can  you  mean  at  Devonshire  House 
that  you  thought  he  loved?  Was  it  Caro  or  was 
it  Lady  Harriet?  Only  get  him  to  be  in  love  with 
one  of  them.  I  shall  write  to  him  by  this  post,  but 
God  knows  whether  the  letter  will  ever  arrive.  I 
am  sick  of  the  distance. 

I  shall  inquire  about  Mrs.  Randolph,  though  I  am 
sure  from  what  I  have  read  that  she  is  an  impostor. 
Believe  me,  there  are  not  more  consummate  rascals 
anywhere  than  in  the  United  States.  I  see  it  more 
and  more,  and  novel  species  of  villanies  in  this 
country.  The  scum  of  every  nation  on  earth  is  the 
active  population  here. 

August  4th. 

I  have  inquired  of  Colonel  Washington,  nephew 
of  the  General,  of  one  of  the  oldest  families  in  Vir- 
ginia, and  he  knows  nothing  of  such  a  lady — but 
however  I  will  inquire  further.  The  hand  of  God 
being  introduced  by  Mr.  Mansbridge  looks  rather 
canting.  Now  that  I  have  thought  upon  the  matter, 
perhaps  it  might  be  wrong  to  send  the  letter  to 
Lady  Car,  but    I   send  it  under  flying  seal,  so  that 


you  may  or  not,  only  if  you  do  I  am  supposed  to 
know  nothing  of  the  marriage.  She  is  so  amiable 
that  I  should  like  to  answer  her  letter  to  keep  up  the 
acquaintance  which  would  otherwise  be  quite  dead 
through  the  distance.  Would  you  choose  for  me  a 
fur  Pelisse  to  be  made  up  at  Schweitzer's?  The 
winters  here  are  much  colder  than  those  in  England, 
and  I  want  to  teach  these  creatures  to  wear  some- 
thing like  dress  of  human  beings.  Is  it  possible 
that  Aberdeen  should  be  in  love  at  Lady  Abercorn's  ? 
but  you  did  not,  as  well  as  I  recollect,  think  him  a 
good  match  for  Lady  Harriet.  Who  is  Caroline 
inclined  to  favor?  As  for  me,  a  young  girl,  a 
phenomenon  for  this  country,  has  just  died  of  a 
consumption  whom  I  certainly  should  have  admired 
prodigiously.  She  said  on  her  death  bed  that  she 
thought  the  lower  part  of  my  face  extremely  amiable, 
but  in  the  forehead  something  rather  too  stern.  I  tell 
you  all  the  nonsense  in  the  world,  because  I  always 
have  and  shall  always  consider  you  as  my  sister.  She 
could  not  bear  the  society  of  this  place  though  she 
had  never  been  to  Europe.  .  .  .  Madame  Jerome 
was  supposed  to  be  likely  to  add  to  the  race  of 
the  Gallic  Caesars  when  she  left  America,  so  that  I 
suppose  you  will  not  see  her  soon.  Her  father  came 
over  here  from  Ireland,  as  Mr.  Pichon,  the  former 
French  Charge  d'Affaires  declared,  as  a  Redemp- 
tioner,  that  is  a  person  who  sells  his  services  for  a 
certain  period  to  pay  for  his  passage  from  Europe, 
and  he  became  an  hostler.  He  is  now,  however, 
universally  respected  as  a  merchant,  and  is  one  of 
their   most   honoured    dealers    in    Baltimore.      She 


declared  three  days  before  Jerome  was  won  that  she 
would  have  him.  It  was  veni,  vidi,  vici.  These 
words  resemble  our  dear  Italian  so  much  that  I 
won't  insult  you  with  a  translation.     .     .     . 

Lady  Elizabeth  Foster 

To  Augustus  Foster. 

Chiswick,  August  5,  1805. 

.  We  are  at  present  all  impatience  and 
expectation  and  some  anxiety  about  the  fleet. 
Nelson,  by  the  terror  of  his  name,  seems  to  have 
driven  the  enemy  from  the  West  Indies,  and  to  be 
pursuing  them  home.  Clifford1  wrote  to  me  the  12th 
of  May  from  St.  Vincent;  the  4th  of  June  from 
Barbadoes;  on  the  12th,  after  having  visited  six 
islands,  they  weighed  anchor  again,  and  on  the  19th 
he  ended  his  letter  saying  they  were  in  full  pursuit 
and  hope  to  be  at  Cape  St.  Vincent  before  them, 
and  perhaps  even  to  come  up  to  the  enemy  before 
that.  What  a  wonderful  man  Nelson  is!  How 
rapid  and  well  combined  are  his  operations.  On 
the  2 1  st  the  combined  fleet  was  seen  off  Ferrol,  and 
Sir  R.  Calder2  attacked  them  and  captured  two  of 
the  Spanish  ships;  he  kept  in  sight  of  them  four 
days  and  then  they  disappeared,  and  he  on  the  31st 
resumed  his  station  off  Ferrol,  so  that  they  are  not 
got  into  port,  and  perhaps  that  Nelson  may  yet  meet 
with  them.     Every  day,  every  hour,  they  expect  to 

1  CHJbrd — Augustus  C,  created  a  baronet  in  1838  (1788-1877). 

8  Calder— Admiral  Sir  Robert  C,  created  a  baronet  in  1798  (1745-1818). 


hear  from  him,  and  the  impatience  and  anxiety  is 
beyond  all  expression.  On  the  other  hand,  the 
public  are  dissatisfied  with  Calder  for  not  doing 
more;  yet  with  15  ships  he  attacked  the  combined 
fleet  of  twenty  and  defeated  them.  Fog  and  night 
came  on  which  prevented  his  continuing  the  battle 
then,  and  they  contrived  to  escape  two  days  after. 
It  is  these  two  days  that  the  public  are  dissatisfied 
with  the  loss  of,  and  say  that  a  Nelson  would  not 
have  rested  so.  They  also  blame  Admiral  Corn- 
wallis  for  not  doing  something  on  his  part;  yet  all 
this  may  be  accounted  for  satisfactorily,  and  it  is 
hard  to  blame  an  officer  who  has  defeated  the  enemy 
and  to  condemn  him  unheard,  As  to  home  politicks, 
the  impeachment,1  as  I  told  you,  is  decided  on,  and 
will  come  on  early  in  the  present  Sessions.  Lord 
Melville  is  gone  or  going  to  Scotland,  and  Lord  and 
Lady  Aberdeen  are  now  at  Wimbledon,  which  he 
has,  I  believe,  hired  of  Lord  Melville  to  put  a  few 
hundred  pounds  into  his  pocket.  Lady  Melville  is 
going  to  the  seaside  and  to  Bath.  What  a  melan- 
choly ending  to  such  a  career.  The  rumours  are 
stronger  than  ever  of  a  grand  junction,  and  the  King 
has  spoke  in  the  handsomest  manner  of  ( ? ),  and 
is  said  to  have  taken  a  dislike  to  Addington.  Mr. 
Pitt  is  reported  to  be  again  very  eager  for  a  union 
with  Fox  and  the  principal  people  of  his  party. 
The  Duke  of  Devonshire  said  here  the  other  day 
that  he  thought  it  would  be  the  best  thing  for  this 
country  that  could  happen,  and  we  could  not  help 
remarking  what  a  glorious  triumph  it  is  to  Fox's 

1  The  impeachment — of  Lord  Melville. 


talents  and  character  after  all  the  odium  so  long 
endeavoured  to  be  thrown  upon  him  to  have  his 
opponent  express  himself  twice  in  so  decided  a 
manner  upon  the  necessity  for  the  publick  advantage 
to  have  the  aid  of  his  councils  and  that  he  should  be 
of  the  Administration.  It  does  Pitt  honor  also  so 
completely  to  forget  all  resentments  and  to  acknow- 
ledge this,  and  I  think  that  if  they  ever  joined  it 
would  last.  Two  such  minds  once  brought  to  act 
together  would  not  be  in  danger  of  quarrelling  from 
any  petty  jealousies  and  selfish  views.  They  would 
act  for  the  good  of  the  country  on  great  and  enlarged 
views,  and  perhaps  bestow  on  the  age  the  greatest 
of  all  blessings,  that  of  a  solid  and  lasting  peace.   .   .  . 

Lady  Elizabeth  Foster 

To  Augustus  Foster. 

August  30,  1805. 

•  .  .  Several  rumours  have  been  and  are  abroad 
about  a  junction  of  parties,  and  Pitt  has,  I  believe, 
certainly  again  told  the  King  that  he  thought  the  ad- 
mitting of  Fox  to  the  Cabinet  essential  to  the  welfare 
of  the  Country.  The  King,  it  is  said,  spoke  highly 
in  praise  of  Fox,  and  said  the  principal  objections  in 
his  mind  were  done  away.  There  would  be  a  great 
difficulty  now  with  several  of  our  friends,  for  they 
were  so  irritated  by  Pitt's  conduct  last  time  that 
many  are  totally  averse  to  Fox  agreeing  to  any 
junction.  The  King's  eyes  are  rather  better,  but 
some  say  that  his  health  is  not  so  good.     The  Duke 


of  Gloucester's  death1  will  affect  him  very  much,  as 
the  illness  did.     .     .     . 

Nelson  is,  I  hear,  to  have  a  great  command:  he 
is  delighted  with  his  reception  here,  but  says  with 
great  modesty,  "  They  have  received  me  as  if  I  had 
done  some  great  feat".  And  so  God  knows  he 
has.  .  .  .  The  Brest  fleet  came  out,  but  on 
Cornwallis  forming  his  line  of  battle  and  attacking 
his  foremost  ships  they  retreated  into  their  harbour 
again.  Calder  is  again  pursuing  the  combined 
squadrons.     .     .     . 

Augustus  Foster 

To  Lady  Elizabeth  Foster. 

Philadelphia,  September  2,  1805. 

.  .  .  General  Moreau  arrived  last  week  with 
his  family,  and  they  are  gone  about  30  miles  off  to 
Morrisville  near  Trenton,  where  he  has  hired  a 
country  seat.  I  shall  not  see  him  probably  unless 
by  accident,  for  in  my  public  situation  it  would  be 
improper  for  me  to  call  on  him  even  with  your  letter. 

.  .  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Merry  are  bored  to  death 
with  these  United  States,  but  Merry  is  a  man  so 
strictly  en  regie  that  I  know  he  conceives  it  to  be 
his  duty  to  stay  here  in  time  of  war  upon  his  post 
at  least  longer  than  he  should  do  in  peace.  You 
have  no  idea  of  how  miserable  the  state  of  society  is 
throughout  and  radically  so,  but  yet  you  are  to  hear 

1  Duke  of  Gloucester — brother  of  George  III.  (1743-1805). 


their  pretensions  to  manners  and  to  national  honor 
and  dignity  and  at  the  same  time  of  their  mean- 
nesses, perpetual  breach  of  faith,  and  perpetual  lying. 
Talleyrand,  who  travelled  here,  said  of  the  country 
that  he  did  not  like  it  because  there  was  not  a  man 
in  it  but  would  sell  his  favourite  dog.  ...  I 
am  vexed  at  Aberdeen's  marriage.  It  never  will  do. 
He  has  a  fine  imagination,  and  she  told  me  once 
that  she  could  not  conceive  how  any  body  could  find 
a  pleasure  in  reading  poetry;  besides,  she  does  not 
look  wholesome,  and  is,  I  fancy,  older  than  he  is. 
How  odd  of  him  to  marry  so  young,  and  the  con- 
nection is  not  the  most  agreeable.     .     .     . 

Augustus  Foster 

To  Lady  Elizabeth  Foster. 

Elizabeth  Town,  New  Jersey,  Sept.  22,  1805. 

Long  Island  is  the  part  of  all  America 
that  I  have  seen  which  would  make  the  most  agree- 
able residence  in  my  opinion,  and  it  is  the  only  part 
in  which  the  people  bow  to  you  and  seem  to  possess 
simplicity.  You  see  some  of  the  old  Dutch  dresses 
there  still,  and  even  some  of  the  descendants  of  the 
Tuscarora  nation  of  Indians.  I  dined  there  with 
Mr.  King,  whom  I  saw  for  the  first  time,  and  who 
was  Minister  to  England.  On  my  return  here,  Lord 
Bolingbroke,1  who  lives  a  mile  off  under  the  name  of 
Mr.  Bellasyse  with  the  German  lady  his  wife,2  now 
declared  so,  and  married  over  again  to  him  since  the 

1  Lord  Bolingbroke  (1761-1824).  2  German  lady— Baroness  Hompesch. 


death  of  Lady  B.,  sent  his  carriage  for  me  to  a  ball 
which  he  gave  on  his  departure  for  Niagara.     He 
has  been  here  near  ten  years  now,  and  as  they  say 
means  to  return  to  England  this  year.     She  is  any- 
thing but    handsome;  a  little  square   German   with 
broken   teeth,   but  they  say  very  amiable.      Their 
children  are  remarkably  fine.     He  flatters  himself 
that  he  is  not  known  here  to  be  Lord  Bolingbroke. 
As  he  did  not  inquire  after  his  friends  in  England  I 
did  not  say  any  thing  about  them  to  him,  but  I  dine 
with   him   to-day.       He   is   disgusted,   I   believe,   as 
every  man  of  education  must  be,  with  the  manners 
in  general  of  the  people  of  this  country,  which  is  so 
made  up  of  the  ragamuffins  and  adventurers  that 
flock  here  from  all  parts  of  Europe,  and  particularly 
the  Irish.     As  no  man  is  thrown  out  of  society  here 
from  the  badness  of  his  character,  you  sometimes 
meet  with  the  meanest  and  most  worthless  fellows  in 
free  conversation   and    intimacy  with   perhaps  very 
respectable  men,  and   I  must  say  this  that  people 
sometimes  perhaps  judge  too  harshly  of  the  natives 
from  the  foreign  adventurers  that  they  meet  with. 
.     .     .     I  would  not  come  here  as  Minister  to  live 
at  Washington  with  ,£10,000  per  annum,  and  if  I 
did  I  would  not  take — I  was  going  to  say  my  wife — 
I  would  not  take  my  sister  for  ,£20,000.     A  woman 
of  education  and  feeling  suffers  dreadfully.      It  is  a 
land  for  poor  men,  single  men,  I  mean,  and  when 
they  get  rich   they  should  go  to  Europe  to  enjoy 
it.     .     .     . 


The  Earl  of  Aberdeen 

To  Augustus  Foster. 

Priory,  Sept.  24,  1805. 

My  dear  Augustus,  .  .  .  You  must  without 
doubt  have  heard  before  this  that  I  am  married  and 
to  Lady  C.  H.1  Repress  your  astonishment  for 
the  present,  and  it  may  perhaps  cease  when  we  meet. 
You  may  depend  on  the  papers  for  the 
truth  of  the  coalition,  which  is  now  certain.  I  am 
glad  that  Nelson  had  it  in  his  power  to  shew  your 
peevish  children  in  America  that  England,  old  as  she 
may  be,  is  still  pretty  active;  the  spirits  of  your 
friends  in  opposition  cannot  be  very  high.  Mr. 
Pitt  is  as  firm  as  ever,  and  as  the  troubles  on  the 
continent  increase  will  be  more  so  every  day.  Lord 
Melville's  impeachment  will  come  on  the  beginning 
of  next  Session,  the  result  after  all  that  we  have 
seen  it  would  be  vain  to  predict.  ...  By  the 
way,  we  are  to  be  bored  this  year  by  that  wretch 
called  the  Young  Roscius,2  who  is  the  greatest  im- 
postor since  the  days  of  Mohammed. — Yours  ever, 
most  affectionately,  Aberdeen. 

I  say,  Mr.  Foster  will  say,  that  Aberdeen  has  not 
slipped  on  the  noose  already,  Yours,  C.  Aberdeen, 
otherwise  the  amiable  Lady  C.  H. 

1  Lady  C.  H. — Lady  Catherine  Hamilton  (d.  1812). 

a  Young  Roscius — William  Betty  (1791-1874).    See  Appendix. 


Lady  Elizabeth  Foster 

To  Augustus  Foster. 

Chiswick,  Sept.  30,  1805. 

.  .  .  I  think  from  your  letter  you  will  regret 
Lord  Aberdeen's  fate  being  so  early  decided;  how- 
ever, she  is  very  pretty  and  amiable,  and  seemed  to 
be  very  much  in  love  with  him,  and  I  hope  he  will 
be  very  happy.  He  deserves  it.  I  never  meant  to 
say  that  he  would  not  be  (taking  him  such  as  he  is) 
a  good  match  for  Harriet,  but  perhaps  rather  said  so 
the  more  from  nervousness  because  I  wished  it,  but 
should  have  hated  her  marrying  except  from  affec- 
tion, or  he  either.  The  Abercorns  never  lost  sight 
of  him.  At  first  he  certainly  seemed  to  like  Harriet, 
but  she  will  never  show  or  feel  a  preference  for  any 
body  who  is  not  decided  in  their  liking  for  her;  and 
she  did  not  indeed  give  herself  time  to  know  if  she 
would  have  liked  him,  for,  the  odious  papers  having 
taken  it  up,  she  would  scarcely  speak  to  him.  We 
continued,  however,  seeing  a  good  deal  of  him,  and 
we  all  liked  him.  You  may  retract  all  your  sorrow 
about  Caro  Ponsonby's  marriage,  for  she  is  the 
same  wild,  delicate,  odd  delightful  person,  unlike 
every  thing,  witness  her  dating  to  Lady  Maria  Lane 
her  first  letter  of  congratulation  on  her  marriage 
with  her  brother  Duncannon  from  "  Brocket  Hall, 
heaven  knows  what  day ".  Lady  Maria  is  very 
amiable,  and  Duncannon  seems  very  happy.  .  .  . 
Pray  don't  marry  an  American,  or,  if  you  must,  let 
her  be  rich — for  really  the  more  I  see  of  poverty  the 
more  detestable  it  appears  to  me.     .     .     .     As  to 


politicks,  I  believe  that  Pitt  is  very  happy  at  having 
roused  the  continent,  but  it  seems  to  me  the  deepest 
game  that  ever  people  played.  What  Bonaparte 
can  mean  by  risking  everything  only  to  gain  more 
than  he  can  want  is  inconceivable,  and  we  too  play 
very  deep.  It  is  an  awful  moment,  yet  certainly  the 
war  seems  to  begin  with  better  prospect  of  success 
than  usual.  Nelson  is  gone  with  a  great  command, 
and  is,  I  believe,  by  this  time  off  Cadiz.  Clifford 
says  he  is  happy  enough  to  be  with  the  in-shore 
squadron,  and  that  they  see  the  enemy's  fleet  clearer 
than  their  own.  The  combined  fleet  are  36  strong 
and  we  26,  with  which  he  says  we  are  fully  equal  to 
them,  and  with  Nelson  to  the  whole  navy  of  France. 
I  wrote  you  an  account  of  the  disappointment  occa- 
sioned by  Sir  R.  Calder.  Every  thing  seems  now 
drawing  to  a  crisis  on  the  continent,  and  it  makes 
one  tremble  to  think  what  events  may  happen  before 
this  time  twelvemonth.  It  is  supposed  Lord  Hard- 
wick  will  resign  and  Mr.  Foster  be  reinstated.   .    .    . 

Lady  Elizabeth  Foster 

To  Augustus  Foster. 

October,  1805. 

.  .  Every  thing  is,  if  possible,  worse  than 
was  reported.  Bonaparte  crossed  the  Rhine  on  the 
1  st  of  October,  and  on  the  17th  was  master  of  Ulm, 
and  of  above  thirty  thousand  men,  besides  baggage, 
&c.  The  Austrian  army  is  destroyed.  For  Heaven's 
sake  see  Moreau.     I  can't  conceive  any  thing  so  in- 


teresting  as  his  conversation  would  be  at  this  moment. 
Do  not  deny  yourself  the  satisfaction  of  visiting  a 
great  man  in  disgrace.  .  .  .  Lord  Nelson  is  off 
Cadiz  with  a  great  command.  Could  any  thing  be 
done  against  the  combined  fleet,  it  would  rouse  the 
spirits  of  the  country,  which  are  quite  depressed.  I 
have  seen  nothing  like  the  present  moment.  You 
hear  nothing  else  from  the  drawing-room  to  the 
steward's  room,  in  every  street,  and  road,  and  lane; 
as  you  walk  you  hear  Bonaparte's  name  in  every 
mouth.  Mr.  James  said  he  believed  it  was  an  event 
unparalleled  in  history,  and  that  it  roused  even  him 
who  did  not  care  for  politicks.  It  is  shocking,  and 
in  the  midst  of  it  they  intend  sending  the  Duke  of 
York  to  command  the  expedition  to  Hanover.  I 
fear  that  Mr.  Fox's  words  will  prove  too  true,  that 
a  tardy  confederacy  will  enable  Bonaparte  to  beat 
his  enemies  one  by  one.  I  hope  your  new  world  is 
more  progressive  than  our  old  one.  L' Europe  est 
bien  vieille,  Giambone  used  to  say.  We  should 
except  the  vigorous  limb,  France.     .     .     . 

Lady  Elizabeth  Foster 

To  Augustus  Foster. 

Chiswick,  October  2<}th,  1805. 

There  is  a  great  consternation  to-day  amongst  all 
people,  I  hear,  in  London.  A  fishing-boat  put  off 
and  when  Sir  Sydney  took  it  it  contained  news  that 
Ulm1  was  taken  and  the  Austrian  army  annihilated, 

1  Ulm. — In  the  Duchy  of  Wirtemberg.  After  a  battle  between  the  French  and 
Austrians,  in  which  the  latter  under  General  Mack  were  defeated  with  dreadful 
loss  by  Marshal  Ney,  Ulm  surrendered  with  28,000  men  on  October  20,  1805. 


General  Mack1  and  his  staff  made  prisoners.  It  is 
also  said  that  Bonaparte  will  not  even  have  the 
King  of  Prussia  as  an  enemy,  that  he  will  not  join 
the  Confederacy.  Our  expedition  is  stopped  by 
contrary  winds,  and  all  is  tardy  on  the  part  of  the 
Allies;  all  rapid  like  lightning  on  Bonaparte's. 

My  dearest,  my  opinion  is  that  a  man  in  disgrace 
and  in  adversity  is  of  no  country,  but  entitled  to 
every  attention  that  one  can  pay  them,  whether  one 
happens  to  be  in  a  publick  or  a  private  character. 
Therefore  I  wish  you  by  all  means  to  call  on 
Moreau.  If,  however,  Mr.  Merry  has  begged  of 
you  not,  then  only  send  my  letter  with  a  civil  note  of 
your  own  expressing  your  regret  at  being  prevented 
from  profiting  of  the  introduction  it  would  have  been 
to  you.  Were  we  at  peace  with  France  it  might  be 
wrong  to  visit  an  exiled  general  of  hers,  but  how 
can  it  be  so  being  at  war,  and  the  exiled  a  man  of 
spotless  character  and  oppressed?  My  opinion,  I 
own,  is  entirely  for  your  visiting  him  unless,  as  I 
said  before,  Mr.  Merry  wishes  you  not,  and  then 
certainly  you  owe  it  to  him,  and  particularly  as  he 
has  been  very  civil  to  you,  to  avoid  any  thing  that 
would  distress  him:  but  Ministers  made  no  scruple 
of  visiting  Pichegru2  here,  and  any  objection  there 
could  only  arise  on  the  part  of  Moreau,  who  might 
scruple  the  more  from  his  disgrace  the  receiving  any 
civility  from  the  enemies  of  his  country,  but  that 
surely  should  be  left   to  him.     The  subject  came 

1  General  Mack— (1752-1829). 

2  Pichegru — General  P.,  gained  great  glory  as  one  of  the  generals  of  the  French 
Republic,  but  afterwards  sided  with  the  Bourbons.  He  was  transported  to  Cayenne, 
but  escaped  and  lived  for  some  time  in  England  (1761-1804). 


naturally  into  my  mind,  because  I  remember  when 
Moreau  talked  to  us  of  Bonaparte's  talents  as  a 
general,  he  said,  "  C'est  la  foudre;  il  frappe  avant 
qu'on  puisse  voir  d'ou  part  le  coup". 

Nov.  yd. 

I  have  been  interrupted — no  news  since  the  taking 
of  Ulm,  and  even  of  that  no  official  accounts  have 
arrived;  already  do  some  doubt  the  fact;  all  believe 
in  some  exaggeration;  and  it  is  now  asserted  that 
the  King  of  Prussia  has  sent  six  regiments  into 
Hanover  to  join  the  Russians.  Lord  Harrowby  has 
sailed  on  his  embassy  to  Berlin ;  how  I  should  have 
liked  had  you  been  with  him.  It  is  supposed  that 
the  two  Emperors  and  the  Kings  of  Norway  and 
Sweden  will  all  meet. 

Augustus  Foster 

To  Lady  Elizabeth  Foster. 

Nov.,  1805. 

You  must  all  of  you  in  England  be  almost  mad 
with  joy  at  the  glorious  victory  of  poor  Lord  Nelson. 
What  a  drawback,  however,  is  the  loss  of  such  a 
man  to  us,  who  with  his  bare  name  could  chase  away 
our  enemies  from  one  hemisphere  to  another!  We 
can  hardly  say  in  the  words  of  Chevy  Chase  that  we 
have  five  hundred  good  as  he,  but  I  hope,  however, 
that  we  shall  find  several  such  still  if  occasions  offer 
for  trying  them. 

In  this  country  I  think  the  majority  are  glad  ot 
the  victory,  but  there  are  great  many  of  those  en- 


gaged  (?)  in  public  situations  who  exaggerate  upon 
our  loss,  and  consider  it  too  dear  a  purchase.  Peace 
to  all  such!  Those  who  know  them  care  little  for 
their  praise  or  blame.  If  you  knew  the  meannesses, 
the  littlenesses  of  the  nation  which  we  are  in  Europe 
pleased  to  call  great  and  virtuous!  My  dearest  Ma, 
I  do  believe  from  my  soul  that  from  the  Province  of 
Maine  to  the  borders  of  Florida  you  would  not  find 
30  men  of  Truth,  Honour,  or  Integrity.  Corruption, 
Immorality,  Irreligion,  and,  above  all,  self-interest, 
have  corroded  the  very  pillars  on  which  their  Liberty 
rests.  Nothing  is  wanting  but  numbers  and  a  Caesar 
to  change  this  boasting  Republick  into  a  despotism 
of  the  worst  description.  They  have  inherited  all 
our  faults  without  one  of  our  virtues  that  I  know  of. 
They  are  free  more  from  the  nature  of  their  land 
than  from  their  laws  which  are  not  enforced.  Were 
the  aristocracy  of  Venice  to  be  placed  in  command 
of  America  they  could  not  rule  otherwise  than  mildly, 
for,  should  they  exercise  severities,  the  innumerable 
rivers  which  offer  navigation  for  thousands  of  miles 
would  open  easy  channels  of  escape,  and  of  escape 
to  richer  countries  than  they  would  leave.  The 
plains  of  Louisiana  and  of  the  Ohio  will  in  a  few 
years  exceed  in  population  the  States  on  the  Atlantic. 
Believe  me,  it  is  better  to  admire  the  theory  at  a 
distance  than  to  come  and  see  the  practice.  It  never 
yet  was  said  that  the  freer  a  people  are  the  happier 
they  are.  It  is  agreed  on  all  sides  that  for  the  good 
of  society  it  is  necessary  that  bounds  should  be  set 
to  the  liberty  of  individuals.  Les  Bornes  que  les 
Americains  y  ont  mises  sont  souvent  franchies  au  lieu 


que  les  notres,  prises  de  plus  haut,  ne  le  sont  im- 
pun^ment  jamais.  Les  assassins  se  promenent  souvent 
en  plein  jour  faute  de  force  dans  les  lois,  but  I  am 
quite  tired  with  writing  about  them.  I  beg  you  will 
let  me  know  if  there  is  any  chance  of  escaping  from 
them  in  any  reasonable  time,  and  if  you  mean  to 
make  peace  in  your  hemisphere  soon. 

I  have  had  a  letter  from  Aberdeen  announcing  his 
marriage.  I  hope  sincerely  he  may  never  repent. 
Ma  temo  temo  ...  As  for  me,  were  I  in 
London  or  any  town  but  this,  you  would  run  great 
risque  of  becoming  belle  mere.  I  am  a  little  hard  to 
please,  but  should  I  find  une  personne  a  mon  gout  je 
ne  reponds  plus  de  moi  m£me  je  vous  l'avoue.  Je 
me  rappellerais  toujours  de  la  promesse  sacree  que 
je  vous  ai  donnee  en  partant  de  Londres,  mais  le 
peril  n'est  pas  grand  ici ;  hors  l'attrait  de  la  jeunesse 
et  quelque  fraicheur:  il  n'y  a  guere  d'autres  dans  les 
filles  de  cette  partie  de  lAmerique.     .     .     . 

The  Earl  of  Aberdeen 

To  Augustus  Foster. 

Wimbledon,  November  20,  1805. 
My  dear  Augustus, — I  have  received  yours  of  the 
end  of  September  from  Philadelphia,  inclosing  a 
specimen  of  the  Jacobin  print,  which  has  amused 
me  much,  but  what  vulgar  ignorance  the  fellow 
betrays;  however,  when  such  extreme  license  pre- 
vails, you  cannot  fail  occasionally  to  have  many 
speculations  at  least  entertaining.     I    have  written 

FROM  THE  EARL  OF  ABERDEEN.        249 

you  before  to  say  that  I  am  married,  and  am  now 
the  veriest  Benedick  of  the  age.  I  do  not  think  I 
shall  ever  have  cause  to  repent  this  step.     .     .     . 

You  have  no  idea  of  the  effect  which  Nelson's 
death  has  produced,  so  great  indeed  as  almost 
to  counteract  His  Victory,  certainly  the  most 
glorious  ever  atchieved.  Many  people  wear  silver 
favours  with  black  in  the  centre  as  mourning,  and 
we  shall  probably  have  a  public  mark  of  this  sort 
when  his  body  arrives,  of  which,  however,  there  is 
some  danger,  for  it  is  strongly  believed  the  Euryalus 
is  lost  or  taken  with  it  and  the  French  and  Spanish 
Admirals  on  board.  I  believe  Prussia  is  really 
disposed  to  co-operate,  but  I  doubt  much  if  she  will 
go  so  far  as  active  war. 

I  am  going  to  commence  actor  this  Christmas  at 
the  Priory,  where  we  have  got  a  very  good  theatre. 
I  am  to  perform  Oroonoko,  Falkland  in  the  Rivals, 
&c,  &c.     William  Lamb  also  acts. 

Have  you  no  conception  of  the  period  to  your 
exile,  or  must  it  still  be  much  prolonged?  I  trust 
not.  There  will  be  active  work  on  the  continent, 
which  perhaps  may  procure  you  employment.  Lord 
Granville  is  certainly  coming  home,  tho'  Lord 
Cathcart,  who  was  to  succeed  him,  is  ill  of  the  gout. 
I  have  heard  it  said,  but  mind  this  is  sous  la  Rose, 
that  Jackson  is  to  be  recalled  owing  to  some  dis- 
agreement with  the  court  of  Berlin.  Stratton  is  still 
at  Constantinople,  although  dieing  to  get  away. 
There  will  be  some  sharp  debates  in  Parliament  at 
the  opening  of  the  Session,  but  these  continental 
alliances  and  naval  victories  have  come  very  oppor- 


tunely  to  Mr.  Pitt's  assistance.  Lord  Melville's 
business  will  perhaps  be  prolonged  through  the 
Session.  How  this  persecution  will  end,  God 

I  hear  nothing  of  Ossulston  interesting.  Au 
reste  il  y  a  un  bruit  sourd  which  says  that  he  is 
actually  married.  The  Theatre  is  in  great  glory. 
Kemble1  and  Mrs.  Siddons2  every  night — fancy  after 
being  made  sick  with  an  automate  of  a  boy  all  last 
year,  a  girl  of  7  or  8  years  old  is  coming  out  this 
week  at  Covent  Garden.  Ohe  jam  satis! — Yours 
most  affectionately,  Aberdeen. 

Tell  me  something  about  Moreau3  and  Dessalines.4 
What  sort  of  a  fellow  is  Christophe?5  Adieu.  If 
you  see  Moreau  put  him  in  mind  that  Jackson  intro- 
duced me  to  him  at  Paris,  and  that  I  told  him 
(Jackson)  that  he  was  the  man  I  most  admired  and 
wished  to  see  in  France. 

Lady  Elizabeth  Foster 

To  Augustus  Foster. 

November  29,  1805. 

It  was  in  vain,   my  dearest  Augustus,   to  have 
written  to  you  the  first  days  of  the  news  of  the 

1  Kemble — John  K.  was  at  this  time  carrying  on  Covent  Garden  theatre  (1757- 
'  Mrs.  Siddons— Sister  of  John  and  Charles  Kemble  (1755-1831). 

3  Moreau — The  greatest  general  of  the  French  Republic  except  Napoleon  (1763- 

4  Dessalines — Jacques  D. ,  first  Emperor  of  Hayti.     He  was  an  imported  negro 
from  the  Gold  Coast  of  Africa,  and  was  totally  uneducated  (1760-1806), 

0  Christophe — Henri  C,  negro  King  of  Hayti.    He  began  life  as  cook  in  a  tavern 


victory  of  Trafalgar,1  for  nothing  that  I  could  have 
said  would  have  conveyed  to  you  any  idea  of  the 
impression  on  the  public  made  by  the  loss  of  their 
favourite  hero.  Great  and  wonderful  as  the  victory 
was,  the  prevailing  sentiment  in  each  mind  was 
sorrow,  was  grief,  for  Nelson.  If  it  was  the  most 
flattering  homage  that  could  be  paid  to  worth,  to 
heroism  like  his,  it  was  also  an  honour  to  the  nation 
to  feel  it  as  they  did.  When  we  arrived  at  the 
Admiralty  it  was  crowded,  but  every  countenance 
was  dejected — nor  could  one  have  guessed  that  it 
was  a  victory  of  twenty  ships  of  the  line  taken  from 
the  enemy,  only  that  defeat  would  have  caused 
tumult,  and  this  was  the  silence  of  sorrow  and 
respect.  We  were  shown  into  Mr.  Marsden's2  room. 
He  was  oppressed  with  the  contradictory  feelings  of 
triumph  for  the  country,  and  sorrow  for  the  loss  of 
the  greatest  hero  we  ever  had,  and  his  friend.  As 
we  came  away  there  was  a  vast  rush  of  people,  but 
all  silent,  or  a  murmur  of  respect  and  sorrow,  some 
of  the  common  people  saying,  "  It  is  bad  news  if 
Nelson  is  killed  ",  yet  they  knew  that  twenty  ships 
were  taken.  A  man  at  the  turnpike  gate  said  to 
Charles  Ellis,  who  was  going  through,  "  Sir,  have 
you  heard  the  bad  news?  We  have  taken  twenty 
ships  from  the  enemy,  but  Lord  Nelson  is  killed." 
Illuminations  followed,  but  the  first  night,  as  if  unable 
to  rejoice,  there  were  none  seen  but  on  the  public 
buildings.  The  two  next  nights  they  were  general, 
but  chiefly  transparencies  or  mottos  relating  to  the 

1  Victory  of  Trafalgar — On  October  21,  1805. 

2  Mr.  Marsden — Chief  Secretary  of  the  Admiralty. 


"dear  departed  hero".  Nelson  was  the  only  person 
I  ever  saw  who  excited  real  enthusiasm  in  the 
English.    Every  day  makes  his  victory  more  precious. 



Nelson,  by  Valour  led  to  deathless  fame, 

All  toils  surmounted  and  all  Foes  o'ercame, 

Met  every  danger  calm  and  undismay'd, 

Whilst  some  new  conquest  mark'd  each  step  he  made. 

Superior  Force  his  ardent  soul  defied, 

He  conquer'd,  knew  it,  "  blessed  his  God  ",  and  died. 

Britannia  glorying  in  her  Hero's  fame, 
On  her  Victorious  shield  inscribes  his  name, 
Gratefull  proclaims  the  safety  which  he  gave 
Yet  midst  her  Triumphs  weeps  upon  his  Grave. 

Lady  Elizabeth  Foster 

To  Augustus  Foster. 

November,  1805. 

.     .     .     How  do  you  like  these  lines?  written  by 
the  Duke  of  Devonshire  on  the  death  of  Nelson. 

Oft  had  Britannia  sought  midst  dire  alarms 
Divine  protection  for  her  sons  in  arms. 
Britons  received  from  Heaven  a  mixed  decree 
To  crown  their  virtues,  but  to  check  their  pride 
God  gave  them  victory,  but  Nelson  died. 


.     .     .     Villeneuve1  and  two  other  admirals  are 
landed  prisoners  in  England. 

Augustus  Foster 

To  Lady  Elizabeth  Foster. 

Washington,  Dec.  1,  1805. 
On  this  day  the  Congress  opens.  We 
expect  a  boisterous  session,  for  they  are  angry  with 
us  about  our  regulations  in  regard  to  their  commerce. 
They  and  we  are  now  the  two  rivals  in  what  has 
always  given  power  wherever  it  has  extended,  Com- 
merce, but  I  trust  that  still  and  for  a  long  time  we 
shall  maintain  the  immense  superiority  that  we  do 
now.  They  are  next  us  in  the  race,  but  in  nothing 
else  are  they  near  us.  We  drove  them  into  being  a 
Nation  when  they  were  no  more  fit  for  it  than  the 
convicts  of  Botany  Bay,  though  I  must  say  that  their 
leader  Washington2  was  a  great  character,  and  one  or 
two  others  whom  the  tumult  of  the  day  drove  from 
their  counters,  but  since  that  interest  and  speculation 
seem  to  have  taken  fast  hold  of  the  whole  country 
to  the  exclusion  of  every  generous  feeling.  Their 
boasted  Constitution  is  as  much  a  piece  of  theory  as 
that  framed  by  the  French  National  Assembly,  the 
difference  being  that  here  it  has  had  as  yet  no  day 
of  trial;  it  hangs  loosely  upon  the  shoulders  of  the 
inhabitants,  but  we  must  see  it  when  the  reins  are 
drawn  close  to  be  sure  that  nothing  is  brittle.     I 

1  Villeneuve — Admiral  V,  French  commander  at  Trafalgar.  He  was  released 
in  1805,  and  returned  to  France,  but,  learning  that  his  reception  by  Napoleon 
•would  be  unfavourable,  he  committed  suicide  (1763-1805). 

2  Washington— George  W.  (1732-1799). 


think  people  mistake  where  the  real  advantage  of 
this  Nation  lies.     I  believe  that  under  a  Monarch 
they  have  the  means  of  being  free  and  independent 
from  the  nature  of  the  land,  the  scattered  manner  in 
which  it  is  peopled,  and  the  immense  difficulty  that 
there  would  be  in  enforcing  harsh  mandates,  from 
the  want  of  easy  communication  through  the  marshes 
and    forests.      Almost   all    the   sensible    Americans 
whom  I  have  conversed  with  that  were  not  warped 
by  prejudice  have  allowed  that  as  Colonies,  before 
our  oppressive  exactions  took  place,   the  Country 
was  much  happier,  and  the  Government  as  mild  and 
less  burdensome.     Their  manners,    too,  were  then 
much  simpler,  and  the  laws  were  enforced.     What 
do  you  think  of  a  society  of  Atheists  having  been 
formed  not  very  long  ago  at   Philadelphia  for  the 
purpose  of  enlightening  the  Country?     They  had 
undertaken  to  publish  an  Atheistical  Paper.     They 
were  cried  down,  it  is  true,  but  still  remember  how 
the  simplicity  of  these  good  people  is  cried  up  and 
the  pure  city  of  Philadelphia.     A  Mr.  Clay,1  a  Mem- 
ber of  Congress,  lately  having  occasion  to  draw  on 
the    Bank    there,    wrote   a    Draft  payable   to   J — s 
Ch — t  or  order.     I  had  myself,  as  you  know,  a  high 
opinion  of  the    Constitution    and    manners  of  this 
country  before  I  left  England,  but  I  do  assure  you 
that  disgust,  not  to  use  a  worse  word,  is  all  the  feel- 
ing I  have  in  respect  to  them  now.     The  character 
of  a  gentleman  is  very  rare  to  be  found,  but  what 
has  surprized  me,  the  character  of  an  honest  man  of 

'  Mr.  CVay— Henry  C. ,  Speaker  of  the  American  House  of  Representatives,  and 
afterwards  United  States  Senator.  He  contested  the  Presidency  three  times 
without  success  (1771-1852). 


principle  is  to  the  very  full  as  rare.  .  .  .  There 
is  an  ambassador  from  Tunis  arrived  here  with  the 
most  splendid  dress  I  ever  saw,  and  the  President 
receives  him  in  yarn  stockings  and  torn  slippers,  as 
he  does  us  all. 

Lady  Elizabeth  Foster 

To  A  ugustus  Foster. 

Chiswick,  December  1,  1805. 

Archduke  Charles  the  same  accounts  state  to  be 
dead  "  de  fatigue  et  de  chagrin  ".  I  was  in  London 
for  an  hour  or  two,  and  Farquhar  told  me  this  news, 
with  which  I  went  to  Crauford's.  At  first  M.  D.  had 
brought  contrary  intelligence,  and  that  Woronzow, 
who  was  at  Lord  Macartney's,  whence  he  came,  said 
that  there  was  an  army  of  15,000  Russians  ready 
and  united  to  act,  and  that  with  this  help  it  seemed 
impossible  that  the  Emperor  of  Germany  should 
make  peace.  A  few  minutes  after  the  Duke  of 
Queensborough  sent  Crauford  a  written  paper  with 
the  intelligence  as  I  have  given  it  you,  so  that  I  am 
afraid  it  is  true,  and  the  evening  papers  seem  to 
confirm  it.  It  is  a  campaign  which  one  can  compare 
to  nothing.  They  have  fallen  before  Bonaparte  like 
card  soldiers,  and  he  does  not  seem  to  have  lost  an 
officer  of  note.  My  brother  still  says  that  the  game 
is  not  up;  but  what  can  they  look  to?  What  has 
war  done  but  make  Bonaparte  greater  and  more 
powerfull  each  campaign. 

Dec.  2. 

The  Duchess  was  in  town  to-day.  She  was  told 
that  they  were  betting  ten  to  one  in  the  City  that 


the  news  was  not  true,  for  some  papers  were  re- 
ceived of  the  same  date  as  the  Dutch  Admiral's 
note,  and  they  mentioned  neither  circumstance;  it 
would  be  a  great  relief  to  know  that  it  was  not  true, 
yet  Heaven  knows  if  they  can  make  any  resistance; 
but  any  thing  is  better  than  making  peace  with  the 
enemy  at  the  gates.  I  hope  some  certain  account 
will  come  before  I  seal  my  letter. 

The  Victory  is  arrived  with  the  remains  of  our 
beloved  Nelson.  Alas,  the  awful  vicissitudes  of 
human  life!  When  I  dined  with  him  in  London  he 
said  to  us,  "in  about  two  months  I  hope  to  have 
done  my  duty  and  to  return  to  England  ".  He  is 
returned  in  little  more  than  two  months,  but  the 
Victor  is  laid  low.  Four  of  the  prizes  were  saved; 
three  are  arrived;  four  others  were  taken  by  Sir  R. 
Strahan,  and  the  two  in  the  summer  makes  ten  ships 
of  the  line  taken  and  sixteen  destroyed  on  the  21st. 
Of  that  mighty  combined  fleet  three  only  are  now 
able  to  put  to  sea.  Dear  Clifford  has  written  the 
most  affecting  and  interesting  letter  possible,  and  is 
miserable  at  having  been  sent  with  five  others  on  a 
particular  service  a  fortnight  before,  but  when  I  look 
on  the  number  of  midshipmen  killed  and  wounded  I 
can  but  rejoice  he  was  not  there. 

Now  as  to  the  state  of  your  friends  here  at  Chis- 
wick,  the  Duke  has  the  gout,  but  is,  I  hope,  getting 
better;  the  Duchess  is  pretty  well,  so  am  I.  Dun- 
cannon  and  his  bride  dined  here  yesterday;  we  like 
her  very  much;  some  think  her  pretty,  others  not. 
I  think  her  pretty  though,  with  a  nose  almost  as 
long  as  Prince  D.,  but  she  has  a  fair  and  soft  skin, 


pretty  teeth,  good  hair,  pretty  figure,  and  very  pleas- 
ing voice  and  manners.  He  seems  very  happy,  and 
they  are  to  come  back  and  stay  a  few  days.  Lord 
Aberdeen  is  making  pendant  at  the  Priory  to  Caro 
and  W.  Lamb,  who  flirt  all  day  long  e  felice  adesso. 

Augustus  Foster 

To  Lady  Elizabeth  Foster. 

Washington,  Dec.  27,  1805. 

.  .  .  I  am  here  in  the  midst  of  Africans  and 
Savages.  We  have  an  Ambassador  from  Tunis  and 
his  suite  in  the  City,  and  deputies  from  eight  nations 
beyond  the  Mississippi  are  arrived.  They  passed 
on  horseback  by  my  windows  a  few  days  ago  in 
arriving,  and  made  such  a  Hue  and  Cry  that  I 
thought  all  Washington  was  in  convulsion.  Two  of 
them  were  naked  to  the  waist,  their  heads  shaved  to 
the  Crown,  faces  red,  ears  green,  and  feathers  and 
bills  of  birds  stuck  all  over  them.  Others  had  their 
faces  shaded  with  black,  and  streaks  of  black  painted 
from  the  crown  to  the  chin,  with  sack  loads  of  feathers 
and  quills  tied  to  their  hair  behind.  They  are  2 1  in 
all,  generally  tall,  stout  men,  but  not  so  much  so  as 
I  expected  to  find  them. 

I  have  formed  an  acquaintance  with  a  young  man 
of  the  Sac  nation  who  is  very  good  looking,  about 
1 7,  and  who  is  son  to  a  very  principal  chief  of  that 
country.  I  got  him  to  come  to  me  for  three  hours 
to  have  his  portrait  taken,  and  I  had  an  opportunity 
of  studying  a  little  his  character,  which  is  very  re- 


served  and  timid.  However,  he  becomes  by  degrees 
at  his  ease  more  and  more,  and  I  amused  him  ex- 
tremely by  shewing  him  caricatures.  The  figure  of 
Lord  Salisbury  in  the  King  and  Gulliver  made  him 
laugh  excessively,  and  he  observed  that  John  Bull 
had  very  short  legs.  His  name  is  Wa-Pawni-ha  or 
White  Hare.  We  are  great  friends,  and  he  shakes 
my  hand  with  a  smile  of  content  when  he  sees  me. 
He  has  four  men  to  attend  on  him,  and  is  now  occu- 
pied in  learning  to  write  English.  The  first  lesson 
I  saw  him  taking  to-day,  and  he  really  seems  very 
intelligent.  None  of  them  have  that  ferocious  coun- 
tenance which  I  had  been  led  to  expect,  and  they 
behave  very  decently  and  with  perfect  propriety. 
Another  man,  an  Osage,  I  was  introduced  to  to-day. 
His  name,  for  you  must  have  him  introduced  to  you 
in  form,  is  Pa  hu  la  or  beaux  cheveux.  He  told  me 
that  when  he  was  young  he  had  fine  hair,  but  on 
becoming  warriors  they  tear  out  the  hair,  a  most 
painful  operation  in  appearance,  but  which  they  don't 
seem  to  mind.  There  are  no  squaws  come  with 
them,  to  my  great  disappointment. 

From  this  side  of  the  Mississippi  there  are  arrived 
several  Cherokees,  who  are  the  most  advanced  in 
civilization.  They  dress  like  us,  and  have  features 
like  inhabitants  of  the  South  of  France.  They  and 
the  Creeks  are  the  only  two  Nations  which  are  sup- 
posed now  to  increase  their  number.  Division  of 
property  has  taken  place  among  them  within  these 
few  years,  and,  which  is  a  great  point,  the  women 
are  treated  with  respect.  Colonel  Hawkins,  a  very 
amiable  man,  who  is  superintendent  of  the  Southern 


Indians,  told  me  that  ten  years  ago,  when  he  first 
settled  among  the  Creeks,  the  women  would  leave 
the  pathway  for  the  men  to  pass,  but  now,  by  his 
example,  the  men  universally  give  place  to  the 
women.  He  says  that  the  fair  sex  has  been  of  the 
greatest  assistance  to  him  in  civilizing  that  nation, 
and  that  now  a  woman  will  not  dismount  from  her 
horse  unless  helped  off  by  a  man,  and  that  they  are 
fully  sensible  of  the  benefit  he  has  been  to  them. 
They  still,  however,  throw  away  their  children  if  de- 
formed, and  they  show  very  little  outward  and  visible 
signs  of  attachment  of  any  sort.     .     .     . 

Our  Corps  Diplomatique  has  really  been  enriched 
very  much  from  a  quarter  which  one  should  little 
expect  any  thing  from — Tunis.  Sidi  men  ne  melli, 
the  Ambassador  from  the  Bey  of  Tunis  turns  out 
to  be  a  very  intelligent,  amiable,  and  conversible 
man.  He  is  an  old  acquaintance  of  Prince  Augustus, 
to  whom  he  sends  a  letter  by  this  packet,  and  of 
Lady  Hamilton,  and  was  of  her  parties  at  Naples. 
He  has  taken  a  great  fancy  to  me,  and  we  are  the 
best  friends  in  the  world,  as  I  speak  Italian,  which 
he  also,  though  imperfectly,  understands.  As  we 
are  at  war  with  Spain  and  France  he  is  almost  the 
only  one  of  the  Corps  with  whom  we  communicate. 
A  nephew  of  Mr.  J.  Randolph  (a  Member  of  Con- 
gress of  Virginia,  and  a  young  man  of  considerable 
merit),  a  boy  about  12  years  old,  who  is  deaf  and 
dumb,  has  just  been  sent  by  his  uncle  to  England 
to  try  the  effects  of  medical  aid.  He  goes  to  Mr. 
Munroe's  first,  and  then  to  a  school  at  Bermondsey, 
and  if  you  can  be  of  any  service  to  him  in  case  he 


should  ultimately  go  to  Paris,  to  Sicard,1  it  would  be 
doing  a  kind  thing,  and  I  should  be  glad  of  it,  for, 
though  Randolph  is  an  enemy  to  England,  yet  he  is 
almost  the  only  gentlemanly  man  that  belongs  to  the 

You  may  rest  assured  that  no  Randolph  such  as  is 
described  in  the  paper  you  sent  has  ever  possessed 
a  town  house  in  Philadelphia,  nor  has  there  been 
one  within  these  20  years  whose  estate  was  disposed 
of  in  the  manner  described.  As  the  lady  is  so  young 
and  the  name  so  aristocratic  a  one  in  this  country 
the  story  of  Mrs.  Randolph  would  have  been  fresh 
in  the  memory  of  every  one,  and  particularly  of  the 
Virginians;  and  the  whole  family  and  its  branches 
have  been  all  conned  over  repeatedly  before  me,  and 
no  individual  found  to  apply  the  account  to. 

Lady  Elizabeth  Foster 

To  A  ugustus  Foster. 

December  16  thQ),  1805. 

to-day  to  see  the  preparations,  and  in  returning  your 
brother  stopped  me ;  he  had  overheard  in  the  streets 
saying  the  Mails  are  come  in  and  the  news  is  not  so 
bad,  but  when  we  got  to  St.  James'  Square,  where 
we  dined,  we  found  how  bad  the  news  was  thought. 
It  is  indeed  over  with  the  Continent2.  The  Em- 
peror of  Russia  is  not  concerned  in  the  armistice  and 

1  Sicard — The  Abbe1  S.,  instructor  of  the  deaf  and  dumb  (1742-1822). 

z  It  is  indeed  over  with  the  Continent — This  evidently  refers  to  the  battle  of 
Austerlitz  on  Dec.  2,  1805,  which  was  followed  by  an  armistice  a  few  days  after. 
This  victory  of  Napoleon  is  said  to  have  given  Pitt  his  death-blow. 


was  ready  to  go  on,  but  nothing  can  be  more  ruined 
than  the  Emperor  of  Austria  and  Germany.  The 
gloom  over  Pitt's  friends  is  extreme,  and  he  is  him- 
self very  ill  at  Bath. 

Lady  Elizabeth  Foster 

To  Augustus  Foster. 


Devonshire  House,  Dece7nber  31,  1805. 
.  You  can't  conceive  anything  like  the 
publick  anxiety  about  the  event  of  the  battle  of  the 
2nd,  and  those  said  to  be  given  subsequent  to  it. 
We  have  been  left  without  certain  intelligence  for  a 
length  of  time,  and  the  reports  have  been  strong  of 
a  decisive  advantage  to  the  Allies,  but  a  boat  has 
come  out  with  the  Argus  paper,  printed  at  Paris, 
saying  that  the  Emperors  of  Austria  and  France 
had  concluded  an  armistice.  I  do  not,  cannot  believe 
the  Emperor  Alexander  has  to  do  with  it.  W. 
Ponsonby  speaks  of  him  with  enthusiasm,  and  his 
bravery  has  been  conspicuous;  but  war  is  Bonaparte's 
element,  and  we  play  his  cards  for  him  when  we  give 
him  an  opportunity  of  making  it.  Where  it  will  end, 
God  knows. 

Meanwhile  magnificent  preparations  are  making  at 
home  for  our  loved  Hero's  funeral.  It  is  to  be  a 
national  tribute  to  the  favourite  of  this  great  nation 
which  has  been  blessed  with  many  heroes,  but  surely 
none  so  great,  so  brilliant  as  Nelson.  They  have 
tried  to  throw  difficulties  in  the  way  of  the  Prince  of 
Wales  attending,  but  he  is  determined.  He  admired 
him,  he  says,  as  the  greatest  character  England  could 


ever  boast  of,  and  he  loved  him  as  a  friend  to  whom 
he  was  bound  by  every  tie  that  could  bind  him  to 
another.  He  was  proud  that  England  had  produced 
such  a  hero.  If  there  is  a  good  life  of  him  I  will 
send  it  to  you.  The  Bishop  of  Exeter  is  to  write 
one,  I  know,  and  with  original  letters.     .     .     . 

Lady  Elizabeth  Foster 

To  Augustus  Foster. 

.  .  .  Lord  Aberdeen  looks  dreadfully;  he  has 
been  at  Bath,  and  he  frets  so  about  Lord  Melville 
that  I  really  think  he  will  make  himself  ill ;  yet  the 
trial  must  come  on,  and  I  fear  new  things  are  come 
out.  Both  Lord  and  Lady  Melville  are  at  Bath; 
she  is  ill,  and  the  complaint  at  his  heart  seems  to 
increase.  I  pity  them  from  my  heart.  Poor  Lord 
Aberdeen,  he  is  a  delightful  person.  She  is  very 
pretty  and  likes  Petrarch;  that  is  something  to 
redeem  her  with  you.  He  and  I  have  sparring 
about  Roscius,  for  since  Kemble  was  at  the  Priory 
instructing  Lord  Aberdeen  in  acting  he  has  won  him 
from  the  Boy  and  made  him  insist  that  all  merit 
depends  on  right  emphasis,  and  think  that  all  acting 
different  from  Kemble's  is  wrong, — but  the  Boy  has 
had  a  complete  triumph:  two  nights  ago  acting 
Rolla,  which  he  did'  with  great  success,  Charles 
Kemble1,  out  of  low  envy,  tried  to  cast  a  ridicule  on 
him,  and  in  the  prison  scene  where  Rolla  gives  his 

1  Charles  Kemble — Brother  of  the  more  famous  John  Philip  K.  and  of  Mrs. 
Siddons  (1775-1854). 


disguise  to  Alonso,  Charles  Kemble,  to  mark  the 
difference  of  their  size,  threw  it  round  him  like  a 
sack,  on  which  the  whole  House  hissed  him,  crying 
"off,"  and  hissed  him  every  time  he  appeared, 
whilst  the  applause  to  the  Boy  was  greater  than 
ever,  with  shouts  of  "  bravo,  excellent ".  It  is  a 
wonderful  piece  of  acting,  and  his  carrying  off  the 
child  perfect  nature  and  grace.  Grassini  sang  in 
Cleopatra  Tuesday,  and  excellently,  I  hear,  but  alas 
we  lose  her  this  summer.  .  .  .  There  is  a  wax 
figure  of  Lord  Nelson  put  up  in  Westminster  Abbey, 
which  is  as  if  he  was  standing  there.  Vivra  il  suo 
nome  mille  secoli  e  mille. 

Note  from  Charles  J.  Fox 

To  Georgiana,  Duchess  of  Devonshire. 

Pray  speak  to  everybody  you  can  to  come  down 
or  we  shall  be  lost  on  the  Slave  Trade.     Morpeth, 
Ossulston,  Ld.  A.  H.,  Ld.  H.  Petty  all  away.      Pray, 

pray  send  any  body  you  see.     Yours, 

C.  J.  F. 

X-past  seven,  H.  of  C. 



Live,  Marble,  Live,  for  thine  a  sacred  Trust, 
The  patriot's  face  that  speaks  his  noble  mind ; 


Live  that  our  sons  may  kneel  before  this  Bust, 
And  hail  the  Benefactor  of  Mankind. 

This  was  the  man  who  midst  the  Tempest's  rage 
A  rock  of  safety  to  the  nations  stood, 

Warn'd  with  prophetic  voice  a  servile  age, 

And  strove  to  quench  the  ruthless  thirst  for  blood. 

This  was  the  man  whose  ever  deathless  name, 
Recalls  his  generous  life's  illustrious  scenes; 

To  Bless  his  fellow  Creatures  was  his  aim, 
And  universal  Liberty  his  means. 

ON  THE  LATE  LORD  SPENCER.     D.  1805. 

If  e'er  sincerity  inscribed  the  stone, 
Giving  the  dead  no  merits  but  their  own, 
Behold  it  here.     This  verse  with  Sculpture's  aid, 
Records  the  debt  by  Love  and  Duty  paid, 
That  Strangers  and  Posterity  may  know 
How  pure  a  Spirit  warmed  the  Dust  below. 
But  they  who  felt  the  Virtues  of  his  Life, 
Whether  the  Orphan,  Friend,  or  Child  or  Wife, 
Need  not  Poets  or  the  Sculptor's  Art 
To  wake  the  Feelings  of  a  Grateful  Heart. 
Their  Love,  their  grief,  his  honour  best  proclaim, 
The  Living  monuments  of  Spencer's  Fame. 

Lady  Elizabeth  Foster 

To  Augustus  Foster. 

January  17,  1806. 

The  American  dispatches  have  been  retarded,  and 
I  have  delayed  also  sending  or  writing  even,  for 
really  there  is  such  a  gloom  over  every  thing.     I 


wanted  to  have  something  better  to  say.  Then  the 
procession  and  the  funeral  pomp(?)  at  Greenwich  and 
to  town  and  from  the  Admiralty  to  St.  Paul's  was 
affecting  beyond  measure.  In  short,  what  with  that 
and  seeing  people  connected  with  Lord  Nelson  and 
collecting  a  variety  of  anecdotes  about  him  you  can- 
not conceive  how  knocked  up  I  feel.  We  are  going 
— Fred  F.,  Caro,  and  I — to  Brocket1  to-morrow  for 
a  couple  of  days.  I  think  it  will  do  us  good. 
Nothing  has  done  more  honor  to  the  country  than 
the  manner  in  which  they  have  felt  the  loss  of  Nel- 
son. In  the  thousands  that  were  collected  on  that 
day  it  was  a  stillness  which  nothing  broke  through 
but  a  sort  of  murmur  of  "Hats  off!"  as  the  Car 
passed,  and  ejaculations  of  "  God  bless  his  soul  who 
died  for  us  to  protect  us;  never  shall  we  see  his  like 
again  ".  This  show  altogether  was  magnificent,  but 
the  common  people,  when  the  Crew  of  the  Victory 
passed,  said:  "We  had  rather  see  them  than  all  the 
show".  The  Prince  has  shown  a  feeling  that  did 
him  honor. 

Now  a  new  interest  arises.  Parliament  meets  on 
the  21st,  and  Pitt  is  so  ill  that  he  can't  attend,  nor 
will  he,  I  believe,  be  able  for  a  long  time.  The 
King  is  so  blind  he  can't  open  the  Session,  so  you 
see  we  are  in  a  happy  state.  Lord  Ossulston  has 
just  told  me  that  Lord  Henry  moves  the  amend- 
ment. It  is  also  thought  that  the  Addingtons  will 
vote  with  opposition.  Lord  Wellesley2  is  just  arrived 
from  India,  and  is  undecided  which  way  to  act.    They 

1  Brocket— Brocket  Hall,  country  seat  of  Lord  Melbourne  in  Hertfordshire. 
^Lord  Wellesley — Marquis  Wellesley,  Governor-general  of  India  (1760-1842). 


say  that  he  owes  everything  to  Lord  Grenville,  but 
I  suppose  he  dreads  the  Lion1  recovering,  and  that 
he  should  have  turned  too  soon  against  him.  What 
a  miserable  being  is  a  Politician  without  a  heart! 


.  .  .  I  think  your  letter  a  very  clever  one, 
and  I  have  thoughts  of  shewing  it  to  Mr.  Fox.  It 
is  the  best  picture  of  America  I  have  had.  I  hope 
there  will  be  no  war  with  us.  .  .  .  Lady  Holland 
inquired  a  good  deal  about  you  last  night,  and  Lord 
Holland  owned  he  believed  your  account  was  a  true 
one.     .     .     . 

Lady  Elizabeth  Foster 

To  Augustus  Foster. 

Thursday ;  January  23,  1806. 

The  papers  will  tell  you  of  Mr.  Pitt's  death,2  but 
none  of  them  can  do  justice  to  the  generous  regret 
that  is  felt  by  opposition.  On  the  Tuesday  we  were 
stopped  at  Devonshire  House  and  told  that  at  the 
moment  the  amendment  was  to  be  made  Pitt's  death 
would  probably  be  announced.  This,  however,  was 
not  so,  but  now  it  is  over;  it  is  past;  that  name  that 
filled  so  vast  a  space  in  the  world  is  gone!  He  was 
calm  and  resigned,  and  his  fortitude  unshaken!  It 
is  an  awful  moment,  and  I  will  write  more  another 


Nothing  can  paint  better  the  feelings  of  a 
generous  mind  than  the  conversation  which  passed 

1  The  Lion— William  Pitt  (1759-1806). 

2  Mr.  Pitt's  death — He  died  on  Jan.  23,  the  day  on  which  this  letter  was  written. 


between  Fox  and  the  Duke.  The  Duke  was  saying 
that  he  thought  it  impossible  not  to  be  shocked  at 
the  death  of  a  man  of  such  superior  abilities,  even 
though  one  differed  from  him  in  political  opinion. 
"Shocked,"  answered  Mr.  Fox;  "yes,  certainly  it 
feels  as  if  something  was  missing  in  the  world!"  I 
can't  tell  you  the  effect  these  few  words  had  upon 
me — so  simple,  so  sublime  in  their  simplicity.  It  is 
reported  that  the  King  has  sent  to  Lord  Grenville; 
if  so,  I  am  sure  he  will  not  come  in  without  Fox. 

Monday,  27I/1. 

Lord  Grenville  has  been  with  the  King.  The 
King  said  to  him,  "  I  wish  you,  my  Lord,  to  help  me 
to  make  a  new  administration  ".  "  I  must  first,  Sire, 
consult  with  Mr.  Fox."  "  Yes,  certainly,"  said  the 
King,  "  I  supposed  so."  So  the  conference  ended, 
and  now  is  indeed  an  anxious  moment.  I  was  sure, 
from  a  conversation  I  had  with  Lady  Hawkesbury, 
that  this  was  likely.  The  whole  tenor  of  her  con- 
versation went  to  extol  the  King's  purity  of  intention 
and  devotion  to  whatever  he  thought  the  good  of 
the  country.  We  shall  see.  The  King  only  added, 
"  Let  me  have  it  by  Wednesday  or  Thursday".  To- 
day was  Mr.  Lascelles'  motion1  of  publick  honor  to 
Pitt.  The  motion  is  to  be  framed,  they  say,  on  the 
one  made  for  Lord  Chatham.  Fox  wished  it  might 
have  been  so  worded  as  that  he  may  agree,  and 
even  said  before  in  the  House  that  if  it  was  not  so 

1  Mr.  Lascelles'  motion — The  motion  was  for  a  public  funeral  and  monument  to 
the  memory  of  Pitt.  Fox  declined  to  assent  to  the  motion,  and  Wyndham  spoke 
against  it.  Among  those  who  supported  it  were  Wilberforce  and  Lord  Castle- 
reagh.  On  a  division  the  motion  was  carried  by  258  to  89.  Pitt's  debts,  amounting 
to  ,£40,000,  were  paid  by  the  nation.  He  was  buried  in  Westminster  Abbey  on 
Feb.  22. 


worded  as  to  be  a  gross  violation  of  all  his  principles 
to  support  it  that  it  would  meet  with  no  opposition 
from  that  side  of  the  House,  but  I  hear  Mr.  Las- 
celles  was  obstinate.  It,  however,  gave  rise  to  the 
most  beautiful  speech  Fox  ever  made.  The  Morning 
Chronicle  gave  it  very  ill;  instead  of  his  saying 
"  perhaps  it  was  an  honor,"  Fox  said,  "  people  had 
done  him  the  honor  to  call  him  that  Right  Honour- 
able Gentleman's  Rival "  (and  a  great  honor  it  was), 
but  you  will  have  seen  it  in  the  papers.  Mr.  Wynd- 
ham's  no  body  liked;  however,  all  Pitt's  relations 
and  friends  were  pleased  with  Mr.  Fox's.  How 
happy  shall  I  be  if  I  can  promote  your  advantage 

and  happiness. 


Lord  Grenville  has  asked  for  another  day.  The 
King  came  to  town  and  has  seen  Lord  Hawkesbury, 
but  I  don't  suspect  any  trick.  Fox  won't  tell  us  any 
arrangements,  and  says  they  ought  not  to  be  known 
till  the  King  has  seen  them.  General  Fitzpatrick 
was  resisting  our  invitations  to  Devonshire  House, 
saying  we  should  be  trying  to  get  secrets  from  him. 
"  That's  a  good  one,"  said  Fox  laughing,  "  he  has 
none  to  tell."  You  may  conceive  the  busy  look  of 
St.  James's  Street.  Mr.  Fox  asked  me  in  the 
kindest  manner  about  you,  and  whether  you  liked 
America.  La  risposta  era  facile.  I  long  for  to- 


The  King  said  he  should  make  no  observations, 
but  should  send  to  Lord  Grenville  when  he  wanted 
him:  different  comments  are  made  on  this. 



The  King  saw  Lord  Grenville  this  evening;  he 
seemed  surprized  at  the  article  about  the  Duke  of 
York.  "Is  it",  he  said,  "meant  as  a  slur  on  the 
Duke  of  York?"  "  Nothing,  Sire,  further  from  our 
intentions."  The  King  then  said  he  must  reconsider 
of  it.  He  asked  if  it  had  not  always  been  as  now 
since  the  Duke  of  Cumberland.  Lord  Grenville 
assured  His  Majesty  that  if  he  inquired  he  would 
find  it  had  not,  and  the  article  at  bottom  of  the  list 
was  in  the  most  respectful  terms,  saying  that,  as 
the  revision  of  the  measures  for  the  defence  of  the 
Country  must  be  the  first  that  would  come  into  con- 
sideration, it  was  humbly  hoped  that  the  Commander 
in  Chief  would  submit  to  concert  his  measures  with 
the  Council  at  a  time  when  the  state  of  the  Country 
required  so  much  that  they  should  act  in  concert. 
As  nearly  as  I  can  ascertain,  it  was  expressed  these 
people  had  been  prepared  to  think  it  had  been 
intended  to  remove  the  Duke  of  York,  or  that  some- 
thing harsh  had  been  said,  but  it  was  not  so;  and 
when  this  was  understood  there  seemed  to  be  but 
one  voice  that  the  King  ought  to  be  advised  to 
consent  to  it. 

Monday,  Feb.  3. 

It  is  said  that  the  King  wrote  to  Lord  Grenville 
yesterday,  and  that  he  is  to  see  him  to-day.  Before 
the  ship  goes  I  hope  I  shall  have  some  decided 
intelligence  to  send  you.  Yesterday  London  was  in 
a  fever,  for  it  was  soon  circulated  at  the  Opera  that 
it  was  off.  Fox  was  there  in  his  usual  good  spirits, 
at  which,  I  suppose,  people  were  surprised,  but  he  is 


unlike  any  thing  and  superior  to  every  body.  I 
have  heard  that  some  people  were  for  letting  the 
subject  of  the  Army  rest  for  the  present,  but  he, 
with  his  noble  sincerity  and  integrity,  said  that  it 
was  more  fair  and  much  handsomer  to  state  all  their 
intentions  now;  to  take  no  advantage.  It  has  risked 
the  whole  thing  being  off,  but  it  is  with  honor  if  it  is 
so,  and  if  the  King  has  a  heart  to  appreciate  Fox, 
what  honor  this  must  do  him  with  the  King.  I 
sha'n't  dare  send  this  letter  by  the  merchant  ship,  but 
I  will  write  a  line  by  it  to  tell  you  of  this. 

Wednesday,  $ik. 

.  .  .  To-day  they  were  to  kiss  hands.  I  left 
off  Monday.  That  was  a  day  of  fever.  About  one 
we  knew  Lord  Grenville  was  with  the  King;  about 
three  or  four  that  all  was  doing  well ;  and  about  six 
a  note  from  Arlington  Street  told  us  that  all  was 
settled.  Lord  Grenville  was  to  see  the  King  again 
in  the  evening  for  the  final  arrangements,  and  that 
the  new  Ministers  were  to  kiss  hands,  and  to-day  I 
believe  there  is  some  delay  about  Lord  Grenville  on 
account  of  some  plan  he  has  which  may  delay  it 
till  to-morrow,  but  on  Friday  this  packet  goes,  and 
with  it  I  will  send  you  the  correct  list.  What  a 
change!  You  will  hear,  I  suppose,  and  so  do  we 
here,  some  abuse  of  letting  in  some  of  the  Adding- 
tons.  Yesterday  all  was  discontent  amongst  some 
of  our  minor  friends  on  this  account,  but  it  is  very 
different  from  the  manner  in  which  Mr.  Pitt  came  in, 
leaving  all  the  Addingtonians  whom  he  had  abused 
and  tacking  himself  on  to  them,  or  coming  in  a  great 


body,  as  Fox  and  Lord  Grenville  do,  and  then  ad- 
mitting Lord  Sidmouth  and  one  other  to  the  Cabinet, 
and  a  few  to  other  places — to  form,  in  short,  a  broad 
bottomed  administration,  placing  people  there  where 
their  talents  can  be  of  use — thus  Lord  Auckland  is 
at  the  Board  of  Trade — he,  and  almost  he  only, 
understands  trade. 

Wednesday  night. 

Fox  says  the  order  of  the  day  is  content,  and  the 
Duchess  incloses  you  a  list  of  the  new  administration 
as  far  as  it  goes,  I  mean  as  is  finally  settled.  Several 
kissed  hands  to-day,  and  the  King  was  very  gracious, 
but  so  blind,  poor  man,  that  it  was  painfull  to  see 
him.  The  report  is  Sir  R.  Strachan  is  in  sight  of  a 
squadron  of  the  Brest  fleet,  and  pray  God  we  may 
have  a  victory,  though  that  of  Trafalgar  might 
suffice  for  a  century.     .     .     . 

Augustus  Foster 

To  Lady  Elizabeth  Foster. 

Washington,  Feb.  1,  1806. 

Our  disputes  and  concerns  with  this  country  are 
becoming  greater  and  greater  every  day,  and  our 
business  becomes  consequently  greater  likewise. 
The  two  greatest  commercial  nations  on  the  globe 
cannot  move  in  the  same  sphere  without  jostling 
one  another  a  little  while  we  are  aiming  blows  at  the 
French  Marine.  We  want  elbow  room  and  these 
good  neutrals  won't  give  it  to  us,  and  therefore  they 
get  a  few  side  pushes  which  makes  them  grumble. 


However,  I  hope  they  will  see  their  interests  better 
than  to  seriously  quarrel  with  us  for  the  benefit  of 
the  foreign  adventurers  who  carry  on  an  unlawful 
trade  from  their  ports  with  the  West  Indies.    .    .    . 

Lady  Elizabeth  Foster 

To  Augustus  Foster. 

Devonshire  House,  Feb.  3,  1806. 
.  .  .  I  send  you  this  merely  to  say  that  all  our 
friends  are  coming  in,  and  I  believe  are  to  kiss 
hands  the  day  after  to-morrow.  You  will  see  by 
the  papers  the  loss  the  Country  has  again  sustained 
in  the  death  of  Mr.  Pitt!  that  name,  so  great,  so 
known,  which  occupied  so  vast  a  space,  is  gone! 
.  .  .  On  Thursday  Mr.  Pitt  died;  on  Saturday 
the  King  sent  for  Lord  Grenville  and  told  him  he 
wished  his  assistance  to  form  a  new  Administration. 
Lord  Grenville  said  the  first  thing  he  must  do  must 
be  to  consult  Mr.  Fox.  "  I  supposed  so,"  answered 
the  King,  "  let  me  have  the  list  by  Wednesday  or 
Thursday."  "  By  Thursday,  Sir,"  —  so  it  ended. 
They  asked  a  day  more,  and  gave  it  on  Friday.  An 
article  at  the  end  about  the  Commander  in  Chief  made 
a  difficulty,  and  the  king  said  he  must  reconsider  of  it. 
I  mistake — the  King  took  it  Friday  and  said  he 
should  send  for  Lord  G.,  and  on  Saturday  evening 
it  was  that  the  article  about  the  Army  made  a  hitch: 
it  was  reported  at  the  opera  to  be  off:  most  of 
Sunday  passed  without  any  thing;  Sunday  evening 
another  message  to  Lord  Grenville,  and  on  Monday 


(yesterday)  the  King  saw  and  settled  every  thing 
with  Lord  G.,  and  we  were  told  about  five  that 
Wednesday  (to-morrow)  they  were  to  kiss  hands. 
What  a  change!  and  what  hopes,  my  Augustus,  does 
it  give  me  for  you !  but  of  this  another  time.  Lord 
Hawkesbury  has  the  Cinque  Ports.  Some  blame 
him,  and  certainly  Mr.  Fox  had  wished  it  for  Lord 
Chatham,  to  whom  he  would  have  given  it.  Fox 
made  a  beautiful  speech  yesterday  on  the  motion  to 
pay  Mr.  Pitt's  debts.  I  send  you  a  paper.  The 
most  beautiful  was  that  on  the  motion  for  public 
honors.  Mrs.  Fox  is  happy,  but  has  the  most  per- 
fect good  sense  as  well  as  good  nature  in  her  new 
situation.  One  of  her  first  ideas  was  to  ask  me 
about  you.  I  sha'n't  forget  that.  The  Duchess' 
friendship  you  know  too  well  to  doubt  it — so  a  little 
patience,  dearest  child,  go  on  improving  yourself  in 
French  and  Italian.  I  have  seen  no  faults  lately  in 
French,  and  Italian  I  am  afraid  you  now  know 
better  than  me.     .     .     . 

Georgiana,  Duchess  of  Devonshire 

To  Augustus  Foster. 

March,  (?)  1806. 

Dear  Augustus, — Mr.  Pitt's  death  was  felt  by  his 
opponents  in  a  manner  that  did  equal  honor  to  him 
and  them.  They  regretted  his  loss  and  his  talents, 
and  I  may  venture  to  say  Mr.  Fox  would  be  well 
pleased  indeed  could  he  recall  him  to  life  and  place 
him  in  his  Cabinet.     At  any  other  time    I   should 


rejoice  and  exult  in  the  assemblage  of  talent  and 
integrity  which  we  now  can  boast  of,  but  alas,  in 
these  times  what  is  to  be  done;  it  is  uphill  labour, 
and  it  must  be  the  regret  of  every  one  that  the  pro- 
posed junction  was  not  suffered  to  take  place  when 
it  might  have  saved  Europe.  ...  I  have  sent 
you  a  remembrance — a  memorial  of  Lord  Nelson, 
but  I  trust,  as  you  do,  that  he  will  have  left  us  some 
of  his  eleves  and  comrades  who  will  emulate  his 
glory.     .     .     .         

Augustus  Foster 

To  Lady  Elizabeth  Foster. 

Washington,  March  10,  1806. 
.  .  .  Our  news  is  not  later  than  the  19th  of 
December  from  London,  and  we  only  know  up  to 
the  reports  of  the  battle  of  the  5th,  and  the  heroism 
of  the  Emperor  Alexander.  You  may  have  had 
peace  long  ago  for  ought  we  know  here.  I  wish 
sincerely  you  may  if  it  be  a  good  one,  for  I  long 
very  much  to  return.  Nevertheless,  I  must  own 
that  this  Mission  is  very  interesting  during  war  time. 
Our  disputes  about  Neutral  rights  have  been  under 
discussion  in  the  Congress,  and  I  have  heard  their 
best  speakers.  One  of  them,  Mr.  J.  Randolph,  the 
uncle  of  the  deaf  and  dumb  boy  whom  I  recommended 
to  you,  who  is  with  Mr.  Munroe,  took  up  the  argu- 
ment favorable  to  England,  and  managed  it  with  a 
great  deal  of  brilliancy  and  success,  though  hitherto 
considered  as  the  leader  of  the  Democratic  party  in 
opposition  to  the  Federalists.     He  has  now  taken 


his  stand  as  head  of  the  landed  interest  as  opposed 
to  the  carrying  part  of  the  Commercial  interest.  He 
is  a  very  singular  character,  and  has  the  extraordinary 
merit  of  having  taught  himself.  He  lost  his  father 
when  a  boy,  and  was  indulged  in  idleness  by  his 
mother  till  he  was  16  or  17,  when  he  was  sent  to  a 
college,  where  he  learned  very  little.  He  is  now  33, 
has  the  voice  of  a  boy,  and  the  appearance.  He  is 
extremely  thin,  and  from  bodily  infirmities  scarce 
can  know  an  hour's  ease.  He  is  a  good  deal  at 
times  at  Mr.  Merry's,  and  as  he  is  very  gentleman- 
like and  full  of  imagination  I  like  him  very  much. 
As  he  is  certainly  the  first  in  point  of  brilliancy  in 
either  house,  I  have  given  you  this  account  of  him. 
He  has,  besides,  as  who  has  not  who  has  heard  of 
her,  a  most  sincere  veneration  for  your  Duchess  and 
for  your  mutual  friendship.  Being  a  direct  descend- 
ant from  Pocahontas,  he  values  nobility  of  birth  very 
highly,  and  is  intimately  acquainted  with  all  our 
great  families,  even  to  their  estates,  and  their  dis- 
tances from  London  and  each  other:  he  has  taken 
me  en  amitie\  and  we  often  ride  together. 

For  about  a  fortnight  during  the  winter  Washing- 
ton was  as  gay  as  it  can  be,  that  is,  we  met  parties 
crowded  in  little  rooms  in  the  different  houses  here, 
by  going  3  or  4  miles,  sometimes  6  miles,  every 
evening.  There  were  several  strangers,  and  some 
very  pretty  girls.  There  was  one  with  as  handsome 
a  face  as  any  I  have  ever  seen.  Mrs.  Merry  gave 
a  little  dance,  which  was  pronounced  feiner  and  more 
charmin  than  any  thing  of  the  sort  ever  seen.  I 
wore  the   Prince's  uniform,  which   is  very  popular 


here,  though  I  was  obliged  to  shew  a  little  resent- 
ment at  a  reason  which  was  insinuated  for  its  being 
so.  ...  I  congratulate  you  on  the  defeat  of 
the  French  fleet  in  the  West  Indies.  We  seem  to 
sweep  the  Ocean.  General  Moreau1  I  have  not  seen. 
I  must  obey  Mr.  Merry  about  him,  unless  I  should 
meet  him  in  private  society.  He  is  very  communi- 
cative, I  understand,  at  Philadelphia,  where  he  now 
is.  He  gives  as  his  opinion  that  Bonaparte  has 
got  into  a  Cul  de  sac,  and  must  be  destroyed  if 
the  Austrian  generals  manage  the  matter  skilfully. 
Madame  Moreau  is  enchanting  the  Americans.  Her 
dancing  is  said  to  be  superior  to  any  thing  ever  seen 
of  the  sort  in  the  United  States.  Moreau  wears 
plain  clothes  and  a  round  hat:  he  won't  come  down 
here,  as  he  says,  for  fear  of  embarrassing  the  Ad- 
ministration. General  Miranda2  has  gone  on  an  ex- 
pedition to  South  America,  as  is  supposed,  and  has 
carried  ammunition  and  men  in  four  ships  to  revolu- 
tionize the  Caraccas.  He  has  provided  printers  and 
printing  presses  among  other  things.  General 
Turreau  burst  into  tears,  as  is  said,  on  hearing  of 
the  battle  of  Trafalgar.     .     .     . 

Augustus  Foster 

To  Lady  Elizabeth  Foster. 

Washington,  March  25, 1806. 
Still  no  packet  arrives,  and  five  months  are  fast 
going  by  since  the  date  of  your  last  letter  to  me.     1 

1  General  Moreau — See  p.  25a 

-  General  Miranda — Founder  of  the  Independence  of  Spanish  America  (175°- 


almost  dread  its  arrival  now,  and  wait  for  the  Post 
every  evening  with  nearly  more  fear  than  hope. 
Our  public  news  has  been  so  bad  that  I  scarce  dare 
to  think  what  our  letters  may  bring.  When  such  a 
man  as  Pitt  dies  in  the  full  vigour  of  life,  and  such 
campaigns  are  fought  as  the  one  of  last  winter,  one 
cannot  guess  what  may  next  happen.  However,  if 
I  only  had  letters  from  you  of  February  in  my  pocket, 
I  should  not  grieve  much  about  our  National  Affairs. 
We  are  pretty  safe,  I  think,  from  French  fleets  and 
French  invasion.  Such  men  as  Lord  Grenville  and 
Mr.  Fox,  I  dare  say,  will  not  sacrifice  our  rights,  and 
Alexander  may  yet  find  the  Usurper  a  good  deal  to 
do  in  the  Levant.  Pitt  has  haunted  me  ever  since 
his  death.  I  think  I  see  his  figure  every  hour 
thundering  over  poor  little  Addington.  At  such  a 
distance  as  this,  when  one  hears  of  the  death  of  so 
great  a  man  as  he,  one  really  cannot  conceive  it;  it 
only  serves  to  call  him  more  forcibly  to  one's  mind, 
and  to  place  him  in  the  strongest  point  of  view  in 
which  one  has  ever  seen  him.  He  and  Nelson  have 
been  indeed  great  losses  to  us,  and  Lord  Cornwallis, 
as  Viceroy  of  India,  was  surely  a  loss  to  us,  but  to 
compare  small  things  with  great,  they  say  that  no 
man  should  long  be  under  the  same  valet  de  chambre, 
and  perhaps  it  was  necessary  we  should  know  by 
proof  that  our  whole  dependence  was  not  upon  one 
person,  however  pre-eminent.  .  .  .  If  they  make 
peace,  we  shall,  we  must  be  ruined.  Give  him  a 
year,  'tis  all  he  wants  to  fill  his  dockyards  with 
materials,  and  our  only  safeguard  will  be  in  jeopardy. 
We  have  only  now  to  look  to  our  wooden  walls,  and 


I  trust  they  won't  be  sacrificed.     The  moment  our 
right  arm  is  bent  we  are  gone. 


DEVONSHIRE,  MARCH  30,  1806. 

Bright  eminence  and  worth  have  seemed  of  late, 
For  cold  extinction  to  be  marked  by  fate: 
Soaring  with  higher  flight,  Death  wings  his  way, 
And,  like  the  eagle,  strikes  the  noblest  prey. 
Valour's  first-born,  lamented  Nelson,  dies: 
Next  o'er  Pitt's  corse  we  hang  with  weeping  eyes. 

Now,  at  the  insatiate  Tyrant's  savage  call, 
The  most  attractive  of  her  Sex  must  fall. 
O!  tenderest  Parent!     O!  sincerest  Friend! 
Can  it  be  Thee,  o'er  whose  pale  form  we  bend ; 
Thee,  whom  so  late  on  Health's  elastic  bound, 
VVe  saw  diffusing  pleasure  all  around. 

Is  that  the  forehead,  where  each  Grace  and  Muse 
Twined  their  joint  garland  of  a  thousand  hues? 
Are  those  the  eyes  which  beam'd  with  vivid  sense, 
And  spoke  the  soul  of  pure  benevolence? 
That  the  warm  breast,  where  mild  Affection  chose 
To  graft  on  Meekness  stern  Compassion's  rose? 

Peace  to  thy  fleeting  soul!     Tho'  here  below 

Malice  at  all  direct  the  assassin's  blow. 

Nor  even  Thee  the  accursed  fiend  should  spare, 

Yet  where  All's  justice  thou  hast  least  to  fear, 

For  leagued  with  mercy  at  the  Almighty's  throne, 

Shall  Charity  unbend  the  accusing  frown, 

Sustain  thy  trembling  head,  and  claim  thee  for  her  own. 

FROM   THE   HON.   MRS.   LAMB.  279 

George  Prince  of  Wales1  (afterwards  King  George  the  Fourth) 
To  Lady  Elizabeth  Foster. 

Dear  Lady  Elizabeth, — I  am  really  quite  asham'd 
of  intruding  upon  you  and  upon  the  Duke  under  any 
circumstances  at  the  present  moment,  but  particularly 
so  when  it  is  respecting  a  trifle.  To  take  up  as 
little  as  possible  of  your  time,  I  will  immediately 
come  to  the  point,  and  will  beg  of  you  to  borrow 
from  the  Duke  for  a  few  days  his  Collar  of  the 
Order  of  the  Garter.  By  some  misfortune  my 
Brother  Augustus  cannot  find  his,  and  if  you  will 
have  the  goodness  to  send  it  to  me  to  Carlton  House 
this  evening,  I  will  take  care  of  it  and  return  it  when 
the  Trial2  is  over.  Forgive  me  all  the  trouble  I  am 
giving  you,  and  believe  me  ever,  Dearest  Lady 
Elizabeth,  most  affectionately  yours,  George. 

Carlton  House,  April  i%th,  1806. 

The  Hon.  Mrs.  Lamb 

To  A  ugustus  Foster. 

You  must  feel  so  very  anxious  to  know  how  your 
dear  Mother's  health  and  spirits  have  borne  the 
dreadful  misfortune  we  all  deplore,  that  I  will  write 
to  you  a  line  to  tell  you  that  she  is  better  than  I 
could  have  expected,  and  than  her  misery  seemed  to 
give  any  hope  for,  but  as  to  spirits,  what,  my  dear 

1  George,  Prince  of  Wales,  afterwards  King  George  IV.  (1762-1830). 

2  The  trial — Probably  in  view  of  his  being  present  as  a  peer  at  the  trial  of  Lord 
Melville,  which  began  in  Westminster  Hall  on  April  26. 


Augustus,  can  ever  restore  them.,  since  time  that 
soothes  and  heals  common  afflictions  seems  but  to 
add  to  this?  Each  new  day  brings  some  new  proofs 
of  its  extent,  and  how  very  very  irreparable  it  is. 
All  who  knew  her  loved  her,  but  it  was  adoration 
that  she  inspired  to  her  nearest  friends,  and  thus  to 
have  her  torn  from  them,  to  watch  her  through  a 
suffering  illness  and  in  the  awful  moments  of  death, 
is  a  lesson  so  striking,  yet  so  heartbreaking,  that  we 
must  have  sunk  under  it  had  not  God  Almighty 
supported  us  through  it,  and  in  the  height  of  misery 
given  us  strength  and  resignation  to  bear  it;  but  I 
need  not  and  cannot  describe  to  you  all  that  we  have 
gone  through,  scenes  of  misery  and  horror  rendered 
more  dreadful  by  the  contrast  to  a  life  of  happiness, 
to  the  thoughtless  security  of  a  few  weeks  past.  .  .  . 

Lady  Elizabeth  Foster 

To  Augustus  Foster. 

Devonshire  House,  May  18,  1806. 

One  of  the  cruel  circumstances  attending  on  dis- 
tance is  the  unconsciousness  of  our  nearest  friends  to 
what  is  most  nearly  influencing  the  happiness  or 
misery  of  those  they  love.  Thus,  my  dearest  Augus- 
tus, I  read  your  three  letters,  which  otherwise  would 
have  been  delightful  to  me,  with  agony  of  heart.  Alas, 
that  friendship  which  could  excite  enthusiasm  even 
in  an  American  is  lost  to  me  for  ever.  The  recollec- 
tion alone  remains,  and  regrets,  never  ceasing  regrets, 
regrets  only  to  be  equalled  by  the  angelick,  the  un- 


equalled  qualities  of  the  friend  of  my  heart,  my  dear, 
my  loved,  my  adored  friend.  Frederick  wrote  to  you 
what  I  could  not.  Since  then  I  have  lived  in  a  kind 
of  stupor;  all  seems  like  a  dream;  we  have  never  left 
the  house;  we  live  amongst  ourselves,  so  that  as  yet 
I  am  not  awake  to  the  certainty  of  the  horrid  event. 
Oh,  my  dear  Augustus,  what  a  blank  in  my  future 
life!  I  am  and  ought  to  be  grateful  for  the  friend 
that  is  preserved  to  me,  and  for  such  affectionate 
sons,  but  she  was  the  only  female  friend  I  ever  had. 
Our  hearts  were  united  in  the  closest  bonds  of  confi- 
dence and  love,  and  the  charm  of  her  society,  which 
you  so  well  know  how  to  appreciate,  could  only  be 
equalled  by  the  divine,  the  truly  angelick  qualities 
of  her  heart  and  soul.  Oh,  could  you  see  how  sad 
poor  Devonshire  House  looks.  All  are  well  in 

.  .  .  I  wrote  you  a  journal  of  all,  and  my  loved 
friend  wrote  you  a  list  of  the  new  Administra- 
tion.    .     .     . 

Augustus  Foster 

To  Lady  Elizabeth  Foster. 

Washington,  May  28,  1806. 
I  thank  God  that  you  are  well,  my  ever  dearest 
mother,  and  I  am  very  much  obliged  to  Frederick 
for  his  kind  consideration  for  writing  so  in  the  first 
line  of  his  melancholy  letter.  Oh,  my  poor  Ma, 
what  a  loss,  what  a  dreadful  loss!  How  keenly,  how 
bitterly  must  you  feel,  to  be  severed  from  such  a  tie. 
The  sad  news  reached  me  almost  all  at  once.     I  had 


scarcely  read  in  a  paper  the  day  before  of  her  illness, 
when  in  another  the  next  day  I  saw  we  had  lost  her 
for   ever.     I    still  had  some  hopes  till   Frederick's 
letter  proved  it  but  too  true.     What  a  cruel  addition 
to  the  losses  of  the  last  winter!     It  seems  as  if  we 
were  to  be  deprived  of  all  that  is  good  and  great  in 
our  country  to  prepare  us  for  some  heavy  calamity. 
There  is  no  part  of  this  world,  I  believe,  where  the 
angelic  Duchess  will   not  be  deeply  regretted;  her 
kindness  and  beneficence  were  wound  up  with  the 
happiness  of  so  many.     Such  a  high  and  exalted 
character,  such  unbounded  nobleness  of  soul,  such 
excellence  of  heart,  so  totally  free  from  all  selfishness, 
and  so  absorbed  in  thinking  only  for  the  good  of 
others,  with  every  charm  and  every  means  to  throw 
lustre  on  her  excellent  qualities,  will,  I  fear,  never 
again  be  met  with  in  the  same  woman.     How  kindly 
she  ever  treated  me,  who  had  no  other  recommenda- 
tion to  her  than  that  of  being  son  to  her  dearest 
friend.     She  is  an  angel,  my  dear  mother;  you  must 
think  of  her  now  as  in  the  enjoyment  of  the  greatest 
bliss  which  the  most  virtuous  mortal  can  be  rewarded 
with  in  the  uncontaminated  abode,  where  your  own 
dear  soul  will  meet  with  her  again.     You  have  seen 
her  suffer  under  long  and  dreadful  pains  before  her 
death.     It  must  surely  be  a  consolation  to  you  that 
you  were  with  her,  and  that  all  the  offices  of  the 
purest  and  most  unsullied  friendship  were  performed 
by  you  from  the  first  to  the  very  last.     It  must  have 
been  a  great  relief  to  her  to  be  eased  of  her  cruel 
sufferings.     These  considerations  will,  I  trust,  enable 
you  to  bear  up  with  a  fortitude  that  becomes  you. 


You  are  too  necessary  to  the  happiness  of  your  own 
and  your  adopted  children,  and  from  such  a  loss 
doubly  so  to  the  happiness  of  us  all,  not  to  make  it 
our  common  cause  to  solicit  you  to  bear  up.  I  hope 
and  trust  Frederic  will  write  to  me  by  Merchant 
Vessels  frequently  to  say  how  you  are.  How  sadly 
I  regret  the  distance  I  am  from  you  at  such  a 
moment,  when  I  might  be  of  some  little  comfort  to 
you.  My  only  consolation  is  that  you  have  Caroline, 
who  understands  you,  with  you,  and  Frederick,  who 
is  ever  affectionate.  Poor  Lady  Harriet!  she  has 
strong  claims  on  you  for  your  taking  care  of  yourself. 
.  .  .  Confide  in  me,  my  dearest  Ma.  The 
affliction  you  must  be  suffering  is  my  greatest 

Lady  Elizabeth  Foster 

To  Augustus  Foster. 

Devonshire  House,  June  6,  1806. 

.     .     .     We  try  to  be  grateful  for  the  blessings 
left,  but  yet 

My  heart  so  late  of  many  joys  possessed 
Laments  for  many  lost  and  trembles  for  the  rest 

Take  care  of  yourself  therefore,  my  dearest  Augus- 
tus, for  my  sake.  I  really  have  suffered  so  much 
lately  that  I  feel  as  if  I  had  scarcely  strength  for 
anxiety.  I  look  to  your  return  with  great  delight, 
and  hope  the  period  is  not  very  distant.  I  have 
already  told  you  that  I  had  written  to  you  constantly, 
and    from    December   that  we    came  to  town  had 


taken  pleasure  in  writing  you  journals  that  you  might 
know  exactly  how  things  went  on  and  the  opinions 
and  expectations  of  the  day — all  during  Pitt's  illness 
and  the  forming  of  the  new  Administration,  and  my 
beloved  friend  had  written  to  you  the  list  of  the  new 
Ministers  and  Mr.  Fox's  message  about  you.  .  .  . 
As  to  the  present  moment  I  can  say  but  little,  for  I 
have  had  no  heart  to  attend  to  politicks,  or  to  see 
those  could  tell  them  to  me.  .  .  .  Russia  seems 
more  inclined  to  peace,  and  has  given  up  the 
Cattaro1  to  Austria  to  be  yielded  to  France.  Sweden 
is  chevaleresque,  and  is  worthy  of  admiration.  Eng- 
land still  triumphant  at  sea,  and  the  publick  just  now 
very  curious  about  Miranda,  so  pray  write  to  me  all 
about  him.  Lord  Elgin,  Lord  Yarmouth,  and  Col. 
Abercromie  are  come  home.  My  brother  supports 
Government,  which  is  delightful  to  me;  he  approves 
Mr.  Wyndham's  plan,  and  meant  to  speak  in  support 
of  it.  .  .  .  I  do  not  wonder  at  all  you  felt  about 
Pitt's  death.  I  had  written  to  you  Mr.  Fox's  ex- 
pression about  that  event.  He  said,  "  It  feels  as  if 
something  was  missing  in  the  world  ".  Oh  Heavens! 
how  truly  may  that  be  said  of  my  dear,  dear 
Georgiana,  who  ever  filled  such  a  space  as  she  did 
in  society?  To  whom  was  she  as  she  was  to  me? 
.  .  .  I  have  not  seen  Lord  Aberdeen  since  my 
misfortune,  but  I  hear  that  it  is  thought  that  the 
trial  of  Lord  Melville  will  end  well.  The  day  is  not 
known,  but  I  suppose  that  it  will  be  in  about  ten 
days.      He  bears  up  amazingly  well.     .     .     . 

1  The  Cattaro — An  Austrian  town  and  district  in  Dalmatia  which  belonged  for  a 
few  years  to  the  French. 


Lady  Elizabeth  Foster 

To  Augustus  Foster. 

Devonshire  House,  July  2,  1806. 
.  .  .  It  is  believed  that  there  is  a  negotiation 
going  on  between  this  country  and  France,  but  all  is 
kept  a  profound  secret.  Meanwhile  several  of  the 
persons  that  were  detained  have  returned  to  Eng- 
land. The  next  thing  that  occupies  the  publick 
mind  is  the  affairs  of  the  Princess  of  Wales,  and  Sir 
I.  or  Lady  Douglas  has  deposed  on  oath  assertions  of 
her  ill  conduct.  The  Prince  told  the  King,  and  the 
King  ordered  a  committee  of  the  Privy  Council  to 
examine  the  evidence.  Lord  Grenville,  Spencer, 
the  Chancellor,  and  Lord  Ellenborough  are  the  per- 
sons so  empowered.  The  report  is  to  be  given  in 
to-day.  .  .  .  The  Session  is  now  nearly  over. 
Scotland  is,  I  believe,  henceforth  to  have  her  juries 
and  decide  her  own  causes.  Irish  Elections  are  to 
be  put  on  the  same  footing  as  the  English  ones,  and 
other  regulations  of  that  kind,  which  tend  to  civilize 
the  country  and  give  it  a  little  more  political  morality. 
To-day,  also,  we  are  to  know  who  goes  to  India. 
The  day  before  yesterday  the  Duke  dined  with 
Charles  Fox,  who  was  very  cheerful,  and  Lady 
Bessborough  and  I  have  generally  gone  in  the  even- 
ing. Never  was  any  thing  more  perfect  than  all 
Lord  Grenville's  conduct  towards  Fox,  and  as  to  the 
question  which  in  one  of  your  letters  you  say  is  put 
of  who  is  first:  Is  Fox  under  Lord  Grenville  or 
Lord  Grenville  under  Fox?  I  really  believe  their 
great  and  good  minds  despise  the  form.     They  have 


united  for  the  publick  service  and  act  cordially  to- 
gether.    .     .     . 

Lady  Elizabeth  Foster 

To  Augustus  Foster. 
Devonshire  House,  July  3,  1806. 

.  .  .  Mr.  Fox  continues  mending.  The  Duke 
of  Devonshire  dined  with  him  the  other  day,  and 
Fox  sent  to  him  again  for  to-day.  The  rumour  of 
the  day  is  peace,  and  Lord  Holland  to  go  to  Paris. 
The  truer  are  Lord  Minto  to  India  and  Mr.  T. 
Grenville  to  the  Board  of  Controul.  Mr.  Erskine 
does  at  last  go  to  America,  so  the  speculating  Lord 
Selkirk1  you  are  rid  of.  .  .  .  Lord  Ossulston  I 
really  believe  very  soon  will  marry  Corise.  As  to 
poor  Devonshire  House,  we  have  as  yet  gone  no 
where,  seen  no  body  but  the  nearest  friends.  I  have 
had  no  heart,  no  courage,  to  do  any  thing,  nor  will 
you  be  surprised  at  it.  The  constant  charm  of  my 
life  is  gone.  She  doubled  every  joy,  lessened  every 
grief.  Her  society  had  an  attraction  I  never  met 
with  in  any  other  being.  Her  love  for  me  was 
really  "  passing  the  love  of  woman " — povero  cor 
mio  quanto  hai  sofferto.  .  .  .  As  to  the  affair 
of  the  Princess  of  Wales  which  the  papers  are  full 
of,  the  report  of  the  Committee  was  given  in  to  the 
Council  yesterday,  but  it  is  said  will  not  be  made 
publick.     It  is  a  strange  business  altogether,  but  I 

1  Lord  Selkirk — Thomas  Douglas,  fifth  Earl  of  S.  He  assisted  in  settling  emi- 
grants in  some  parts  of  Canada,  and  in  particular  was  the  founder  of  what  is  now 
the  province  of  Manitoba.  The  title  is  now  among  those  borne  by  the  Duke  of 
Hamilton  (1771-1820). 


can't  believe  her  really  guilty.  You  tell  me  nothing 
about  Miranda,  yet  he  excites  publick  curiosity  to 
the  greatest  degree.  Lord  St.  Vincent  called  on  me 
yesterday,  and  went  to  Portsmouth  to-day.  He 
said  he  would  not  come  on  shore  again  till  there  was 
a  peace  or  change  of  Ministers,  and  then  he  would 
cut  them.     .     .     . 

Lady  Elizabeth  Foster 

To  A  ugustus  Foster. 

Devonshire  House,  July  9,  1806. 
Thank  you,  my  dearest  child,  for  your  anxiety 
about  me.  No  wonder  that  you  thought  I  could  not 
support  myself  under  such  a  blow,  but  God  is  merci- 
ful and  gives  a  strength  we  know  not  we  possess. 
How  I  went  through  it,  as  my  angel  friend  herself 
said,  or  how  I  am  alive  to  tell  it,  I  know  not — such 
a  loss!  Oh,  Dearest  Augustus,  She  was  the  charm 
of  my  existence,  my  constant  support  in  all  my 
sorrows,  the  doubler  and  sharer  of  every  joy.  There 
is  no  giving  you  any  idea  of  the  three  weeks  we 
passed,  or  rather  the  fortnight,  for  the  first  week  she 
recovered  so  much  I  thought  not  of  danger,  though 
Farquhar  from  the  first  was  uneasy.  I  scarcely  left 
her  room  or  her  bed,  yet  she  was  almost  in  a  con- 
tinual lethargy;  still  almost  to  the  last  she  knew  her 
sister  and  me,  and  her  last  words  were  to  tell  me  she 
did  not  mind  it.  Oh,  heavens!  my  dear  Augustus, 
how  is  it  that  one  goes  through  certain  trials  that 
but  to  think  of  at  a  distance  seems  impossible  to 


bear.  We  felt  stunned  and  unable  to  conceive  what 
had  passed.  I  am  told  it  is  the  case  always  in  great 
and  deep  afflictions.  The  Duke  and  I  were  saying 
one  day  it  appeared  to  us  like  a  dream.  On  saying 
this  to  Farquhar  he  told  us  it  was  always  so.  We 
have  as  yet  seen  scarcely  any  body;  we  have  lived 
with  each  other;  travelling  was  impossible  on  the 
Duke's  account,  who  was  not  quite  well,  and  wished 
to  remain  in  London;  it  was  equally  so  to  me  to 
whom  she  had  left  all  her  papers  and  affairs,  and  this 
trust,  so  sad  and  sacred,  still  occupies  almost  all  my 
mornings.  It  is,  I  feel  it,  a  comfort  as  you  say,  to 
have  been  with  her,  to  have  watched  her  looks,  her 
words,  to  have  been  there,  as  I  was,  hanging  over 
her  in  breathless  anxiety,  for  in  each  interval  of 
stupor  there  she  saw  me;  but  it  was  heart-rending, 
it  was  agony,  and  it  seems  to  have  shut  my  heart  to 
all  joy.  Yet  the  interest  of  my  dear  children,  their 
happiness  and  welfare,  must  still  give  me  pleasure 
and  all  the  happiness  I  can  know. 

I  feel  by  your  letter  all  that  you  are  to  me. 
Dearest  Caro  has  been  to  me  what  you  wished  her. 
Fred  really  overcame  himself  with  sorrow.  Dear 
Clifford  has  come  to  support  and  cheer  us  all  a  little; 
poor  Hartington1  said  it  could  alone  give  him  a  feel- 
ing of  pleasure  at  being  again  in  Devonshire  House, 
and  he  has  been  much  better  since;  poor  Lady  Bess- 
borough  is,  as  you  may  suppose,  wretched;  Georgiana 
and  Harriet  are  indeed  deserving  of  all  one's  com- 
passion.    Georgiana  is  just  recovered  from  her  lying 

1  Hartington — Marquis  of  H.,  afterwards  sixth  Duke  of  Devonshire.  He  was 
at  this  time  sixteen  years  old.  He  died  unmarried,  and  was  succeeded  by  his 
cousin,  the  father  of  the  present  duke  (1790-1853). 


in,  and  looks  well.  The  kindness  and  feeling  of 
Lord  Morpeth  I  can  never  forget.  You  never  saw 
such  a  scene  as  Devonshire  House.  The  anxiety  of 
people  was  extreme;  the  crowds  that  inquired  im- 
mense, and  the  silence  and  solitude  of  the  succeeding 
one  horrid.  Hartington  I  had  sent  for;  he  shewed 
a  manliness  beyond  his  age,  and  saw  his  adored 
mother  every  day,  even  afterwards;  so  did  I!  and  I 
am  alive  to  tell  it  you. 

I  do  indeed  trust  that  I  shall  meet  her  again  in 
"  another  and  a  better  world  "  as  the  Stranger  says. 
Never,  I  believe,  were  two  hearts  and  minds  so 
united;  never  did  two  people  think  and  feel  so  alike. 
She  is  so  present  to  me,  and  I  am  so  constantly 
occupied  for  her  that  I  feel  as  if  she  was  absent  on  a 
journey,  and  I  catch  myself  saying  "I'll  tell  her  this", 
nor  feel  all  my  loss  till  some  person  speaking  or  some 
circumstance  makes  the  whole  rush  upon  me  with 
fatal  conviction  of  the  truth.     .     .     . 

We  are  all  in  sad  anxiety  about  Mr.  Fox.  He 
has  a  tendency  to  dropsy,  which  is  alarming  at  his 
age  and  with  his  size;  he  has  been  better,  but  was 
worse  yesterday.  The  Duke  dines  often  with  him, 
and  is  very  uneasy,  I  think,  about  him.  It  would  be 
too  shocking  to  have  him  wrested  from  us  just  as  his 
wonderful  abilities  were  best  calculated  to  do  good. 
He  has  been  too  ill  for  me  to  speak  to  him  latterly 
about  you,  and  indeed  I  had  so  firm  a  reliance  on 
what  he  said  to  me  that  I  have  felt  convinced  he 
only  waited  for  an  opportunity  of  doing  what  was  for 
your  advantage.  If  we  lose  him  we  have  nothing 
left  but  secondary  characters.     Except  D.  D.  I  know 


not  one  very  pre-eminent  one.  However,  there  is 
no  cause  for  despair,  and  I  will  try  to  hope  for  the 
best.  ...  I  am  not  ill,  I  do  assure  you.  I  go 
on  occupying  myself  with  her  affairs,  and  in  all  I  can 
doing  what  I  hope  would  please  her  dear  Spirit  if  it 
can  look  down  upon  us,  and  may  we  meet  never  to 
part.     .     .     . 

Atigustus  Foster 

To  Lady  Elizabeth  Foster. 

Washington,  July  20,  1806. 

Your  affecting  letter  I  have  just  received,  and  shall 
ever  preserve  it  as  a  last  memento  of  the  truest 
friendship  that  ever  existed.  .  .  .  Who  has  a 
claim  to  the  attention  of  every  body  if  you  have  not, 
who  are  so  considerate  about  every  body?  She  was 
indeed  to  you  what  she  was  to  nobody  else  she  has 
left  behind  her,  and  by  none  is  the  cruel  loss  so  fully 
estimated  as  by  you;  of  this  I  am  sure.  Thank 
Heaven  you  had  so  many  about  you  who  could  feel 
with  you,  and  that  you  were  able  to  support  one 
another.     .     .     . 

Frederick  Foster 

To  A  ugustus  Foster. 

London,  July  30,  1806. 

.     .     .     I  am  sorry  to  tell  you  that  Fox  is  still 

very  ill,  and  I  fear  that  his  recovery  is  very  doubtful. 

It  is  dropsy,  and  I  am  afraid  not  alone,  but  he  has 

great  strength  of  constitution  and  his  lungs  appear 


to  be  sound,  so  that  we  can't  help  entertaining  hopes 
of  his  recovery.  I  must  think  that  it  would  be  a 
most  amazing  loss,  and  it's  really  frightful  to  see 
almost  all  the  talent,  genius,  and  worth  of  the  country 
dying  before  one's  eyes —  Nelson,  Pitt,  Cornwallis,  and 
our  beloved,  amiable  Duchess.  Heavens!  what  a 
change  since  this  time  last  year;  you  will  scarcely 
know  the  country  at  your  return.     .     .     . 

August  1st. 

Fox  still  continues  very  ill,  but  Lady  Holland  told 
me  to-day  that  he  was  better,  and  that  the  doctors 
had  entered  upon  a  new  system.  In  short,  they 
have  hopes  and  no  more.     Fox  is  really  better.  .  .  . 

Augustus  Foster 

To  Lady  Elizabeth  Foster. 
Lancaster,  Pennsylvania,/*/^/  (?),  1806. 

.  .  .  I  thank  you  sincerely  for  your  details 
about  that  Heavenly  Woman,  and  the  more  so  as  I 
know  what  it  must  have  cost  you  to  write  them.  I 
should  be  sorry  indeed  if  Mr.  Fox  was  to  be 
wrested  from  us,  and  particularly  now  that  he  is 
engaged  in  negotiations  for  Peace.  His  great  and 
enlarged  mind  is  necessary  to  enable  us  to  find  out 
our  real  interests  at  this  gloomy  period.  I  don't, 
however,  quite  agree  in  our  having  none  but  second- 
ary characters  to  take  his  place.  Lord  Grenville, 
our  English  Cato,  and  Lord  Howick,  I  think  we 
might  with  confidence  rely  on.     .     .     . 



Here  'midst  the  friends  he  loves  the  Man  behold 
In  Truth  unshaken  and  in  Virtue  bold, 
Whose  ardent  Zeal  and  uncorrupted  mind, 
Dares  to  assert  the  Freedom  of  Mankind. 
For  whilst  contending  factions  raged  afar, 
And  fell  Ambition  spread  the  flames  of  War, 
Fearless  of  blame  and  eloquent  to  save, 
'Twas  He,  'twas  Fox,  the  warning  council  gave, 
Oppos'd,  but  ah,  how  Vain!  the  Tide  of  blood, 
And  to  the  Nations  as  a  Sea  Mark  stood! 
Yet  still  propitious  might  his  voice  avail, 
And  happy  Realms  returning  freedom  hail. 
His  Wisdom  still  might  bid  fierce  discord  cease, 
And  give  the  world  humanity  and  Peace. 
But  should  he  fail,  our  gratefull  sons  will  here 
Their  tribute  pay,  regret,  admire,  revere, 
Uphold  his  worth,  bear  witness  to  his  fame, 
And  in  their  annals  proudly  boast  his  name. 

Lady  Elizabeth  Foster 

To  Augustus  Foster. 

Devonshire  House,  September,  1806. 

I  have  scarcely  courage  to  write  to  you,  and  to 
announce  the  great,  the  irreparable  loss  which  the 
World  has  sustained — the  sad,  sad  loss  to  friends 
more  attached  than  almost  ever  man  was  blessed 
with.  Good  God!  what  a  change  in  England  since 
you  left  it.     It  is  frightful  to  think  of,  and  makes  me 

1  G.  died  March  30,  1806;  Fox,  Sept.  13,  1806. 


tremble  for  those  precious  lives  which  still  must 
attach  me  to  life.  The  probability,  however,  is  that 
I  shall  not  have  that  misfortune  added  to  the  rest; 
the  uncertainty  of  my  own  health  may  secure  me 
from  that.  Do  not,  however,  take  any  alarm,  my 
dear  child,  from  this  expression,  for  I  really  am  pretty 
well,  but  these  events  make  one  low.  Nothing  can 
give  an  idea  of  the  anxiety  about  Mr.  Fox,  for  though 
his  health  was  seriously  affected,  he  had  recovered  so 
much  strength  at  Chiswick,  and  was  so  happy  here, 
that  it  was  impossible  not  to  flatter  oneself  that  he 
might  yet  recover  a  considerable  degree  of  health. 
The  change  was  sudden  and  dreadfull;  he  had  slept 
pretty  well,  was  cheerfull,  went  to  look  at  his  favourite 
pictures  in  the  drawing-room,  and  returned  to  his 
room  to  dress  and  go  out;  his  secretary  was  reading 
to  him;  he  suddenly  fell  back;  an  extreme  weakness 
came  on  which,  with  the  interval  of  one  day,  when 
hopes  were  revived,  continued  from  Monday  till 
Saturday,  when  he  died.1  He  had  his  senses  to  the 
last,  knew  his  situation.  Mrs.  Fox  asked  him  if  he 
would  have  prayers  read,  and  he  said,  "  Yes,  my 
love".  Whilst  they  were  reading  he  joined  his 
hands.  He  gave  ample  directions  to  poor  Lord 
Holland;  to  Mrs.  Fox  he  turned  with  unceasing 
tenderness  in  his  countenance,  and  an  hour  before 
his  death  said  to  her,  "  I  die  happy,  but  I  pity  you". 
Most  of  his  intimate  friends  were  at  Chiswick.  It 
was  a  touching  scene  to  see  all  those  men  unable  to 
suppress  their  grief,  and  careless   to  conceal  their 

1  When  he  died— Fox  died  on  Sept.  13.     He  was  buried  on  October  10  in  West- 
minster Abbey  beside  Pitt. 


tears.  How  they  can  attend  the  funeral  I  know  not; 
it  is  to  be  the  tenth  of  October,  and  I  own  I  dread 
it  for  the  Duke. 

October  1st. 

.  .  .  The  Paris  papers  say  that  Jerome  is  made 
a  Prince,  and  divorced  that  he  may  marry  a  Princess 
of  Wirtemberg.  Poor  Madame  Jerome!  Can  it  be 
true  also  that  Moreau  is  returned  to  Lisbon;  it  would 
seem  very  imprudent.  The  capture  of  Buenos  Ayres 
has  made  a  great  sensation  here,  and  the  treasure  has 
been  lodged  at  the  Bank  with  great  show  and  pomp. 
I  hope  we  shall  not  lightly  give  up  that  settlement  or 
Miranda.  .  .  .  Town  will  be  full  for  a  few  days 
on  account  of  the  funeral  of  our  loved  Patriot. 
Heavens,  that  the  same  year  should  have  witnessed 
four  of  such  persons!  all,  all  pre-eminent,  for  my 
loved  friend  was  pre-eminent  in  beauty,  goodness, 
and  all  that  can  attach  or  attract.  May  God  pre- 
serve those  we  love,  and  are  still  so  necessary  to  our 

Lady  Elizabeth  Foster 

To  Augustus  Foster. 

Devonshire  House,  October  28,  1806. 

I  have  much  such  accounts  to  give  you  as  I  sent 
last  year.  Scarcely  had  Lord  Morpeth  reached 
Erfurt  when  he  found  that  the  Queen  and  the 
Ministers  were  obliged  to  fly  for  safety;  of  course 
he  did  the  same,  and  with  great  difficulty  got  back 


to  Weimar  and  Brunswick.  The  beaten  army1  were 
flying  in  all  directions,  and  he  was  obliged  to  walk 
14  miles,  and  then  to  get  a  sort  of  cart  for  the  rest 
of  the  journey.  At  Brunswick  they  confirmed  the 
terrible  tidings,  and  the  Dutch  papers  are  since  come 
with  horrid  details,  such  as  200  pieces  of  cannon, 
five  or  six  of  their  best  generals  wounded  and  made 
prisoners,  and,  in  short,  unless  it  is  true  that  Hohenlohe2 
defeated  the  right  wing  of  the  French,  I  don't  see 
what  is  to  enable  them  to  make  a  stand;  it  is  too 
shocking,  really. 


There  was  an  account  that  the  Prussians  fought 
from  three  in  the  morning  till  five  in  the  evening, 
and  yet  retreated  in  good  order;  now  the  loss  of  the 
French  must  have  been  very  great  also,  and  if  the 
Duke  of  Brunswick3  is  not  too  much  wounded  to 
direct  the  retreat,  perhaps  they  may  still  make  some 
resistance.  Lord  Morpeth  is,  I  believe,  to  proceed 
to  head  quarters,  wherever  they  are.  This  is  not 
pleasant  to  dear  Georgiana,  who  is,  of  course,  very 
anxious.  At  home  the  elections  are  going  on  all 
over  the  country.  Sir  Francis  Burdett4  has  put  in  an 
advertisement  that  has  offended  all  parties  but  a  few 
Home  Tookists,  and  I  believe  he  will  lose  his  election. 

1  The  beaten  army — The  Prussian  army  utterly  routed  by  Napoleon  in  the  battle 
of  Jena,  October  14,  1806.  On  the  same  day  another  Prussian  army  was  defeated 
at  Auerstadt  (about  14  miles  distant)  by  the  French  under  Davoust,  and  on  the 
27th  Napoleon  entered  Berlin. 

2  Hohenlohe — Prince  Hohenlohe,  the  Prussian  commander  in  the  battle  of  Jena, 
October  14,  1806  (1746-1818). 

3  Duke  of  Brunswick — The  Prussian  commander  at  Auerstadt. 

4  Sir  Francis  Burdett — Prominent  as  a  politician  of  advanced  views,  and  for 
thirty  years  (from  1807)  Member  of  Parliament  for  Westminster.  The  election 
here  referred  to  was  for  Middlesex,  and  Sir  Francis  was  defeated  (1770-1844). 


T.  Sheridan1  will  lose  his  at  Stafford.  Sheridan2  is 
opposed  by  Paul,  but  I  do  not  suppose  he  can  succeed. 
Fred  Ponsonby  stands  for  Kilkenny.  Duncannon 
refused,  and  the  Duke  brings  in  Lord  Ossulston  for 
Knaresborough.  There  is  a  Mr.  Faukes  who  stands 
for  Yorkshire,  who  Lord  Fitzwilliam  is  anxious  should 
succeed.  He  is  a  man  of  large  property,  and  of  un- 
common eloquence. 

Nov.  3. 

Lord  Morpeth  is  returned,  and  I  am  afraid  Bona- 
parte is  master  of  Berlin  and  Potsdam,  and  of  Sans 
Souci.  What  times!  Lord  Morpeth  went  to  Erfurt 
and  Weimar,  but  was  forced  to  return  after  the  battle 
of  the  14th  had  proved  so  disastrous.  He  over  took 
Haugnitz  and  Luchesini,  who  were  flying  also.  The 
King  is  gone  to  Custrin,  and  the  Queen  has  joined 
him  there.     Where  will  all  this  end? 

Augustus  Foster 

To  Lady  Elizabeth  Foster. 

Washington,  Nov.  27,  1806. 
Madame  J.  Bonaparte  is  in  great  distress 
at  Jerome's  divorce.  She  goes  no  longer  out,  though 
just  before  he  had  sent  her  a  great  many  presents 
and  desired  her  to  go  to  all  amusements.  She 
lives  at  Baltimore,  45  miles  from  here.  The  ill- 
natured  Americans  don't  pity  her.  They  say  she 
deserved  it  for  her  vanity,  and  yet  not  one  but  had 

1  T.  Sheridan — Son  of  R.  B.  Sheridan.  Stafford  had  been  at  one  time  represented 
by  his  father. 

2  Sheridan — Richard  Brinsley  S.     The  election  here  referred  to  was  for  West 
minster,  and  Sheridan  was  successful. 


done  the  same.  The  French  Minister  speaks  of  her 
as  Mile.  Patterson.  When  Jerome  first  landed  she 
declared  she  would  have  him,  and  that  she  had 
rather  be  Madame  Jer.  B.  one  year,  though  she  was 
to  be  nothing  afterwards,  than  marry  anyone  else. 
She  did  not  know  she  was  so  near  the  real  event. 
Moreau  is  in  New  York,  and  is  said  to  be  about 
going  westward.  Miranda  is  an  old  woman.  A 
new  character  is  busy  in  the  Western  World — Mr. 
Burr,1  the  late  Vice  President  of  the  United  States, 
of  whom  you  probably  will  hear  more.  The  public 
papers  are  full  of  him.  No  less  than  a  separation  of 
the  Union  is  said  to  be  his  object.  Thus  for  the 
last  thirty  years  Revolution  will  seem  to  have  been 
brought  on  by  Revolution,  till  there  remains  nothing 
to  revolutionize.  The  hope  of  Peace,  I  suppose,  is 
buried  with  Mr.  Fox.  To  have  been  present  at  his 
last  hours,  to  have  almost  caught  the  last  breath  of 
so  great  a  man  expiring  in  the  very  house  where 
you  were,  must  have  been  very  affecting  to  you. 
It  is  melancholy  to  see  our  greatest  men  cut  off  in 
such  numbers  just  when  we  have  most  occasion  for 
them.  However,  the  spirit  of  the  nation  is  still 
high,  and  I  am  convinced  that  we  have  more  men 
of  integrity  and  talent  in  prominent  situations  to 
boast  of  than  there  are  in  all  the  world  besides. 
Here  we  are  feared  and  respected  more  than  the 
rabble  Republicans  choose  to  believe  or  allow  of; 
but  in  fact  a  mere  face  of  anger  is  all  we  need  shew 
to  these  Democrats,  for  a  long  time  to  come. 

1  Mr.  Burr— Aaron  Burr,   of  whom  more  will  be  heard  in  subsequent  letters 


Lady  Elizabeth  Foster 

To  Augustus  Foster. 

Devonshire  House,  December  2,  1806. 

Frederick  tells  me  that  he  has  written  all  the 
great  events  to  you,  and  I  have  been  doubly  glad  oi 
it,  as,  from  an  unavoidable  association  of  ideas,  I 
have  felt  lower  than  usual;  the  beginning  of  winter, 
so  different  to  every  other;  the  thousand,  thousand 
circumstances  that  recall  the  daily  occurrences  of  so 
many  years  past;  the  blank,  the  sad  blank,  now  left 
to  me;  all  this  presses  upon  me,  and  has  made  me 
unfit  for  writing  my  dispatch  to  you.  But  you,  of 
all  people,  almost  understand  me,  and  know  how  to 
feel  for  me. 

This  year's  events  have  surpassed  the  last.  No 
person  even  knows  where  the  poor  King  of  Prussia 
and  his  beautiful  Queen  now  are.  If  you  had  been 
told  when  you  was  there  that  Bonaparte  would  have 
been  in  the  Palace  at  Berlin,  possessed  of  that  and 
all  that  country,  how  little  you  would  have  believed 
it.  He  is  said  to  be  beyond  the  Vistula,  I  mean  the 
King  of  Prussia,  and  that  an  army  of  Russians  is 
hastily  approaching;  but  meanwhile  Bonaparte  will 
give  a  King  to  Poland,  and  perhaps  march  on  to 
Petersburgh.  He  is  said  to  have  asked  for  ships  of 
the  line  of  the  Danes,  and  that  the  Sound  should  be 
shut  against  us.  This,  I  believe,  our  Lord  Nelson  has 
proved  they  can't  do ;  but  indeed  the  state  of  things 
is  terrible.  However,  I  hope  that  we  shall  extend 
our  conquests  in  the  new  world,  and  so  keep  a 


Parliament  meets  the  15th,  and  they  are  to  have 
no  holidays  at  Christmas.  Lord  Morpeth  is  come 
in  for  Cumberland  and  W.  Howard  for  Morpeth. 
William  Lamb  moves  the  address.  I  should  think 
that  he  would  do  it  well,  but  Caroline  will  be  very 
nervous.  Fred  Ponsonby  is  come  in  for  Kilkenny. 
Duncannon  idly  refused.  .  .  .  The  clamour  of  the 
hustings  is  all  against  Sheridan,  and  for  Paull;  he 
came  here  to-day,  and  was  very  low.  I  have  the 
promise  of  several  votes  for  him.  The  Duke  makes 
his  steward  exert  himself.  Even  Sir  S.  Hood  is 
unpopular.  Duncannon  was  to  have  been  proposed 
for  Middlesex,  but  it  was  thought  of  too  late,  and 
Mr.  Mellish  stands. 

qth,  Midnight. 

Sheridan  gives  up,  and  Tierney.  Sheridan  was 
struck  at  and  wounded  yesterday  evening.  Mr. 
Rhodes'  son  defended  him,  and  knocked  the  man 
down.  He  can't  stand  this  unpopularity,  and  means 
to  give  up.  They  wanted  Duncannon  in  for  it,  but 
it  is  too  expensive. 

A  messenger  and  a  Dr.  Brown  are  come  from  the 
King  of  Prussia,  and  they  report  that  the  King  is  in 
a  strong  position  behind  the  Oder.  The  King  sent 
word  he  was  as  well  as  under  his  misfortunes  he 
could  be.  The  army,  about  20,000  strong,  are  there 
also.  It  is  said  Luchesini  went  to  solicit  peace,  and 
that  Bonaparte  would  not  hear  of  it;  that  the  Duke 
of  Brunswick  sent  to  ask  the  neutrality  of  his 
country,  and  that  Bonaparte  answered  that  he  did 
not  recognize  such  a  person  as  the  Duke  of  Bruns- 
wick, and  had  ordered  him  to  be  seized  wherever  he 


was  found.  This  ferocious  answer  has  obliged  th 
poor  Duke  of  Brunswick  to  fly,  and  he  was  goin 
from  Hamburgh  to  Denmark.  I  wish  he  wa 
coming  to  England,  that  every  attention  and  respec 
might  be  shown  him.  Lord  Morpeth  offered  to  g 
again,  and  was  the  person  they  would  have  ser 
again,  but  they  think  it  best  to  send  a  militar 
person,  and  Lord  Hutchinson  goes.  It  is  trul 
anxious  and  interesting.     .     .     . 

Lady  Elizabeth  Foster 

To  Augustus  Foster. 

December,  1806. 

.  .  .  One  line  only.  They  talked  here  yester 
day,  some  company  who  dined  at  Devonshire  House 
of  a  plan  of  sequestration  of  foreign  property  ii 
retaliation  for  the  British  seized  at  Hamburgh, 
hope  it  won't  be.  I  would  not  have  a  stain  on  th 
public  faith  for  worlds  of  gold.  Let  us  conque 
Spanish  America  with  all  my  heart,  but  all  goo< 
faith  in  publick  as  in  private  actions.  Say  nothing 
of  it  unless  you  hear  it  elsewhere,  and  I  hope  i 
won't  be  so.  The  Duchess  of  Brunswick  is,  it  i 
said,  out  of  her  senses.  No  wonder;  his  death,  poo 
man,  was  fortunate  for  himself,  for  his  life  must  havi 
been  misery.  The  Duke  goes  with  me  to  Chiswicl 
to-day  which  hurries  me  so.  Poor  Chiswick,  Chis 
wick,  where  my  angel  friend  delighted  to  live,  anc 
where  that  great  man  Charles  Fox  breathed  his  last 
How  has  this  world  been  impoverished! 


Augustus  Foster 

To  Lady  Elizabeth  Foster. 

Washington,  Dec.  29,  1806. 

.  .  .  Buenos  Ayres1  I  fear,  is  retaken.  What 
will  Sir  H.  Popham  be  thought  of  now  that  the 
Spaniards  have  felt  their  strength.  What  5000  men 
might  have  done  a  few  months  back  with  ease  will, 
I  am  afraid,  be  very  problematical.  He  had  good 
information  as  to  the  state  of  the  place,  as  his  suc- 
cess proved,  but  to  retain  a  town  of  70,000  inhabi- 
tants required  more  than  1500  men.  Miranda, 
whom  you  seem  to  be  anxious  about,  is  and  was  to 
all  appearance  when  here  a  mere  old  woman  of  a 
man,  as  I  believe  I  wrote  long  ago  to  you. 

A  man  of  superior  abilities  is  plotting  Revolution 
in  the  western  part  of  these  States,  and  occupies 
very  much  the  public  mind  here.  Colonel  Burr  is 
a  notoriously  profligate  man,  but  of  very  great 
address.  He  has  chosen  a  singularly  situated  coun- 
try as  the  scene  of  his  ambitious  projects,  and  I 
suppose  we  shall  soon  see  their  development  or 
confusion.  The  public  rumours  are  that  he  is  en- 
gaged in  a  plot  to  sever  the  whole  country  west  of 
the  Alleghany  mountains,  in  extent  near  3000  miles, 
from  Lake  Michigan  to  New  Orleans,  from  the  rest 
of  the  Union,  and  to  form  an  expedition  for  the 
plunder  of  Mexico,  which  is  a  City  of  130,000  in- 
habitants, defenceless,  and  in  one  of  the  finest  coun- 
tries in  the  world.     The  Western  Country  contains 

1  Buenos  Ayres — It  was  retaken  by  the  Spaniards  in  August.     The  news  was 
long  in  travelling. 


not  above  a  few  hundred  thousand  inhabitants,  am 
those  scattered  in  swamps  and  villages.  New  Or 
leans,  the  largest  town,  has  about  8000  inhabitants 
but  it  has  the  singular  advantage  of  being,  as  it  were 
the  key  to  all  the  countries  connected  with  th< 
Mississippi,  Ohio,  Missouri,  &c,  the  only  outlet  fo: 
the  commerce  of  those  immense  territories,  and  bid; 
fair  to  be  one  of  the  very  finest  Capitals  in  the  Uni 
verse.  Immense  emigration  annually  takes  place 
to  those  Countries  from  the  Atlantic  States.  A 
Senator  of  the  United  States,  who  travelled  lasi 
year  in  Ohio,  told  me  that  in  two  days  he  hac 
counted  105  waggons,  each  containing  a  family,  or 
their  way  to  settle  in  the  woods  of  the  State  o: 
Ohio.  They  were  chiefly  families  from  beyond  the 
Hudson  river.  The  Americans  give  me  the  idee 
of  Locusts.  They  ruin  the  land  as  they  pass  on 
and  are  eternally  changing  their  soil.  The  mode 
of  cultivation  among  them  exhausts  the  earth,  anc 
they  must  shift  their  crops  every  now  and  then  intc 
timber  land  in  order  to  have  them  good.  Mr, 
Burr  was  Vice-President  of  the  United  States  01 
President  of  the  Senate  when  I  arrived.  It  was  he 
who  killed  Mr.  Hamilton  in  a  duel  which  was 
detailed  in  all  the  English  papers  a  little  time  before 
I  left  England.  It  will  be  a  sad  thing  if  he  succeeds 
for  the  whole  Country  will  then  fall  in  pieces.  1 
have  written  thus  much,  as  you  will  very  likely  be 
interested  about  him  from  the  accounts  you  wil! 
probably  see  in  the  papers.  The  Government  are 
taking  measures,  and  will  probably  prevent  his  con- 
spiracy from  going  on,  and  save  these  States  frorr 


the  horrors  of  a  revolution.     Nothing  has  yet  been 
done  openly  by  Mr.  Burr. 

Lady  Elizabtth  Foster 

To  Augustus  F. 

Devonshire  House,  Jan.  6,  1807. 

.  .  .  We  had  yesterday  our  great  debate  on 
the  negotiation.1  It  was  a  curious  one,  from  two 
circumstances.  Lord  Yarmouth  and  Lord  Howick 
spoke  in  direct  contradiction  to  one  another,  and  Mr. 
Whitbread  thought  fit  to  express  his  opinion  that 
peace  might  have  been  made.  Lord  Howick  opened 
his  speech  admirably,  and  his  reply,  I  hear,  was 
excellent.  It  was  to  a  malicious,  odious  speech  of 
Mr.  Perceval,2  and  I  dare  say  his  Hotspur  blood  was 
boiling  in  his  veins.  I  long  to  have  you  acquainted 
with  Lord  Howick,  and  to  be  employed  by  him;  he 
is  a  true  Foxite.  The  debate  lasted  till  near  five  in 
the  morning.  We  supped  at  Caroline  Lamb's  at 
Whitehall,  and  about  half  after  one  Lord  Morpeth, 
Lord  Granville,  Lord  Ossulston,  and  William  Lamb 
came  from  the  House,  the  debate  then  going  on. 
Fred  Ponsonby  took  the  oaths,  and  when  the  Speaker 
asked  him  the  name  of  the  estate  which  was  to  qualify 
him3  he  could  not  tell  it,  which  occasioned  a  laugh. 
.     .     .     I  have  been  twice  to  the  Opera.     Catalani4 

1  The  negotiation — Regarding  peace  with  France. 

'Mr.  Perceval— Spencer  P.,  afterwards  Prime  Minister  from  1809  to  1812  (1762- 

3  To  qualify  him— At  this  time  the  qualification  for  a  county  member  was  an 
estate  of  ^600  a  year,  and  for  a  borough  member  one  of  ^300. 

4  Catalani — (1780-1849). 


is  as  near  perfection  as  any  thing  can  be,  not  quil 
so  touching  or  so  handsome  as  Grassini,1  but  sufif 
ciently  so  to  please,  and  she  is  as  wonderful  an 
more  so  than  Mrs.  Billington.2  ...  I  know  ho' 
you  will  feel  it,  coming  to  this  dear  house,  where  sk 
my  angel  friend,  used  ever  to  receive  you  as  if  yo 
were  her  son.  I  believe  sometimes  the  greatness  < 
the  blow  prevents  our  having  the  power  of  dwellin 
upon  it. 

I  send  you  the  French  publication  of  the  Stat 
papers.  It  differs  from  ours  in  several  things.  The 
omit  the  extract  from  the  Emperor's  speech,  and  the 
put  in  a  great  deal  of  Talleyrand's  answer  to  M 
Fox.  I  suppose  you  have  the  negotiation  as  pul 
lished  here.  A  rumour  prevails  that  Buenos  Ayre 
is  retaken,  and  though  an  expedition  is  gone  whic 
may  take  it  again,  yet  it  would  cause  dreadful  loss  t 
the  merchants  here;  it  would  be  bad,  too,  for  poc 
Sir  Home  Popham. 


Fred  Ponsonby  has  given  us  a  very  good  accour 
of  the  debate;  he  is  in  raptures  with  Lord  Howicl 
and  I  never  heard  anything  so  liberal  as  his  conduci 
Perceval  in  the  last  debate  had  remarked  upon  som 
private  letter  of  Fox's  which  could  not,  Minister 
said,  be  shewn;  well,  Lord  Howick,  as  soon  as  h 
went  home,  sent  Perceval  that  letter,  which  he  owne 
could  not  be  shewn  to  the  House.  Could  anythini 
be  more  liberal?  Yet  Perceval  last  night  bega 
again  as  though  he  had  not  seen  that  letter,  an 

1  Grassini—  (1773-1850).  2  Mrs.  Billington— {1789-1818). 


with  base  insinuations.  Lord  Howick,  almost 
trembling  with  rage,  vindicated  his  lost  friend,  and 
reminded  Perceval  that  he  had  sent  him  the  papers, 
which  he  had  refused  the  House.  The  House  quite 
murmured  at  Perceval's  conduct,  and  Canning  was 
most  liberal  in  his  praise  of  Lord  Howick's  conduct 
and  nobleness  of  mind.  The  papers  have  given  the 
debate  wretchedly.     .     .     . 

The  Earl  of  Aberdeen 

To  Augustus  Foster. 

The  PRiORY,/ia:«.  13,  1807. 

Dear  Augustus, — Although  I  am  quite  persuaded 
that  there  is  no  chance  of  my  silence,  however  long, 
being  interpreted  by  you  to  signify  in  the  slightest  de- 
gree intentional  neglect,  yet  I  will  honestly  mention  a 
few  facts,  although  they  tend  very  little  to  a  justifica- 
tion. Mr.  Pitt's  death  quite  rendered  me  incapable  at 
the  usual  time;  the  poor  Duchess  soon  followed,  and 
then  came  the  anxieties  of  Lord  Melville's  trial.  On 
his  acquittal  I  should  indeed  have  written.  The 
summer  passed  I  do  not  know  how  in  Scotland,  and 
the  dissolution  of  Parliament  gave  me  full  employ- 
ment. You  may  have  heard  of  my  success,1  which 
was  somewhat  remarkable,  being  the  only  candidate 
who  came  in  against  the  exertions  of  Government. 

Very  little  has  as  yet  been  done  in  Parliament, 
but  we  shall  shortly  be  very  active;  there  will  be 

1  My  success — Lord  Aberdeen  was  elected  a  Scotch  representative  peer  on  Dec. 
4,  1806. 



motions  of  Inquiry  on  several  subjects,  and  from  i 
we  hear  it  is  very  probable  the  late  treaty  betwee 
this  country  and  America  will  furnish  matter,  fc 
although  the  particulars  are  still  unknown,  it  is  t 
no  means  popular,  the  general  opinion  being  that  v 
shall  be  found  to  have  made  too  great  concession 
indeed,  what  has  transpired  tends  to  confirm  this. 

The  final  discussions  respecting  the  slave  trac 
will  come  on  in  about  a  fortnight;  no  doubt  is  ente 
tained  of  the  abolition  being  carried,  which,  I  shou 
think,  would  materially  affect  the  Americans  or 
way  or  other. 

I  give  you  joy  of  a  new  Emperor  in  your  neig] 
bourhood;  do  on  your  return  take  a  view  of  Chri 
tophe  and  his  capital.  Your  old  friend  Jerome 
acting  a  considerable  part  in  Poland,  where  matte, 
are  very  near  a  crisis.  Bonaparte  is  in  a  mo 
perilous  situation.  If  the  Russians  continue  wis 
he  cannot  hold  out  till  spring,  and  there  is  a  fa 
chance  of  his  destruction.  Reports  of  sickness  i 
his  army,  though  probably  much  exaggerated,  ai 
believed.  Some  faint  hopes  are  entertained  < 
Austria.  No  one  apprehends  much  from  the  d< 
claration  of  a  blockade.  You  cannot  easily  imagir 
how  great  my  pleasure  was  on  your  brother's  tellin 
me  the  other  day  that  you  were  coming  home.  M 
desire  of  seeing  you  again  has  been  now  so  muc 
increased  by  the  time  of  your  absence,  in  addition  I 
the  great  distance  which  separated  you  from  u 
When  you  return  I  will  not  say  that  you  are  to  fin 
me  with  a  son  and  heir,  but  in  two  or  three  wee! 
something  will  certainly  be  produced,  but  of  wh; 


gender  it  would  not  be  so  easy  to  determine.  Pray 
let  me  hear  from  you  about  the  reality  of  your 
motions,  and  believe  me,  most  affectionately, 


Lady  Elizabeth  Foster 

To  Augustus  Foster. 

Devonshire  House,  Jan.  21,  1807. 

.  .  .  The  papers  are  filled  merely  with  rumours, 
first  of  a  Russian  victory,  and  then  of  Buenos  Ayres 
being  taken  and  not  being  taken,  so  that  bets  are 
nearly  even  on  the  subject.  Ministers  have  been 
abused  for  sending  the  telegraphic  account  of  its 
recapture,  but  how  could  they  do  otherwise.  How- 
ever, it  has  caused  great  alarm  in  the  city  and  pro- 
vincial towns.  The  reports  are  various,  too,  about 
the  disposition  of  America  towards  England.  .  .  . 
Caroline  Lamb  is  with  child,  but  her  uncertain  health 
prevents  one's  knowing  what  is  her  state,  or  almost 
what  to  hope. 

Lady  Elizabeth  Foster 

To  Augustus  Foster. 

Devonshire  House,  March  3,  1807. 

Corisande  is  already  very  big — come  ti  sta  il 
cuore?  placido  e  sicuro  io  spero.  We  have  nearly 
finished  the  grand  work  of  abolition  of  the  Slave 
Trade;  it  was  carried  283  to  16.  The  remaining 
discussions  are  merely  for  compensation  and  such 
things.     Yesterday  an  uncommon  degree  of  anxiety 


and  curiosity  was  excited  by  Paull's  Petition  against 
Sheridan,1  which  went  to  accusing  him  of  tampering 
with  the  witness,  but  such  a  set  as  Paull  brought  in, 
so  low,  so  vulgar,  so  contradictory  in  their  accounts, 
that  it  turned  the  whole  thing  in  Sheridan's  favor, 
and  if  nothing  unforeseen  happens,  two  days  hence 
he  will  be  triumphant.  There  is  a  report  of  the 
French  having  beat  the  Russians.  This  is  a  sad 
disappointment,  but  it  is  also  said  that  the  Turks 
have  made  peace  again  with  the  Russians,  so  there 
is  bad  and  good.  We  have  a  squadron  opposite  the 
Seraglio.     .     .     . 

Augustus  Foster 

To  Lady  Elizabeth  Foster. 

Washington,  March  31,  1807. 

.  .  .  The  President  means  to  retire  after  the 
next  year.  He  is  wonderfully  popular  at  present, 
and  may  do  nearly  what  he  likes.  Burr,  the  con- 
spirator, is  arrested,  and  to  be  tried  at  Richmond,  in 
Virginia.  His  grand  plot  ended  in  the  seizure  of  his 
nine  boats  and  fifty  men  and  boys.  He  was  betrayed, 
as  is  said,  by  some  of  his  accomplices,  and  as  he  had 
assembled  them  from  amongst  the  ruined  and  the 
unprincipled,  it  was  what  he  might  expect.  The 
opposition  in  England  seem  miserably  weak  in  their 
attacks.  Lord  Castlereagh's  argument  that  if  France 
included  America  in  her   Decree,  England  should 

1  Paull's  Petition  against  Sheridan— In  connection  with  the  result  of  the  recent 
Westminster  election,  at  which  Sheridan  was  returned. 


punish  her,  and  if  America  was  not  included  in  the 
Decree,  that  she  should  be  equally  punished  for 
connivance,  was  not  lost  here.  To  advance  such 
nonsense  can  proceed  from  nothing  but  impatience 
at  being  out  of  office;  it  cannot  be  surely  from  any 
sound  principles  of  opposition.  Were  I  an  opposi- 
tionist before,  the  shallowness  visible  in  such  paltry 
attacks  would  induce  me  to  cling  to  the  Government. 
Lord  Hawkesbury  seems  more  manly.  Canning  is 
all  froth  and  smoke  and  noise.  I  cannot  see  the 
statesman  in  his  speeches.  His  wit  and  stories  and 
pleasantry  seem  to  me  misplaced  in  debating  gravely 
upon  great  National  questions.  Lord  Howick's 
speech  is  indeed  very  manly  and  dignified,  just  what 
the  organ  of  a  great  Nation,  such  as,  I  trust,  we  still 
consider  ourselves  to  be,  should  be.     .     .     . 

Lady  Elizabeth  Foster 

To  Augustus  Foster. 

Devonshire  House,  May  6,  1807. 

.  .  .  We  are  in  the  midst  of  elections  again, 
and  London  scarcely  possesses  a  Beau  worth  speak- 
ing to.  What  is  worse,  the  Ministers  have  raised  a 
cry  about  Popery,  which  has  taken  possession  of  the 
lower  class,  and  blinded  them  to  their  best  interests. 
I  think  it  an  unworthy  measure  of  the  Ministers,  and 
one  they  will  some  day  repent  of.  In  Derbyshire 
they  told  Lord  George  C.  they  would  vote  for  him, 
but  they  would  worship  no  golden  images;  in  Liver- 
pool Roscoe  has  given  up  the  contest.     A  friend  of 


his  was  on  horseback,  and  a  man  from  the  opposite 
crowd  rushed  out  and  stabbed  the  horse  of  the  other 
to  the  heart :  the  man  was  hurt,  and  another  wounded. 
At  St.  Albans,  where  Duncannon  is  candidate,  they 
say  it  is  a  pity  so  good  a  lady  as  Lady  Spencer  should 
wish  to  bring  the  Pope  to  England;  it  is  really  shock- 
ing to  see  Religion  made  such  a  tool  of,  and  the 
King's  speech  an  electioneering  cry.  Your  brother 
is  at  St.  Albans  canvassing  for  Duncannon;  so  is 
George  Lamb.  .  .  .  You  will  see  by  the  papers 
Sir  F.  Burdett's  duel  with  Mr.  Paull.  It  has  hurt 
Paull's  interest,  and  I  believe  he  has  no  chance  of 
succeeding  for  Westminster,  but  that  Sir  F-  Burdett 
will  come  in  with  acclamation.  Sheridan  has  played 
his  cards  ill.  He  can't  attempt  Westminster,1  and 
having  forsaken  Stafford  before,  he  now  only  comes 
in  for  a  borough  in  the  Prince's  interest.  His  over- 
weening vanity  has  been  his  ruin.  Pray  read  Lord 
Grenville's  letter  to  the  Society  for  propagating  the 
Christian  Religion;  it  is  reckoned  a  very  fair  one. 
.  .  .  We  have  failed  at  Constantinople,  and  the 
negotiation  seems  to  have  been  sadly  mismanaged. 
There  should  be  no  threatening  or  bullying,  but 
when  anchored,  like  Nelson,  close  to  the  walls  of  the 
Enemy's  Capital,  you  can  destroy  it,  but  to  menace 
and  not  do  it  is  sad  business. 

Lady  Aberdeen  is  recovered  in  great  beauty  from 
her  lying  in.  Lord  Grenville  goes  to  Russia  as  soon 
as  his  election  is  over.  I  am  afraid  Duncannon  will 
lose  his. 

1  He  can't  attempt  Westminster — Sheridan  was  a  candidate  at  this  new  election, 
but  failed,  being  behind  Sir  F.  Burdett  and  Lord  Cochrane  (afterwards  Earl  of 


Lady  Elizabeth  Foster 

To  Augustus  Foster. 

Devonshire  House,  Oct.  18,  1807. 
.  .  .  Your  friend  Merry  is  gone,  as  I  told  you, 
to  Copenhagen,  but  I  believe  we  must  make  up  our 
minds  to  have  the  Danes  our  enemies,  nor  should  I 
much  regret  it.  The  quantity  of  stores  seem  to 
indicate  most  forcibly  for  what  reason  they  were 
collected,  and  their  own  conduct  to  Hamburgh  in  1801 
takes  from  them  the  title  of  an  innocent  and  unoffend- 
ing people,  since  with  far  less  pretext  they  did  by 
H  amburgh  what  we  have  done  by  them.  I  hope  Russia 
is  favourable  to  us.  The  Country  certainly  is,  but 
Alexander  has  been  duped  by  Bonaparte,  and  given 
up  his  conquests  just  as  he  had  nearly  destroyed  the 
Turks.  The  fate  of  Portugal  is  at  present  the  pro- 
minent interest.  Suza  told  Mr.  Motteux  that  he 
believed  that  his  Government  meant  to  go  to  South 
America,  and  that  six  sail  of  the  line  were  to  sail 
from  Plymouth  to  escort  them ;  but  people  still  think 
that  they  will  make  their  peace.  How  extraordinary 
it  would  be  if  they  should  migrate  to  the  Brazils! 
At  home  party  is  likely  to  be  violent  and  Ministers 
secure,  since  the  success  of  the  Baltic  expedition. 
The  Prince  has  given  up  politicks,  is  good  friends 
with  the  King,  and  lives  but  for  Lady  Hertford. 
C'est  vrai  je  t' assure;  a  50  ans  pres  elle  a  captive'  le 
Prince.  II  ne  vit,  ne  respire  que  pour  elle  et  par 
elle;  la  ci-devant  amie  est  inquiete  et  triste.  Je  la 
plains,  car  c'est  une  bonne  personne  qui  n'a  jamais 
abuse  de  son  pouvoir;  as  to  the  Duchess  of  Bruns- 


wick,  you  hear  no  more  of  her  than  if  she  was  in 

Lady  Elizabeth  Foster 

To  Augustus  Foster. 

Chiswick,/<w2.  i,  1808. 

.  .  .  Nothing  but  Spain  hardly  is  talked  or 
thought  of.  The  moment  is  to  us  interesting  beyond 
all  former  periods,  as  besides  the  great  interest  which 
every  body  feels  about  the  Spaniards,  the  having  an 
English  Army  now  actually  joined,  and  with,  and 
ready  to  co-operate  with  them,  brings  the  war  home 
to  every  body's  feelings.  I  had  letters  from  Penn 
to-night,  which  state  that  Opadaca  had  accounts  of 
Madrid  having  resisted  for  three  days.  The  French 
were  repulsed  over  and  over,  and  lost  a  great  many 
men.  Ch.  and  Morla  retreated  with  the  regulars, 
who  with  Castanos,1  it  is  hoped,  will  make  a  strong 
army.  From  Galicia  you  will  see  accounts  are  every 
day  expected  of  an  action.  In  the  English  army,  of 
persons  whom  we  all  know,  are  two  Cavendishes, 
three  Bentincks,  Fred  Howard,  and  though  last  not 
least  in  interest,  Corise's  brother.  The  Duke  of 
Rutland's  two  brothers  also  are  there,  and,  in  short, 
many  of  our  English  nobility.  Lord  Morpeth  is  in 
a  state  of  great  nervousness  about  his  brother,  and, 
indeed,  the  moment  is  a  most  anxious  one. 

1  CastaHos — The  most  distinguished  of  the  Spanish  generals  in  the  Peninsular 
War  (1756-1852). 


Lady  Elizabeth  Foster 

To  Augustus  Foster. 

Chiswick,  Nov.  9,  1S08. 

We  are  all  struck  with  the  style  of  Bona- 
parte's speech  to  the  Legislative  Body  and  of  their 
reply.  They  express  a  kind  of  foreboding  of  ill 
which,  if  not  dictated  by  himself  as  a  loophole  to  him, 
would  have  made  him  angry. 

I  have  just  seen  two  very  interesting  letters  of 
Mr.  Gell's,  and  he  confirms  all  my  hopes.  The  report 
of  to-night  is  that  Austria  has  declared  war,  and  that 
Bonaparte  is  returned  to  Paris,  but  this  I  can  scarcely 
believe.  Blake  is  said  to  have  had  a  sharp  engage- 
ment with  Ney,1  and  that  the  latter  retreated  eight 
leagues.  How  I  long  to  hear  of  Vittoria  or  Pam- 
pluna  being  taken  or  some  of  the  strong  passes  of 
the  Pyrenees. 

Lady  Elizabeth  Foster 

To  A  ugustus  Foster. 

Chiswick,  Nov.  28,  1808. 

I  have  had  little  heart  or  pleasure  in 
writing  latterly,  as  our  dear  Spaniards  have  met  with 
sad  reverses.  I  hope,  however,  that  all  may  be 
retrieved,  and  since  our  troops  are  gone,  that  we  may 
turn  aeain  the  tide  of  affairs.     We  have  now  been 


a  terrible  length  of  time  without  hearing,  and  that  is 

1  Ney— Marshal  N.  (1769-1815). 


always,  I  think,  a  bad  sign.  Oh,  dear,  it  is  too  hard 
really,  and  when  one  sees  the  nook  into  which  they 
were  driven,  I  could  sit  down  and  cry  to  see  the 
strides  that  they  have  made  towards  Madrid  again. 
Still,  however,  if  the  Spaniards  bear  being  beat  they 
will  ultimately  conquer.  I  think  they  must.  You 
have,  I  hope,  arrived  to  hear  of  some  advantages 
gained  by  the  Swedes,  who  certainly  are  the  next 
most  interesting  people. 

Lady  Elizabeth  Foster 

To  Augustus  Foster. 

Chiswick,  December  7,  1808. 

I  had  hoped  to  have  something  favourable  to  send 
you,  my  dearest  Augustus,  regarding  Spain,  but  all 
is  anxiety,  and  to  a  great  degree  doubt  in  that 
quarter;  yet  I  hope  still,  so  does  Lady  Melbourne, 
so  does,  which  is  better  worth  attending  to,  General 
Ferguson.  Blake,  it  is  certain,  has  shewed  great 
skill,  and  his  army  great  courage  and  steadiness,  and 
if  this  spirit  continues  I  have  no  doubt  of  the  result. 
Bonaparte  has  made  some  of  his  rapid  movements, 
but  I  do  not  think  that  he  has  gone  on  with  a  pas  de 
geant  as  he  used  to  do.  Never,  however,  was  there 
greater  anxiety  felt  than  now,  for  it  is  supposed  that 
he  means  to  push  forward  in  order  to  prevent  the 
junction  of  our  armies,  and  this  may  expose  both  to 
be  attacked  by  a  very  superior  force.  Lord  Morpeth 
is  very  anxious  about  his  brother,  who  is  with  Baird. 



I  had  better  send  this  off,  for  bad  news  comes  so 
quick  now  that  the  sooner  it  goes  the  better.  Our 
dear  Spaniards  fight  bravely,  but  I  fear  that  skill 
and  numbers  are  on  the  side  of  the  French.  The 
detested  Bonaparte  has  advanced,  and  meanwhile 
has  directed  a  blow  against  Castanos,  which,  I  fear,  has 
been  successful.  They  still  hold  firm  at  Madrid,  and 
it  is  said  that  General  Hope's  Brigade  has  reached 
the  Escurial,  and  has  joined  the  army  of  defence  for 
Madrid,  but  will  they  be  able  to  stop  Bonaparte's 
career?  Oh,  dear  Augustus,  what  a  sad  reverse, 
and  what  reason  one  had  to  dread  the  arrival  in 
Spain  of  that  Tyrant.     .     .     . 

Lady  Elizabeth  Foster 

To  Augustus  Foster. 

Chiswick,  Dec.  io,  1808. 
.  .  .  I  trust  that  there  are  good  hopes  about 
Finland;  that  the  brave  Swedes  may  resist  the  bar- 
barous Russians.  If  Turkey  makes  peace  with  us 
perhaps  they  may  make  a  powerful  diversion  and 
occupy  the  Russian  troops.  How  you  will  grieve 
over  the  dear  Spaniards.  God  knows  what  will  be 
done  if  yet  they  can  make  a  stand,  but  next  to  the 
misery  which  they  are  exposed  to,  one  feels  for  the 
National  disgrace  to  us  of  boasting  for  three  months 
of  the  great  armed  force  we  send  to  their  assistance, 
and  then  these  armies  retreating  without  firing  a  gun 
in  their  defence.    I  can't  bear  to  think  of  it.    The  only 


is  concentrating  his  forces.  God  only  knows  what 
will  be  the  result;  we  must  hope  for  the  best;  and  I 
suppose  that  Bonaparte  does  not  think  himself  quite 
secure  by  his  ordering  so  many  more  troops. 

.  .  More  troops  are  going,  and  if  we  send  at 
all  we  should  certainly  send  largely.  We  fight  and 
dispute:  I  mean  Lady  Bessborough  and  me.  Some 
accuse  generals,  others  ministers.  Some  say  Spanish 
enthusiasm  is  less,  but  if  it  is  it  is  our  fault,  who 
have  not  yet  fired  one  gun  in  their  defence  except 
at  Rosas,  and  even  that  we  have  allowed  to  be  taken. 
However,  I  am  not  so  much  in  suspicion  of  ministers' 
want  of  activity  as  Moore.  He  seems  to  be  over 
cautious,  a  bad  quality  with  Bonaparte  for  an  enemy. 
I  hope  there  is  no  danger  for  Sweden  itself.  They 
are  a  fine  race  of  people,  and  their  King  deserves 
to  have  his  fortunes  favored  with  success.  .  .  . 
Lord  Liverpool  is  dead,  and,  I  suppose,  died  very 
rich.  ...  I  hear  that  he  has  left  this  Lord  L.1 
at  least  ;£  10,000  a  year. 

Lady  Elizabeth  Foster 

To  Augustus  Foster. 

CHISWICK,  January  29,  1809. 

.  .  .  Great  and  brilliant  as  was  the  victory  which 
we  gained  at  Corunna,  yet  the  having  been  obliged 
to  retreat,  and  the  North  of  Spain  being  in  this 
manner  almost  entirely  conquered  by  the  French,  we 

1  This  Lord  L. — The  second  Earl  of  Liverpool,  husband  of  the  writer's  sister. 


must  consider  the  Campaign  as  a  most  unfortunate 
one.  To  you,  who  will  know  the  result  of  the 
different  operations,  and  have  not  passed  the  interval 
of  dreadfull  anxiety  which  we  all  did  during  the 
retreat  of  our  army,  every  thing  will,  I  suppose,  seem 
as  bad  as  possible,  except  that  there  is  this  fact,  put 
out  of  all  doubt,  that  when  we  do  meet  the  French 
we  always  beat  them,  even  with  an  inferior  force, 
and  even  Bonaparte  can't  deny  our  having  obtained 
the  victory;  and  all  military  men  say  no  retreating 
army  can  embark  if  it  is  not  victorious  at  the  point 
of  embarkation.  Sir  John  Moore  is  a  great  loss,  and 
is  sincerely  and  generally  regretted;  but,  unwilling 
as  one  feels  to  say  any  thing  against  an  officer  who 
died  so  bravely,  yet  people  seem  to  think  that  his 
plan  was  a  bad  one,  and  that  to  the  decision  of 
marching  400  miles  to  the  army  he  was  to  co-operate 
with  instead  of  landing  close  to  them  has  been  the 
cause  of  all  the  reverses.  The  troops  have  returned 
exhausted  with  fatigue,  but  their  spirit  and  bravery 
at  the  battle  of  Corunna  exceeds  all  belief.  The 
Cavalry  distinguished  themselves  in  the  retreat, 
always  attacking  and  defeating  the  enemy.  The 
infantry  hung  their  heads  and  murmured  whilst 
retreating  and  not  allowed  to  fight.  At  Corunna 
they  had  their  revenge,  and  literally  drove  the 
French  before  them,  who  for  14  hours  never  ap- 
peared, and  they  embarked  without  leaving  a  man 
or  a  piece  of  artillery  behind  them.  I  am  told  that 
troops  are  to  go  to  Cadiz  and  Minorca  and  Gibraltar 
to  assist  the  South.  When  Moore  in  his  dying 
moments  asked  who  the  command  fell  on,  he  was 


told  General  Hope.  He  said,  "  I  am  satisfied;  there 
does  not  exist  an  abler  officer ".  I  am  afraid,  poor 
man,  that  he  knew  that  the  people  of  England  had 
been  dissatisfied  at  the  army  not  having  ever  joined 
the  Spaniards  or  encountered  the  French,  but  he 
shewed,  as  all  say,  the  utmost  skill  in  his  retreat  and 
in  the  order  of  battle.     Lord  Paget     .     .     . 

Lady  Elizabeth  Foster 

To  Atigustus  Foster. 

Chiswick,  Feb.  5,  1809. 

.  .  .  All  goes  on  ill,  and  the  new  year 
ushers  itself  in  with  a  bad  grace.  Barcelona  is 
relieved,  and  I  am  afraid  Zaragossa  is  reduced  to 
the  last  extremity,  though  all  that  can  be  done  will 
be  accomplished  by  Palafox.1  I  think  that  even  those 
who  regret  General  Moore  the  most,  and  all  do  regret 
him,  are  sorry  that  he  adopted  so  inactive  a  line  of 
conduct.  The  great  subject  of  dispute  now  is  his 
last  dispatch;  opposition  have  asked  for  it,  and  Mr. 
Whitbread  told  me  to-day  that  Ministers  said,  that 
is,  Canning  told  him,  that  they  would  publish  all  or 
nothing,  and  that  he  advised  him,  Mr.  Whitbread, 
to  consult  with  his  friends  and  be  fully  aware  of  the 
consequence,  for  that  one  half  of  the  letter  was  abuse 
of  the  Spaniards,  and  the  other  half  of  his  own  army; 
that  at  the  end  he  says  that  when  there  was  fighting 
he  ever  found  them  at  their  post,  and  with  a  deter- 

1  Palafox — Spanish  general,  celebrated  for  his  heroic  defence  of  Saragossa  against 
the  French  (1780-1847). 


mined  bravery.  Whitbread  still  seemed  inclined  to 
have  the  letter  published,  and  General  Stewart  seems 
to  have  answered  without  consulting  with  his  brother, 
and  to  have  encouraged  the  giving  of  the  letter.  I 
do  like  General  Stewart;  he  seems  to  be  such  a 
spirited  creature,  so  brave  and  yet  so  mild  and 


The  Morpeths  dined  with  us  to-day.  There  was 
no  news.  The  expedition  had  been  dispersed,  and 
we  have  no  accounts  from  Spain.  I  always  dread  a 
bulletin  after  a  pause.  .  .  .  The  Duke  of  York's 
business  you  will  see  enough  of  in  the  papers.  I  do 
not  believe  that  any  body  thinks  that  he  shared  in 
her  profit,  but  one  regrets  seeing  him  in  such  bad 
company,  and  not  being  so  generous  as  he  ought  to 
be  to  a  woman  who  had  lived  with  him.  It  seems 
strange  that  there  should  be  no  account  of  the  French 
entering  Portugal  yet,  and  in  Spain  their  tyranny  is 
intolerable.  Would  that  we  had  sent  succour  sooner 
to  Catalonia  and  every-where.  I  hear  that  Ministers 
answer  to  this  that  they  could  not  send  our  army 
before  their  Government  was  formed,  and  that  they 
quarrelled  among  themselves. 


I  have  waited  in  hopes  of  hearing  from  you,  and 
of  something  being  decided  about  the  Duke  of  York. 
Neither  of  these  things  have  happened.  I  suppose 
the  ice  still  incloses  you,  and  the  examinations  still 
go  on  about  Mrs.  Clark.  I  can't  help  hoping  that 
something  favourable  may  come  out  for  the  Duke  of 


York,  at  least  that  her  character  is  so  bad  that  her 
accusations  may  be  doubted,  and  if  not  proved  I 
shall  doubt.  Cavallos  is  arrived,  and  Opadaca's  wife. 
I  hope  that  the  Spaniards  have  had  some  success  in 
Catalonia,  and  that  Romana  is  safe  in  Portugal. 
Does  not  his  retreat  show  that  we  could  have  re- 
treated had  General  Moore  adopted  that  plan  ? 

Lady  Elizabeth  Foster 

To  Augustus  Foster. 

Chiswick,  Feb.  25,  1809. 

.  .  .  We  have  had  an  eventfull  time.  You 
were  not  advised,  I  think,  in  your  news  beyond  the 
retreat  of  our  army,  and  bad  as  the  retreat  was,  yet 
you  will  be  pleased  with  the  battle  of  Corunna  and 
proud  of  the  valour  displayed  by  our  army.  Since 
that  the  French  have  done  little.  Saragossa,  it  is 
said,  still  holds  out,  and  not  only  that,  but  that  the 
immortal  Palafox,  the  noble  Palafox,  has  again  re- 
pulsed the  French.  I  trust,  therefore,  that  all  is  not 
desperate,  and  that  a  nation  of  brave  peasants  may 
yet  check  and  withstand  the  disciplined  barbarians 
of  France.  The  preparations  of  Austria  have 
occupied  the  attention  of  Bonaparte,  and  may,  I 
hope,  lessen  his  armies  in  Spain.  I  hope,  too,  that 
we  are  sending  more  troops  there,  and  with  a  more 
active  commander,  though  perhaps  not  a  better 
officer,  and  there  could  not  be  a  braver.  Sweden, 
Austria,  and  Spain  have,  however,  all  been  forgot  in 
the  inquiry  that  has  taken  place  in  consequence  of 


Mr.  Wardle's  and  Mrs.  Clarke's  accusation  of  the 
Duke  of  York.  Nothing  I  ever  remember  made 
the  sensation  which  this  has  done ;  opinions  are  very 
different,  and,  what  is  more  extraordinary,  parties  are 
violent  in  favor  of  Mrs.  Clarke,  and  yet,  as  Lord 
Grey  justly  says,  however  people  may  differ  about 
the  Duke  of  York,  who  can  doubt  of  her  being  a 
most  malignant  and  profligate  woman  ?  Yet  subscrip- 
tions are  open  for  her  in  the  city  and  amongst 
gentlemen.     It  is  really  disgusting. 

March  i  si. 

The  Brest  fleet  was  out,  and  the  croakers  had 
already  talked  of  it  as  on  its  way  to  Ireland,  but  to- 
day accounts  are  received  of  its  having  slunk  into 
Basque  roads  on  seeing  our  squadron  at  Rochefort. 
Poor  Lord  Falkland  is  killed  in  a  duel  with  a  Mr. 
Powel,  a  man  whom  every  body  was  in  the  habit  of 
scoffing  at,  and  who  at  last  revenged  all  his  quarrels 
on  Lord  Falkland. 

Lady  Elisabeth  Foster 

To  Augustus  Foster. 

Devonshire  House,  March,  1809. 

.  The  examination  of  Mrs.  Clarke  has 
proved  a  more  serious  thing  than  you  seem  to  think 
it,  for  it  is  now  said,  even  by  those  who  wish  best  to 
the  Duke  of  York,  and  who  acquit  him  of  all  corrup- 
tion, that  his  remaining  Commander  in  Chief  is 
impossible  from  the  weakness  with  which  he  was 
governed  and  influenced  by  so  base  a  woman.    Your 


brother  and  some  others  rejoice  in  this  proof  of  the 
strength  of  the  democracy  in  England,  others  regret 
all  that  has  passed,  and  most  think  it  a  hard  fate  for 
a  little  blindness  pour  les  beaux  yeux. 
They  expect  to  take  the  King's  opinion  Wednesday, 
if  they  can  carry  the  acquittal  of  corruption.  They 
then,  I  hear,  want  the  Duke  to  resign.1  This  I  should 
think  best.  Saragossa's  fate  is  still,  I  believe,  un- 
decided.    .     .     . 

Devonshire  House,  April  17,  1809. 
The  papers  mention  Armfeldt2  being  Commander 
in  Chief,  and  that  he  had  sent  word  to  Sir  T.  Hood 
that  they  wished  to  remain  at  peace  with  us.  Is 
this  so?  His  poor  friend  Ruggerdorff  has  been 
sent  away,  to  his  great  inconvenience  and  sorrow.  I 
wish  I  knew  the  truth  about  him.  I  can't  help  pity- 
ing the  poor  King,  but  I  really  Relieve  that  he  was 
a  little  mad.  We  are  going  on  here  in  a  very  odd 
manner.  The  spirit  of  reform  is  abroad  and  strikes 
to  the  right  and  left.  .  .  .  The  Peninsula,  I 
fear,  goes  ill.  In  some  respects,  better  so  far  that 
Gallicia  seems  roused,  and  Romana  is  again  in  some 
force,  but  to  the  South  the  enemy  advance,  and 
unless  we  can  defeat  them  in  Portugal  I  shall  also 
begin  to  despair  of  success.  I  have  seen  Lord  St. 
Vincent,3  and  he  says  that  Admiral  Harvey  has  de- 
manded a  Court  Martial  on  Lord  Gambier.     Gam- 

1  Want  the  Duke  to  resign — The  Duke  of  York  had  to  resign  his  post  of  Com- 
mander-in-Chief, though  a  select  committee  of  the  House  of  Commons  acquitted 
him  of  any  corrupt  practices.  His  services  to  the  army  had  been  very  valuable, 
and  he  was  reinstated  in  1811. 

2  Armfelt — Gustav  Mauritz  A.,  a  celebrated  Swede  (1757-1814). 

3  Lord  St.  Vincent — John  Jervis,  Earl  of  St.  Vincent,  the  celebrated  admiral 


bier  had  sent  him  home  to  be  tried,  and  he  makes 
this  return,  and  on  serious  accusations.  Gambier  is 
a  brave  man,  but  too  much  of  a  psalm-singing  man, 
says  Lord  St.  Vincent,  though  psalm-singing  is  a 
good  thing,  he  says;  but,  as  we  both  agreed,  keep 
to  the  beautiful  doctrine  of  the  Bible,  and  you 
will     . 

Lady  Elizabeth  Foster 

To  Augustus  Foster. 

Devonshire  House,  April  23,  1809. 
We  go  on  from  one  reform  to  another,  till  I 
suppose  that  we  shall  be  the  purest  of  governments 
and  Parliaments.  To-day  Lord  Archibald1  makes 
his  motion  about  Lord  Castlereagh,2  and  it  is  sup- 
posed, poor  man,  that  he  must  resign;  had  he  quitted 
his  situation  before,  it  would  have  been  a  good  thing, 
as  his  dilatoriness  caused  sad  delay  in  the  expedi- 
tions. He  is  a  good-natured  man,  and  I  wish  he 
had  been  removed  for  any  other  reason  than  that  he 
goes  out  upon.     .     .     . 

Lady  Elizabeth  Foster 

To  Augustus  Foster. 

Devonshire  House,  May  1,  1809. 
In  these  eventful  times  I  write  oftener  to  you,  as 
you  must  wish  to  know  all  that  is  passing.     The 

1  Lord  Archibald— -Lord  A.  Hamilton  brought  forward  unsuccessfully  a  motion 
of  censure  upon  Lord  Castlereagh  for  his  abuse  of  Indian  patronage. 
5  Lord  Castlereagh — See  Appendix. 


surprise  caused  by  the  appointment  of  Lord  Wellesley1 
was  very  great.  I  had  known  it,  but  dared  not  say 
any  thing;  but  from  the  Opera  every  body  came  so 
full  of  it,  and  all  expressing  great  surprise.  Last 
night  Lord  Ossulston  said  it  was  the  deepest  intrigue 
possible;  never  was  there  such  a  thing;  and  as  to 
Lord  Grey  having  been  sent  for,  what  could  that  be 
for?  what  good  could  he  do?  he  had  better  stay  in 
Northumberland.  Mr.  Tierney  and  Lord  Robert 
were  with  me  in  the  morning.  Mr.  Tierney  thinks 
that  Lord  Castlereagh  will  go  out  Wednesday. 
Lord  Morpeth  saw  him  in  the  House  to-day,  and 
looking,  as  he  thought,  very  dismayed.  I  am  sorry 
for  him;  he  is  a  good-natured  man,  and  will  feel  the 
want  of  place  more  than  most  people;  but  yet  I  am 
afraid  he  was  a  corrupt  politician,  and  in  this  reform- 
ing age  corruption  can't  escape.  Lord  Auckland 
brings  on  his  famous  motion,  or  rather  infamous,  not 
to  receive  any  bill  of  divorce  unless  it  is  clogged  with 
a  clause  that  the  parties  can't  marry.  What  can  this 
do  but  encourage  men  to  seduce  a  woman,  and  was 
ever  any  woman  debarred  from  sacrificing  herself 
from  motives  of  self-interest?  They  say  that  the 
Commons  are  (in  case  it  is  passed)  determined  to 
bring  in  a  Bill  not  to  pass  any  Bill  where  such  a 
clause  is  introduced,  so  that  there  can  be  no  divorce. 
That  something  should  be  done  all  agree,  but  not 
what  that  should  be.  As  to  news  there  was  a  firing 
heard,  which  it  is  feared  was  for  a  victory  over  the 
Austrians.     This  would  be  sad  indeed.      In  Spain 

1  The  appointment  of  Lord  Wellesley — As  ambassador  to  Spain. 


things    go    better,   and    some    people    are  sanguine 
enough  to  look  to  Soult's1  being  taken. 


Here  is  Daniel  come  with  an  account  from  Brooks 
that  the  division  was  78  to  98,  but  he  don't  know 
which  way;  how  provoking,  and  the  papers  are  not 
out.  If  Lord  Castlereagh  should  go  out,  I  dare  say 
there  will  be  some  further  changes  still  to  surprise 
Lord  Ossulston,  and  it  is  acknowledged  that  the 
Administration  was  too  weak  for  it  to  go  on. 

After  all,  the  debate  on  Lord  Auckland's  motion, 
or  rather  Lord  A.'s  motion,  was  not  that  day.  It 
was  carried  by  twelve  only,  I  think.  Lord  Castle- 
reagh is  not  out  yet,  but  as  Lord  Temple's  motion 
about  Spain  was  put  off,  it  is  supposed  to  be  owing 
to  that.  Lady  Castlereagh  gives  a  party  to-morrow, 
and  invites  all  her  foes.  Nothing  further  from  Ger- 
many. In  Sweden  we  hear  that  you  mean  to  try  the 

Lady  Elizabeth  Foster 

To  Augustus  Foster. 

Brocket  Hall,  May  22,  1809. 
.  .  .  To-day  the  Tower  guns  fired  for  the 
taking  of  Oporto  and  defeating  Soult.  Lord  Arthur2 
is  said  to  be  pursuing  him.  The  passage  of  the 
river  was,  I  hear,  one  of  the  most  brilliant  things 
ever  done;  as  usual,  however,  opposition,  I  am  sorry 

1  Soult — Marshal  (1769-1851).  The  occupation  of  Oporto,  the  passage  of  the 
Douro,  and  the  retreat  of  Soult,  were  the  first  incidents  of  Wellington's  brilliant 
career  in  the  Peninsula. 

2  Lord  Arthur — Lord  Arthur  Wellesley,  afterwards  Duke  of  Wellington  (1769- 


to  say,  are  depreciating  it.  What  a  pity  it  is  always 
to  do  this!  Ministers  have  been  in  a  minority  two 
nights  running,  one  on  Lord  Burgersh's  promotion,1 
the  other  on  a  further  grant  to  Palmer.  I  am  quite 
a  Wellesleyite.  I  must  say  that  I  am  grieving  for 
the  poor  King  of  Sweden,  whom,  if  he  must  be 
confined,  why  disinherit  his  poor  children?  What 
times  we  live  in! 

Lady  Elizabeth  Foster 

To  Augustus  Foster. 

May  31,  1809. 

Still  no  accounts;  the  anxiety  is  very  great;  should 
Soult  attack  Beresford2  again  before  Lord  Wellesley's 
reinforcements  reach  him,  the  worst  may  be  appre- 
hended. How  shocking  it  is  that  we  are  always 
obliged  to  fight  with  inferiority  of  numbers. 

Lady  Elizabeth  Foster 

To  Augustus  Foster. 

Devonshire  House,  June  1,  1809. 

.  .  .  Bonaparte  is  again  at  Vienna.  However, 
I  do  not  think  this  time  that  the  Emperor  will  make 
peace  without  the  Archduke's  leave,  and  the  last 
French  bulletin  holds  out  no  certainty  of  being  able 
to  destroy  the  Archduke.     In  Spain  there  has  been 

*  Lord  Burgersh— Afterwards  eleventh  Earl  of  Westmoreland  (1784-1859). 
2  Beresford — Viscount  B.     His  chief  service  in  the  Peninsular  War  was  the  re- 
organization of  the  Portuguese  army  (1768-1854). 


some  disaster  in  the  Asturias.  I  hope  our  friend 
Materosa  has  behaved  well,  but  the  Junta,  they  say, 
have  not.  We  are  very  anxious  to  hear  more  of  Sir 
A.  Wellesley.  At  home  you  will  see  that  they  have 
been  obliged  to  rescind  Burghersh's  promotion,  and 
Col.  Shipley  in  consequence  gave  up  his  resolutions. 
He  paid  some  compliments  to  Lord  Burghersh. 
Corruptions  have  been  proved  that  perfectly  disgust 
one,  and  I  hope  they  will  steadily,  but  with  modera- 
tion, persevere. 

Baron  d' Arm  felt 

To  Augustus  Foster. 

ST.  PETERSBOURG,  ce  l^juin,  1 809. 

On  m'a  dit  ici,  mon  aimable  ami,  que  vous  etes 
parti  de  Stockholm  le  7  —  j'en  suis  au  desespoir,  car 
dans  8  jours  je  suis  stir  d' avoir  eu  des  choses  impor- 
tantes  a  vous  communiquer. 

Mais  je  n'ai  que  le  terns  de  vous  dire,  que  nous 
sommes  dans  une  crise  violente  ici.  L'Empereur  est 
a  Tver,  chez  sa  soeur  la  Duchesse  d'Oldenbourg, 
cette  Soeur  revient  ici  aussi  que  l'Empereur  dans  la 
semaine  prochaine.  .  .  .  La  Duchesse  est  charmante, 
une  bonne  tete,  detestee  de  Bonaparte  et  le  detestant 
de  meme,  elle  a  tout  L'esprit  de  la  grande  Catharine 
mais  helas!  pas  son  experience — On  est  diablement 
mal  ici  pour  les  finances,  mais  cette  operation-ci  rame- 
neroit  le  Credit  public,  et  ceux  qui  cachent  aujourd'hui 
leurs  Roubles,  les  sortiroient  alors  de  leurs  coffres 
forts.  Dans  2  ou  10  jours  ceci  sera  decide  ou  manque. 
Mon  affair  d'argent  Test,  on  me  recevoit  (?)  a  Berlin, 


et  si  je  n'etois  pas  victime  de — tous  les  Diables, 
j'irois  la  et  je  verrois  L'Allemagne — partout  je  suis 
mieux  qu'en  Suede  jusqu'a  ce  que  les  choses  ont  pris 
la  forme  qu'il  faut.  Gisman  est  parti  sans  que  j'ai 
pu  l'atteindre,  la  ville  est  deserte  et  j'ecris  des  me- 
moires — il  n'y  a  que  l'ennui  qui  en  profite — Mettez 
moi  aux  pieds  de  Madame  votre  mere  et  ne  m'oubliez 
pas.  Vava. 

Lady  Elizabeth  Foster 

To  Angus ~tus  Foster. 

Devonshire  House,/z*/j/  3,  1809. 

.  .  .  I  hope  the  Russians  are  not  advancing 
upon  you.  Fortune  seems  to  coquet  it  a  little  just 
now  with  our  allies,  and  one  more  good,  decided 
victory  of  the  Archduke  Charles,  and  much  may  in- 
deed be  hoped  for.  All  in  the  North  of  Germany 
are  rising,  and  the  Tyrolese  have  emulated  the 
Spaniards.  The  accounts  from  Spain  to-day  are 
good.  The  French  are  driven  out  of  Ferrol  and 
Corunna.  Sir  Arthur  keeps  Victor1  at  Bay,  and  he 
will  soon,  I  dare  say,  proceed  to  Spain,  and  I  hope 
they  will  finally  be  driven  out:  now  is  the  time, 
whilst  Bonaparte  is  in  Germany  and  sending  for  all 
the  troops  that  he  can  from  France. 

July  ^th. 

To-day  the  account  is  confirmed  about  Ferrol  and 
Corunna,  and  the  defeat  of  the  French  under  Ney 
by  the  Spaniards  under  General  Curera.  Two  of 
our  officers  were  in  the  action,  and  speak  highly  of 

'  Victor—  Marshal  V.  (1766-1841). 


the  Spanish  bravery  and  zeal.  Souk's  army  seems 
to  have  been  nearly  destroyed  by  Sir  Arthur 
Wellesley.  The  Duke  of  Brunswick  has  an  increas- 
ing army,  and  the  Duke  of  Dantzig  was  defeated  by 
the  Tyrolese.  At  home  Col.  Wardle  has  been  ac- 
cused by  Mrs.  Clarke  of  bribing  her  by  a  promise  of 
fine  furniture  to  accuse  the  Duke  of  York  and  then 
to  have  left  it  unpaid.  He  lost  his  suit,  and  there- 
fore declares  that  she  is  perjured  and  ought  not  to 
be  believed.     This  is  curious  enough. 

Mrs.  Clarke  is  indicted  for  perjury,  but  the  jury 
have  not  decided  upon  it.  If  she  is  perjured  it 
weakens  her  evidence  against  the  Duke  of  York;  if 
she  is  not  it  more  totally  is  the  ruin  of  Col.  Wardle's 
character  and  popularity;  it  is  a  strange  business 


One  more  day,  but  not  much  of  news.  All  that 
there  is  seems  good,  and  the  French  are,  I  believe, 
returning  to  their  former  position  on  the  Ebro,  but  I 
trust  that  they  will  not  be  allowed  to  stay  there. 

Lady  Elizabeth  Foster 

To  A  ugustus  Foster. 

Devonshire  House,  July  14,  1809. 

.  .  .  We  are  in  anxious  expectation  of  more 
news  from  the  Continent,  and  conjecture  is  at  work 
about  our  own  expedition.1    Heaven  knows  where  it 

1  Our  own  expedition— -The  unfortunate  Walcheren  expedition. 


is  going.  It  takes  away  all  the  remaining  society  of 
London,  and  is  an  immense  armament.  Lord  Paget1 
goes  with  it,  which  is  the  best  thing  that  could  happen 
for  him  after  all  that  has  passed.  I  am  in  hopes  that 
all  goes  well  for  our  dear  Spaniards,  and  if  the  pre- 
sent moment  can  be  profited  of,  they  will,  I  hope,  be 
free.  I  have  the  greatest  faith  in  Sir  Arthur  Wellesley. 
At  home  the  only  changes  perceptible  to  the  vulgar 
eye  are  Lord  Granville  Leveson  in  the  Cabinet  and 
Secretary  at  War,  Lord  Harrowby  (your  friend)  an 
Earl  and  of  the  Cabinet,  and  of  the  Board  of  Con- 
troul.  Lord  Wellesley  goes  to  Spain  as  soon  as  he 
is  well  enough,  and  at  his  return  is,  as  is  rumoured, 
to  be  Minister  of  War.     .     .     . 

Lady  Elizabeth  Foster 

To  Augustus  Foster. 

Devonshire  House,  July  20,  1809. 

We  are  waiting  with  the  greatest  anxiety  for  more 
news  from  the  Danube,  and  the  report  to-night  of  a 
firing  on  the  Dutch  and  French  coast  adds  very 
much  to  our  anxiety  and  apprehensions.  It  would 
be  too  shocking  now  for  the  Archduke  Charles  to  be 
defeated,  and  yet  it  is  more  probable  that  he  should 
than  that  Bonaparte  should.  Our  expedition  is  ex- 
pected to  sail  to-morrow  or  next  day,  but  where  is 
the  question. 

1  Lord  Paget — Afterwards  first  Marquis  of  Anglesey  and  Field  Marshal.      He 
commanded  an  infantry  division  in  the  expedition  (1768-1854). 


2 1  St. 

Still  the  report  of  a  firing  continues,  and  I  am 
terrified.  I  wish  that  we  could  have  sent  a  powerful 
diversion  sooner,  and  why  now  to  stop  to  take  Capri 
and  Ischia  instead  of  sending  succour  to  Catalonia; 
however,  I  hope  and  suppose  that  they  know  better 
than  I  do.  Mr.  Wardle  is  a  wreck  of  popularity; 
his  is  all  gone,  and  I  rejoice  at  it.  I  always  thought 
that  his  conduct  was  odious,  and  it  has  now  been 
proved  so. 

Lady  Elizabeth  Foster 

To  Augustus  Foster. 

Devonshire  House,  July  29. 

You  augured  too  well,  dearest  Augustus,  from  the 
silence  and  absence  of  couriers  from  the  Danube. 
We  may  consider  every  thing  now  as  over,1  I  am 
afraid,  and  it  is  difficult  to  understand  even  by  the 
French  accounts  how  it  could  be  necessary  for  the 
Archduke  to  solicit  an  Armistice.  You  cannot  con- 
ceive any  thing  like  the  gloom  which  it  spread  here, 
and  even  the  success  which  is  expected  from  our 
expedition  don't  seem  to  afford  ground  of  hope  for 
any  good  to  the  Continent.  Bonaparte's  army  did 
not  fight  better  than  the  Archduke  Charles',  but  he 
outwitted  him.  Your  letter  was  a  delightful  one, 
and  every  expression  of  your  affection  to  me  is  a 
source  of  comfort  and  happiness  to  me.  I  have 
great  pride  in  your  present  situation,  as  I  am  sure 

1  This  evidently  refers  to  the  battle  of  Wagram. 


you  are  doing  yourself  credit;  it  is  a  difficult  one, 
too,  and  therefore  the  more  is  it  to  your  credit. 
Much  as  I  admire  the  Swedes,  I  can't  reconcile 
myself  to  their  excluding  the  young  Prince,  so  fine  a 
boy  too!  Is  it  true  that  the  King  has  asked  permis- 
sion to  go  to  Switzerland  ? 

Monday,  31J/. 

I  am  assured  to-night  that  accounts  are  come  of 
Flushing  having  surrendered  and  all  the  Island  of 
Walcheren,  and  some  say  that  they  willingly  sur- 
rendered, but  that  the  French  fleet  were  gone  up 
the  Scheldt.  I  suppose  we  shall  follow,  and  Fort  (?) 
Lillo  and  Antwerp  will,  I  fear,  be  tougher  work. 
However,  our  force  is  a  strong  one;  would  that  it 
had  gone  a  month,  or  even  a  fortnight  sooner. 

Lady  Elizabeth  Foster 

To  Augustus  Foster. 

.  .  .  I  have  opened  my  letter  to  say  that  I  am 
frightened  about  Flushing.  The  French  have 
thrown  in  reinforcements  who  made  a  sortie.  We 
drove  them  back,  but  with  a  loss  of  200  men;  Major 
Thornton  wounded.  Lord  Huntly,  (and  Hope,  I 
think)  have  taken  all  South  Beveland,  but  my  fear 
is  that  by  Flushing1  holding  out  that  Antwerp  and 
Fort  (?)  Lillo  may  be  reinforced  also.  Lord  W. 
Bentinck  and  H.  Cavendish  are  going  to  Spain. 

1  Flushing — Taken  August  i6,  1809. 


Lady  Elizabeth  Foster 

To  Augustus  Foster. 

Chiswick,  August  14,  1809. 

Now,  my  dear  Augustus,  walk  about  the  streets 
of  Stockholm  with  looks  of  pride  and  exultation,  bear 
high  your  head,  and  glory  in  being  a  Briton.  The 
Tower  guns  have  announced  to-day  the  glorious  vic- 
tory gained  by  our  favourite,  Sir  Arthur  Wellesley. 
It  was,  as  he  says  himself,  a  fearful  odds,  but  followed 
by  complete  success.  Twenty  pieces  of  cannon, 
four  eagles,  and  10,000  slain  of  the  French  bear 
testimony  to  this.  Sebastiani1  wounded,  two  generals 
killed,  and  two  others  wounded;  Joseph2  a  witness  to 
his  defeat.  The  dear  English  alone  were  engaged, 
but  it  is  said  that  the  Spaniards  are  pursuing  the 
defeated  French  army.  Pray  God  that  they  may 
profit  of  the  confusion  and  dismay  the  French  seem 
to  have  experienced,  and  if  they  imitate  their 
countrymen  at  Zaragossa  and  Gerona  they  will  do 
so.  F.  Ponsonby,  who  is  in  the  23rd  Dragoons,  was 
in  the  thickest  of  the  fight,  and  is  safe,  Thank 
Heaven!  Lady  Bessborough  heard  the  report  of 
the  battle  before  she  left  Chiswick  this  morning,  and 
set  off,  as  you  will  believe,  in  great  anxiety.  Only 
yesterday  she  and  I  and  Lady  Granville  had  been 
fighting  with  Mr.  Vernon,  and  he  was  saying  that  he 
wished  Sir  Arthur  back  again,  that  he  believed 
indeed  that  he  could  not  advance  from  want  of  shoes 
and  money,  and  that  his  situation  was  a  most  perilous 

*  Sebastiani — Marshal  S. ,  born  in  Corsica  (1776-1851). 

2  Joseph — Jos.  Bonaparte,  eldest  brother  of  Napoleon  (1768-1844). 


one.  To  Lady  Melbourne  he  said  he  hoped  she  was 
not  John  Bull  enough  to  believe  that  we  could  fight 
the  French  with  such  inferiority  of  numbers.  She 
said  she  longed  to  see  him  again  to  triumph  over 
him.  Here  were  we  with  about  20,000  against  fully 
forty  thousand  French.  Perhaps  you  will  hear  fuller 
and  better  accounts,  but  good  news  bears  a  repeti- 
tion. How  it  makes  one  regret  that  Sir  John  Moore 
did  not  trust  more  to  English  valour  and  hazard  a 
battle  sooner.  The  battle  was,  you  see,  at  Talavera1 
la  Regina.  Cuesta  was  said  to  be  following  them 
and  Varegas  to  have  advanced  to  Toledo  and  Aran- 
juez.  Is  it  true  your  Prince  Augustenbourg  has 
refused  the  sovereignty  of  Sweden,  that  the 
Russians  have  had  a  check,  and  that  our  squadron 
has  done  good  service  ?  The  weather  has  been  sad 
for  the  expedition,  and  they  anxiously  wait  for  news 
from  thence. 

Lady  Elizabeth  Foster 

To  Augustus  Foster. 

Chiswick,  August  2i,  1809. 

.  .  .  I  should  like  your  plan  of  marrying  one 
of  our  Princesses  in  Sweden  much  better  if  it  did  not 
confirm  the  setting  aside  the  poor  young  Prince, 
which  I  do  think  a  great  act  of  injustice.  However, 
I  will  say  that  I  should  think  that  the  Princess  Mary2 
would    suit   your    Prince    Regent   perfectly,    and    I 

1  Talavera — The  battle  was  fought  on  July  27  and  28,  1809. 

2  Princess  Mary — Daughter  of  George  III.,  afterwards  married  to  her  cousin  the 
Duke  of  Gloucester  (1776-1857). 


should  think  that  she  would  be  a  happier  person 
than  living  to  be  an  old  maid.  ...  I  hope  you 
have  heard  by  this  time  of  the  surrender  of  Flushing, 
and  got  my  letter  about  the  battle  of  Talavera.  The 
French  have  ventured  to  talk  of  it  as  a  victory,  and 
to  date  from  Talavera  on  the  29th,  though  Sir 
Arthur  Wellesley,  who  writes  his  last  dispatch  on 
the  first  of  August,  states  that  the  French  had  re- 
treated beyond  St.  Olalla.  This  is  the  most  extra- 
ordinary lie  they  have  yet  ventured  on.  The  report 
of  to-day  is  that  the  Armistice  is  broke,  that  the 
Archduke  Charles  has  resigned,  and  that  Prince 
John  of  Lichtenstein  is  to  command  the  army.  I 
think  that  Russia  ought  to  be  jealous  of  French 
colours  in  Galicia. 

Lady  Elizabeth  Foster 

To  Augustus  Foster. 

Chiswick,  August  28,  1809. 

.  .  .  As  to  news  I  am  almost  in  despair.  It 
seems  to  me  that  by  thus  dividing  our  forces  we  do 
nothing  well  or  effectually,  and  the  only  large  one 
which  we  have  sent  was  commanded  by  so  dull  and 
slow  a  man  that  it  must  fail,  while  dear  Sir  Arthur, 
who  should  command  hundreds  of  thousands,  has  a 
small  army  of  20,000  to  meet  70,000  French,  for  I 
much  fear  that  as  yet  we  can  only  reckon  on  the 
Spaniards  when  behind  walls  or  for  cutting  off  small 
parties.  Sir  Arthur,  it  is  said,  went  to  meet  Soult, 
relying  on  Cuesta's  promise  to  guard  Talavera,  but 


that  very  evening  Cuesta  arrived,  leaving  our  sick 
and  wounded  behind.  If  this  is  really  so  Cuesta 
ought  to  be  displaced.  Lord  Robert  Spencer,  Mr. 
Vaughan,  and  the  Baron  de  Rolla  are  here.  They 
say  that  the  opinion  is  that  nothing  can  be  done 
against  Antwerp.  In  short,  this  expedition,  which 
was  to  have  been  a  coup  de  main,  has  already  lasted 
a  month,  and  only  Flushing,  Walcheren,  and  South 
Beveland  taken. 

Lady  Elizabeth  Foster 

To  Augustus  Foster. 

Chiswick,  September  5,  1809. 

Every  thing  every  where  goes  so  ill  that  I  have 
had  no  courage  to  write  to  you.  Lord  Chatham1 
deserves  signal  punishment,  I  think,  first  for  the 
presumption  of  asking  for  such  a  command,  and  then 
for  the  failure  of  the  measures  he  pretended  to  be 
equal  to  command.  It  really  was  too  bad  to  give 
such  a  man  such  an  army  whilst  the  heroic  Lord 
Arthur  had  three  French  armies  to  encounter  with 
20,000  English,  the  Spanish  commander  thwarting 
him  in  every  plan  and  attempt.  I  don't  know  what 
we  are  to  look  to  or  hope  for.  Mr.  Tierney2  is  just 
come,  but  being  one  who  will  triumph  in  the  justness 
of  his  prophecy  I  have  not  courage  to  see.     .     .     . 

1  Lord  Chatham — Eldest  son  of  the  great  Lord  Chatham. 
iMr.  Tierney — George  T.,  statesman  (1761-1830). 


Lady  Elisabeth  Foster 

To  Augustus  Foster. 

Devonshire  House,  Sept.  8,  1809. 

.  .  .  You  will  grieve  to  hear  of  Lord  Welling- 
ton's retreat.  Lord  Chatham  you  prophecied  too 
right  about.  I  feel  very  anxious  about  the  Swedish 
expedition,  so  pray  let  me  hear  about  it. 

Lady  Elizabeth  Foster 

To  Augustus  Foster. 

Chiswick,  Sept.  11,  1809. 

.  .  .  I  feel  so  interested  about  the  Swedish 
expedition,  and  do  so  rejoice  that  though  they  could 
not  beat  the  Russians,  yet  that  from  losses  the  latter 
were  forced  to  abandon  Umea.  I  beg  you  will  go 
on  telling  me  about  them.  You  will  hear  of  the 
discontent  here  on  account  of  Flushing  being  the 
only  object  obtained  by  the  expedition,  and  that 
with  great  loss  by  sickness.  Lord  Wellington,  too, 
has  retreated  to  Elvas,  but  it  seems  to  have  been  a 
dignified  retreat,  and  then  taking  up  a  strong  posi- 
tion and  waiting  till  the  Junta  are  turned,  as  I  hope 
they  will  be,  into  a  Regency,  and  are  a  little  more 
active  and  energetic.  America,  you  see,  is  again 
discontented  with  us.     .     .     . 


Lady  Elizabeth  Foster 

To  Augustus  Foster. 

Sept.  21,  1809. 

What  strange  events  happen.  These  two  months 
I  have  heard  it  said  that  Canning  would  not  stay  in 
if  Lord  Castlereagh  was  not  turned  out.1  Lord 
Castlereagh  is  out,  yet  Canning's  resignation  is  ac- 
cepted, and  this  morning  these  two  fight  a  duel,  in 
which  our  dear  Canning  is  wounded,  but,  though  a 
narrow  escape,  Vaughan  says  that  it  will  be  of  no 
consequence.  .  .  .  What  I  can't  understand  is 
why  Lord  Castlereagh  is  out,  why  Canning  resigns. 
It  is  supposed  that  the  King  supports  Lord  Chatham  : 
if  so,  they  will  patch  up  an  administration  perhaps 
again  with  the  Doctor:2  it  is  too  bad.  The  rumours 
of  the  Grenvilles  and  Lord  Grey  having  been  sent 
for  have  subsided.  I  believe  the  King  hates  the 
thought  of  the  Grenvilles.  ...  I  have  written 
to  Charles  Bagot  to  inquire  how  Canning  does. 
Fred  could  not  tell  me  where  Charles  Ellis  lives. 
Good  God!  what  he  must  have  felt  when  he  saw 
that  Canning  was  wounded.  They  say  it  was  some 
sarcasm  of  Canning  which  galled  the  Viscount,  and 

so  he  challenged  him. 


Huskisson,  Mr.  L.,  and  Sturges  Bourne  have  re- 
signed with  Canning  and  Rose — of  the  Cabinet  none 
certain  yet  but  Lord  Granville  L.  Canning  suffered 
in  the  night,  but  is  going  on  well. 

1  Jf  Lord  Ctistlereagh  was  not  turih'd  out — On  account  of  a  difference  of  policy, 
followed  by  misunderstanding  on  the  subject  of  the  Walcheren  expedition,  of  which 
Canning  disapproved,  wishing  that  reinforcements  should  rather  be  sent  to  Lord 
Arthur  Wellesley  in  Portugal. 

''  The  Doctor— Uvm-y  Addington,  Lord  Sidmouth. 





Lady  Elizabeth  Foster 

To  Augustus  Foster. 

Chiswick,  Sept.  25,  1809. 

The  strangeness  of  the  times  continues.  Canning, 
however,  is  doing  well,  but  you  will  be  grieved  at 
his  resignation,  and  so  am  I.  Lord  Grenville  and 
Lord  Grey  have  been  sent  to,  but  whether  in  such  a 
manner  as  to  make  it  possible  for  them  to  accept  I 
don't  know.  Report  says  that  the  message  is  from 
the  King  and  to  join  the  six  remaining  Ministers, 
Liverpool,  Harrowby,  Eldon,  Chatham,  &c.  I  wish 
that  our  friends  originally  had  joined  with  Canning 
and  not  with  Sidmouth.  .  .  .  Canning,  I  am 
told,  after  the  duel,  said  to  Lord  Castlereagh,  "  Now, 
pray  tell  me  what  we  have  been  fighting  about". 
When  Home  the  surgeon  came  to  his  house  he 
shook  hands  with  him  and  joked  him  about  having 
set  C.  Ellis'  leg  crooked.  Home  said  to  himself, 
"It  can't  be  him  who  is  to  fight".  Charles  Ellis 
shook  hands  with  him,  and  his  hand  was  cold  as 
marble,  on  which  Home  said,  "If  this  is  the  man 
who  is  to  fight,  what  an  unfeeling  second  he  has''. 
Poor  Charles  Ellis!  I  can't  conceive  such  a  situation. 

Elizabeth,  Duchess  of  Devonshire, 

To  Augustus  Foster. 

Chiswick,  Sept.  28,  1809. 
Since  I  wrote  to  you  nothing  more  has  occurred, 
because  they  wait  for  Lord  Grey  and  Lord  Gren- 


ville's  answers.  If,  as  I  heard  yesterday,  Perceval 
has  written  to  offer  to  share  the  Cabinet  between 
them,  I  don't  think  they  can  possibly  accept  of  it, 
because  they  think  so  point  blank  differently  on  such 
principal  topics.  However,  there  is  so  marvellous  a 
facility  in  men  to  reconcile  things  that  will  secure 
power,  that  there  is  no  saying  what  may  happen. 
If,  as  I  think,  opposition  don't  agree  to  this,  then 
probably  the  Doctor  will  come  in  for  a  short  reign, 
and  the  best  result  would  be  the  union  of  opposition 
and  Canning.  .  .  .  The  Norwegians  seem  in- 
clined to  be  friendly  to  us,  and  the  Swedes  are  heroes. 
Their  march  to  Umea  does  them  honor,  and  I  wish 
that  they  could  drive  every  Russian  away.  Spain  is 
reviving  a  little,  and  Lord  Wellington  is  secure  in 
his  position,  and  meditates,  I  hope,  offensive  measures. 
He  will  do  all  that  can  be  done.  William  Ponsonby 
has  been  with  his  brother  at  head  quarters.  When 
he  arrived,  Col.  Seymour,  S.  T.  Colonel,  called  out 
to  his  servant,  Look  out  for  two  spare  trees  for  Mr. 
Ponsonby  to  lodge  in.  They  say  Lord  Grenville 
don't  accept,  and  that  Lord  Grey  won't  come  to 
town.     This  is  very  odd  indeed. 

Elisabeth,  Duchess  of  Devonshire, 

To  Augustus  Foster. 

Chiswick,  October  5,  1809. 

I  think  Canning  has  been  ill  used  by  Lord  Camden 
and  the  Duke  of  Portland.  He  entrusted  to  them 
the  telling  Lord  Castlereagh,  which  they  never  did, 


and  now  Canning  appears  as  a  false  person  to  many, 
because  he  continued  transacting  business  with  him 
while  he  declared  him  incompetent  to  that  place: 
perhaps  it  would  have  been  still  better  had  he  told 
him  himself,  but  still  he  must  have  thought  himself 
certain  of  the  communication  being  made  through 
Lord  Castlereagh's  uncle  and  the  first  Lord  of  the 

Lady  Elizabeth  Foster 

To  Augustus  Foster. 

Chiswick,  Nov.  9,  1809. 

.  .  .  As  to  Politicks,  they  sicken  me,  for  though 
Bonaparte  has  failed,  for  he  announced  the  total  de- 
struction of  Austria,  yet  how  is  a  country  fallen  that 
can  give  up  such  a  people  as  the  Tyrolese. 

Elizabeth,  Duchess  of  Devonshire, 

To  Augustus  Foster. 

Chiswick,  Nov.  13,  1809. 

.  .  .  As  to  politicks,  Canning's  statement,  which 
is  in  the  form  of  a  letter  to  Lord  Camden,  is  to  be 
out  very  soon.  He  has  shewn  it  to  Lord  Tichfield 
and  Lord  W.  Bentinck.  The  first  made  scarcely 
any  alteration.  The  second  begged  Canning  to 
efface  what  was  really  a  beautiful  character  of  his 
father,  attributing  his  conduct  to  the  mildness  of  his 
nature  and  his  unwillingness  to  give  pain,  and  to 
substitute  what  he  said  he  knew  to  be  his  father's 


real  motive,  the  wish  to  keep  the  Administration 
together.  Strange  that  Lord  W.  should  prefer  his 
father's  conduct  being  attributed  to  real  downright 
deception  than  to  the  weakness  of  good  nature,  in- 
creased by  illness  and  age;  but  this  between  our- 
selves alone;  but  it  is  certain  that  they  worked  upon 
Canning's  good  nature,  who  perhaps  has  not  yet  taken 
the  tone  his  talents  entitle  him  to  do.  If  Lord 
Wellesley  accept  under  the  present  Ministers,  I 
think  it  will  lower  him  much.     .     .     . 

Elizabeth,  Duchess  of  Devonshire, 

To  Augustus  Foster. 

Chiswick,  Dec.  5,  1809. 

.  .  .  Canning  said  to  me  that  he  had  left  a 
written  memento  in  the  office  to  mark  his  approbation 
of  your  conduct,  and  that  you  had  every  thing  that 
would  be  most  likely  to  make  you  rise  in  that  line, 
good  sense,  good  temper,  conciliatory  manners, 
&c.     .     .     . 

Frederick  Foster 

To  Augustus  Foster. 

London,  Feb.  29,  18 10. 
My  dear  Augustus, — What  do  you  think  of  our 
Conspiracy  ?  Were  you  not  very  much  surprized  ? 
Palle  came  running  in  to  tell  me  of  the  horrid 
massacre  that  was  to  have  taken  place,  and  I  went 
immediately  to   Miss    H.,   where  I    found   her  and 


Lady  Erne  still  very  nervous.  Ministers  had  in- 
formation all  along.  It  was  to  have  taken  place  at 
Lord  Westmoreland's  dinner  some  weeks  ago,  but 
was  deferred;  several  of  them,  however,  were  seen 
watching  about  the  door.  At  last  they  fixed  on  Lord 
Harrowby's  Cabinet  Dinner  for  the  massacre.  They 
were  to  have  broken  into  the  house,  first  giving  a 
knock,  and  on  the  Porter's  opening  it  to  have  rushed 
in,  killed  every  thing  that  opposed  them,  flung  hand 
grenades  into  the  Rooms,  and,  in  short,  to  have 
murdered  them  all;  then  to  have  endeavoured  to 
raise  the  lowest  mob,  and  so  made  a  Jacobin  Revolu- 
tion of  it.  A  man,  one  of  the  Party  who  repented, 
stopped  Lord  Harrowby  in  the  Park  and  gave  him 
full  information  of  their  designs.  He  agreed  with 
his  brother  ministers  to  say  nothing  to  the  servants 
about  putting  off  the  Dinner,  so  it  was  ordered  as 
usual.  He  himself  slipped  out  and  dined  with  Lord 
Liverpool  and  Lady  Erne.  He  got  Lady  Harrowby 
and  the  children  out  of  the  house,  telling  her  the 
reason — that  she  was  to  be  quite  secret — the  con- 
stables and  soldiers,  as  you  will  see,  surrounded  the 
house,  and  after  a  desperate  resistance  took  nine  of 
them.  Owing  to  some  blunder  the  soldiers  did  not 
arrive  quite  in  time,  and  several  of  them  escaped. 
It  has  caused  a  great  sensation  in  London.  Thistle- 
wood  is  a  Lincolnshire  man,  half  gentleman  and  half 
yeoman,  had  about  ^800  a  year,  which,  I  hear,  he  • 
lost  at  the  gaming  table.  Poor  Lady  Liverpool  was 
very  much  affected,  fainted,  and  was  very  ill,  and  so 
was  Lady  Erne.  The  mob,  I  am  told,  hissed  them 
as  they  were  taken  along  the  streets.      I  have  not 


heard  when  they  are  to  be  tried.  We  are  all  in  a 
bustle  also  about  the  Election.  G.  Lamb  has  a 
good  chance  for  Westminster,  and,  as  a  whole, 
Government  will  gain,  I  hear.  F.  Th.  F. 

Elizabeth,  Duchess  of  Devonshire, 

To  Augustus  Foster. 

March  1,  1810. 

Mr.  Cavendish,  the  philosopher,  has  died  worth 
,£1,075,000,  and  though  it  is  a  week  ago  we  are  still 
ignorant  how  he  has  left  his  property.  The  Duke 
and  I,  however,  are  quite  convinced  that  he  has  left 
him  nothing,  so  the  question  is  how  much  he  has 
left  to  Lord  George,  and  what  to  men  of  science, 
and  for  Charities. 

You  will  see  strange  things — Lord  Chat- 
ham's narrative,  Joseph  Napoleon's  advance  to 
Seville  and  Cadiz;  and  Lord  Wellington's  prepara- 
tions for  quitting  Portugal;  it  is  melancholy  to  see 
the  end  of  this  contest  for  liberty  and  independence. 

Elizabeth,  Duchess  of  Devonshire, 

To  Augustus  Foster. 

Chiswick,  March  26,  1810. 

To-day  is   the   great    discussion    of  the    Scheldt 

expedition.     Lord  Wellesley  is  clear  of  it  certainly, 

and   so   is    Canning    and    Lord   Castlereagh  of  the 

delay  in  recalling  the  troops,  but  no  country  can  see 


the  failure  of  such  an  armament,  and  mourn  the 
loss  of  so  many  thousands  by  sickness  and  disease 
and  not  insist  on  knowing  the  cause  of  such  a  mis- 
fortune. It  is  supposed  that  the  discussion  will 
last  two  or  three  days,  but  nobody  knows  how  it 
will  end — probably  only  a  near  run  thing.  .  .  . 
What  a  stroke  of  policy  Bonaparte's  marriage1  seems 
to  be.  We  hear  of  nothing  but  his  magnificent  pre- 
parations for  it.  He  seems  to  be  quarrelling  in 
earnest  with  America,  but  they  bear  with  any  insult 
from  him.     .     .     . 

Baron  d '  Engelstrbm* 

To  Augustus  Foster. 

May  31,  1810. 

Monsieur, — Vous  avez  voulu  une  lettre  de  moi 
pour  justifier  votre  depart.  La  voici.  Vous  connaissez 
votre  position.  Je  me  trouve  dans  le  cas  de  vous 
prier  de  partir  jeudi  au  soir.  J'espere  l'avantage  de 
vous  voir  avant  que  vous  quittez  Stockholm  pour 
vous  renouveller  les  assurances  de  la  consideration 
distinguee  et  de  l'attachement  sincere  aux  lesquels 
j'ai  1'honneur  d'etre. — Monsieur,  votre  tres  humble  et 
tres  obeissant  serviteur,  d'Engelstrom. 

A  M.  Foster. 

Note  of  Mr.  Foster  on  the  above — Ordered  out  of 
Sweden  by  Napoleon's  directions. 

1  Bonaparte's  marriage — With  Marie  Louise,  daughter  of  Francis  I.,   Emperor 
of  Austria  (1791-1847). 

2  Baron  d ' Engelstrdm — Swedish  Minister  of  Foreign  Affairs. 


Elizabeth,  Duchess  of  Devonshire, 

To  Augustus  Foster. 

Devonshire  House,  Jan.  10,  1811. 
I  came  to  town  a  few  days  ago,  as  the  Duke  of 
D.  was  obliged  to  attend  Parliament  on  the  question 
of  restrictions.  ...  I  afterwards  found  that  we 
had  beat  the  ministers  on  most  of  the  questions,  but, 
lo  and  behold,  the  vicissitude  of  things :  the  King  is 
now  said  to  be  recovering,  and  that  there  is  an  end 
of  the  Regency.  So  be  it.  I  am  sure  nothing  would 
be  so  bad  for  my  friends  as  a  three  months'  adminis- 
tration. I  am  told  that  the  ist  of  Feb.  is  the  time 
fixed  for  the  Regency  if  it  does  take  place.  The 
King,  however,  is  so  emaciated  and  reduced  that  I 
should  not  suppose  he  ever  can  be  equal  to  business 
again;  and  after  what  has  come  out  of  Lord  Sid- 
mouth  having  been  appointed  with  two  mad  doctors 
in  the  room,  it  will  make  people  slow  to  believe 
in  H.M.'s  perfect  recovery.     .     .     . 

The  Prince  Regent 

To  Elizabeth,  Duchess  of  Devonshire. 

February  14,  181 1. 

I  have  the  pleasure  to  announce  to  you,  my  dearest 
Duchess,  that  I  have  this  day  assented  to  the  nomi- 
nation of  Mr.  Augustus  Foster  as  Minister  to  the 
United  States  of  America.  I  hope  this  will  meet 
with  your  approbation,  as  nothing  can  ever  afford 
me  more  pleasure  than  whatever  I  know  can  convey 


satisfaction  both  to  yourself  as  well  as  the  dear  Duke. 
—I  remain,  ever  most  truly  and  sincerely,  your  af- 
fectionate Friend  and  humble  Servant, 

George,  P.R. 

Carlton  House,  February  14,  181 1. 

Elizabeth,  Duchess  of  Devonshire, 

To  A  ugustus  Foster. 

Devonshire  House,  Feb.  15,  181 1. 
I  inclose  you  the  Prince  Regent's  letter,  which  I 
received  at  the  Play  last  night.  You  will  believe 
that  I  never  said  one  word  about  you  to  him  or  any 
body  else.  I  was  obliged  to  answer  the  Prince,  but 
this  I  did  merely  by  expressing  my  thanks  to  him 
for  his  unvarying  kindness  to  me,  and  by  saying  that 
you  was  in  Ireland.  The  Prince  announcing  this 
nomination  to  me  himself  makes  me  suppose  that  in 
the  present  situation  in  which  we  stand  with  America 
it  is  considered  as  an  important  and  advantageous 
mission,  and  it  is  one  in  which  you  are  first,  and 
therefore  all  the  credit  will  be  yours,  and  distinc- 
tions would  probably  follow.  I  know,  however,  your 
dislike  to  that  country  so  well  that  I  shall  not  say 
any  thing  to  influence  you  more  than  it  is  abso- 
lutely my  duty  to  do,  and  this,  that  if  your  dislike 
to  accept  of  this  mission  arises  from  any  hope  of 

succeeding  with1 ,  you  ought,  I  think,  to  bring 

that  to  a  point  by  making  your  situation  known.     If 
she  has  any  liking  for  you,  the  idea  of  your  going 

1  Succeeding  with — Miss  Milbanke. 


would  make  her  decide  in  your  favor,  and  you  would 
either  then  not  want  to  go  anywhere  or  might  per- 
haps get  it  exchanged  for  some  other  Country  she 
would  like.  If  you  only  relinquish  this  line  for 
Parliament,  pray  pause  and  consider  how  few  people 
rise  to  any  eminence  in  it;  how  very  few  obtain 
from  Parliamentary  merit  alone  either  fame  or 
emolument.  You  are  appointed  now  Minister  to 
the  United  States  at  a  period  of  great  consequence 
to  this  country.  If  it  all  terminates  well,  considering 
our  connections  and  friendships,  you  are  likely  to 
receive  flattering  marks  of  approbation,  and  every 
thing  that  is  pleasantest  hereafter  in  the  profession 
is  open  to  you.  Having  said  what  I  felt  it  my  duty 
to  do,  I  can  only  leave  the  ultimate  decision  to  you. 
Your  happiness  and  advantage  is  all  I  wish  for,  but 
I  should  be  sorry  to  see  you  throw  away  the  means 
of  doing  yourself  credit  from  an  unfounded  pursuit 
of  other  objects.  At  all  events,  I  think  you  ought 
to  return  directly.     .     .     . 

Elizabeth,  Duchess  of  Devonshire, 

To  Augustus  Foster. 

August  3,  181 1. 

This  is  black  Monday,  so  that  I  have  no  letters, 
and  rumours  prevail.  Lord  Burgersh  told  me  that 
it  was  strongly  reported  that  M'Donald1  had  been 
defeated  at  Riga,  and  my  brother  read  a  sixth  Bulletin 
dated  still  from  Wilna,  in  which  Bonaparte  complains 

1  M'Donald — Marshal  Macdonald  (1765-1840). 


so  much  of  bad  roads  that  it  is  suspected  he  has  no 
victories  to  boast  of.  What  a  blessing  a  real  check 
to  his  arms  would  be!  General  Graham  is  come 
home  in  good  health,  but  in  danger  of  losing  his 
eyes;  he  has  had  Weare's  advice,  however,  who  has 
given  him  much  comfort  about  them.  He  has 
given  his  horses  and  wine  to  Lord  Wellington,  of 
whom  he  is  an  enthusiastic  admirer,  I  am  told — well 
he  may.  Several  negotiations  have  been  going  on 
for  Lord  Wellesley  and  Canning  to  come  in,  but  it 
has  gone  off,  and,  I  believe,  because  they  could  not 
settle  about  the  lead  in  the  House  of  Commons,  and 
something,  it  is  said,  in  a  letter  of  Lord  Castlereagh's 
to  Lord  Liverpool1  about  Canning  which  Canning 
could  not  put  up  with.  It  is  a  pity  it  is  gone  off; 
their  names  would  have  done  good  just  now. 

Elizabeth,  Duchess  of  Devonshire, 

To  Augustus  Foster. 

Chiswick,  August  30,  181 1. 

Knowing  your  anxiety  for  me,  I  have  written  two 
or  three  times  since  my  dreadful  misfortune.2  I  hope 
others  have  too,  for  at  first  I  could  write  but  a  line 
or  two;  calmer  now,  but  as  wretched;  less  stunned, 
and  therefore  more  competent  to  feel  the  full  extent 
of  my  loss.  I  can  only  wonder  that  my  life  and 
intellect  have  lasted.  What  is  it  that  enables  one  to 
survive  such  a  shock,  so  sudden,  so  unexpected,  so 

1  Lord  Liverpool — Prime  Minister  from  1812  to  1827  (1770-1828). 
3  My  dreadful  misfortune — The  death  of  her  husband. 


overwhelming?  God  has  supported  me,  and  given 
me  dear  children  and  kind  friends,  and  I  ought  to 
be,  and  am,  grateful  for  these  blessings,  but  indeed, 
my  dearest  Augustus,  the  husband  whom  I  have  lost 
was  the  creature  of  my  adoration,  and  long  had  been 
so.  He  was  so  eminent  in  all  that  is  good,  amiable, 
noble,  and  praiseworthy.  I  almost  wondered  at  my 
own  happiness  in  being  united  to  him,  and  when  you 
was  with  us  here,  scarce  more  than  three  short 
months  ago,  there  was  not  a  day,  scarcely  an  hour,  I 
did  not  thank  Heaven  for  the  happiness  of  belonging 
to  such  a  man.  Oh  God,  it  is  too,  too  much.  This 
place,  too,  so  full  of  him;  his  dear,  his  gracious  form 
in  every  part  of  these  gardens  so  present,  so  fully 
impressed  on  my  mind,  that  all  appears  at  times  a 
fearful  dream.  I  will  not  distress  you  further,  I 
know  how  you  will  feel  for  me,  how  you  will  regret 
him.  Thankful  I  am,  though  that  moment  of  misery 
never  can  be  effaced  from  my  heart,  that  I  had 
strength  to  be  with  him  to  the  last,  and  that  it  was 
in  my  arms  that  he  expired;  yes,  expired,  and  I  live 
to  write  it. 

Elizabeth,  Duchess  of  Devonshire, 

To  Augustus  Foster. 

Chiswick,  Nov.  3,  181 1. 

.  .  .  You  must  be  content  for  a  while  to  get 
shabby  letters  from  me,  for  though  I  do  all  I  can  to 
bear  up  in  return  for  all  the  kindness  shewn  me,  yet 
it  is  a  hard  task,  and  I  feel  that  no  time  can  give  me 


a  happy  feel  again.  I  shall  be  happy  at  moments 
when  I  see  you,  and  the  moment  of  return  of  those 
who  are  dear  to  me  must  be  one  of  enjoyment  to 
me,  but  life  has  lost  that  which  gave  it  its  great 
value,  that  which  made  me  for  a  short  time  the 
happiest  of  human  beings,  for  such  a  being  as  him 
surely  never  existed.  What  a  wreck  in  these  last 
few  years!  All  that  is  pre-eminent  is  gone.  To  me 
it  is  as  a  desert,  and  but  for  my  children  what  an 
exile  should  I  feel  in  this  world.  .  .  .  The  King 
is  worse  and  worse.  The  Duke  of  Clarence1  has 
proposed  to  Miss  Long,  and  has  been  rejected,  but 
they  say  that  he  don't  despair. 

Elizabeth,  Duchess  of  Devonshire, 

To  Frederick  Foster. 

November  &„  1811. 

Every  thing  is  now  so  melancholy  that  nothing 
that  can  be  said  upon  it  can  be  too  much,  or  even 
increase  my  misery,  but  I  am  happy  in  you,  Augus- 
tus, Caro,  and  Clifford;  but  life  has  lost  its  charm, 
and  the  world  the  noblest  creature  that  ever  adorned 
it.  To  have  been  his;  to  bear  his  name  is  still  my 
pride  and  comfort.  .  .  .  Lord  Byron2  is  come 
back,  Mr.  Rogers  told  me,  and  very  much  improved, 
and  regretting  his  satirical  poem,  which  he  wrote,  he 
says,  writhing  with  anger  at  the  Edinburgh  Re- 
view.    .     .     . 

1  The  Duke  of  Clarence — Afterwards  King  William  IV  (1765-1837). 
5  Lord  Byron— (1788-1824). 


The  Honble.  Mrs.  George  Lamb 

To  Augustus  Foster. 

London,  November  6,  181 1. 

My  dear  Augustus, — I  have  delayed  answering 
your  letter  till  half  an  hour  before  the  time,  and  in- 
excusable as  it  is,  with  a  month  between  each  post 
day,  to  plead  the  want  of  time,  I  must  make  use  of 
it  to-day.  I  am  now  writing  at  a  very  melancholy 
moment.  The  Duchess  is  come  to  town  to  pack  up 
all  her  things  and  to  leave  this  house  for  ever.  It 
is  a  moment  I  have  always  dreaded  for  her.  I 
think  a  widow's  situation  at  all  times  a  most  dread- 
ful one;  at  the  time  that  she  wants  most  comfort  and 
care  she  is  obliged  to  leave  her  home  and  the  com- 
forts she  has  been  used  to  all  her  life.  There  are  a 
thousand  little  things,  too,  which  have  annoyed  and 
worried  her.  It  grieves  me  to  the  heart  to  see  her 
unhappy.  We  are  going  to  the  seaside  for  a  little 
while.  The  Liverpools  have,  I  believe,  lent  her 
Walmer,  and  we  shall  go  there  till  she  has  got  a 
house  in  town,  and  she  will  then  settle  in  London. 
I  think  it  is  the  best  place  for  her,  for  she  is  not  very- 
fond  of  the  country,  and,  so  used  to  Society  as  she 
has  been  all  her  life,  I  am  sure  that  great  retirement 
would  be  the  worst  thing  for  her.  I  have  seen 
nothing  of  your  friends  in  the  north,1  but  I  have 
heard  nothing  that  need  alarm  you;  great  coldness 
to  all  the  admirers. 

I  hope  you  received  a  letter  I  sent  you  from  Lady 
Milbanke.     She  has    persuaded,   or   rather    forced, 

1  Your  friends  in  the  north — The  Milbankes. 


poor  Sir  Ralph  to  stand  again  for  Durham,  and  I  am 
afraid  it  will  be  absolute  ruin,  besides  which,  I  hear 
he  has  no  chance  of  carrying  it.  His  opponents  are 
Lord  Barnard  and  Sir  Harry  Vane.  I  am  just  come 
from  Brocket  Hall.  They  are  all  going  on  very 
jollily  there,  and  Caro2  is  a  little  less  mad  than 

C.  J.  Lamb. 

Elizabeth,  Duchess  of  Devonshire, 

To  Augustus  Foster. 

January,  1812. 

The  restrictions  end  the  17th,  and  the  King  is 
worse  than  ever.  You  will  see  that  the  Catholick 
question  has  been  brought  on;  dear  Hartington 
seconded.  Lord  Fitzwilliam  was  very  much  fright- 
ened, but  did  it  well,  and  ended  with  a  true  Cavendish 
sentiment,  that,  thinking  this  measure  right,  he  sup- 
ported it,  and  always  would.  Lord  Morpeth  spoke 
uncommonly  well  yesterday,  but  the  question  will  go 
on  for  three  days  together.  In  Spain,  Valencia  has 
fallen,  but  so,  I  believe,  has  Ciudad  Rodrigo  to  Lord 
Wellington.  There  never  was  surely  so  unfortunate 
a  general  as  Blake.  Lord  Wellington  has  raised 
our  military  fame  high,  yet,  I  fear,  if  opposition 
came  in  they  would  cramp  his  means.  God  bless 
you,  my  dearest  Augustus.  I  as  yet  see  no  body 
but  the  friends,  the  immediate  friends,  of  him  I  know 
not  how  to  live  without,  nor  do  I  feel  as  if  I  ever 
could.      Dear  Georgiana  is  lying  in.     Harriet  is  ab- 

2  Caro — Caroline,  wife  of  the  Hon.  William  Lamb. 


sorbed  in  Lord  G.  L.  Hartington  is  affectionate  and 
kind,  but  very  young  and  surrounded.  Your  brother 
and  Caroline  seldom  leave  me,  but  to-day  I  made 
them  dine  at  Lord  Cowper's.  How  shocked  you 
will  be  to  hear  of  poor  William  Cavendish's  death. 
I  never  heard  of  so  dreadfull  and  awfull  an  accident, 
three  minutes  before  they  were  all  together  the 
happiest  family  possible — poor  wretched  Mrs.  Caven- 
dish adored  him;  she  is  with  child,  which,  I  believe, 
alone  supports  her.  Your  correspondence  is  moved 
for,  and,  when  produced,  ministers  say  will  do  you  the 
greatest  credit.  Oh!  the  comfort  of  that.  I  thank 
God  for  the  children  he  has  given  me. 

The  Earl  of  Liverpool 


January,  1812. 

Thursday,  January. — My  dear  Lord, — I  send  you 
the  correspondence  with  Sir  James  Craig  on  the 
subject  of  the  Indians.  The  inclosures  which  con- 
tain the  reasons  and  inducements  to  the  Indians  not 
to  engage  in  hostilities  with  the  United  States  it 
would  not  be  desirable  should  be  published,  and 
need  not  perhaps  be  forwarded  to  Mr.  Foster.  The 
following  facts  appear  clear,  however,  from  Sir  J. 
Craig's  letter,  that  as  soon  as  he  knew  of  any  inten- 
tions on  the  part  of  the  Indians  to  commence  hostilities 
he  informed  Mr.  Morier  of  the  circumstance  in  order 
that  he  might  make  a  communication  thereupon  to 
the  American  Government,  that  he  at  the  same  time 


and  subsequently  used  every  endeavour  to  dissuade 

the   Indians  from   their  projects  of  hostilities,  and 

that   his   conduct  was  approved   from   home  in  the 

month  of  July  last,  and  Sir  George  Prevost  directed 

to  pursue  the  same  course  of  procedure, — Ever  yours 



The  Earl  of  A  berdeen 

To  Augustus  Foster. 

Argyll  House,  Feb.  5,  1812. 

My  dear  Augustus, — I  wish  it  was  in  my  power 
to  give  you  some  positive  information  concerning 
that  which  must  interest  you  very  much,  as  well  as 
it  does  us.  I  mean  the  formation  of  the  Ministry 
after  the  expiration  of  the  restrictions.  Until  very 
lately  no  one  doubted  that  every  thing  would  remain 
as  it  is.  It  is  certain,  however,  that  Lord  Wellesley 
has  given  in  his  resignation,  and  only  holds  the  seals 
pro  tempore.  The  cause  is  assigned  to  some  radical 
difference  of  opinion  between  him  and  Perceval  on 
several  subjects,  but  principally  on  the  conduct  of  the 
war.  It  is  thought  that  this  step  will  shake  the 
foundations  of  the  present  Government,  and  indeed 
destroy  its  existence  altogether.  This  is  also  my 
belief.  We  have  a  report  of  a  Government  being 
formed,  of  which  Wellesley  and  Canning  are  to  be 
the  principal  members,  but  this  is  highly  improbable. 
If  any  change  takes  place  it  will  be  for  the  purpose 
of  bringing  in  the  opposition. 

I  read  with  great  satisfaction  your  correspondence 


with  Mr.  Monroe,  and,  although  it  is  possible  that  I 
might  view  it  with  partial  eyes,  I  find  the  general 
impression  is  just  that  which  I  could  desire.  We 
are  at  least  come  to  believe  in  the  possibility  of  a 
war;  perhaps  even  now  it  is  not  intended,  but  the 
language  recently  adopted  certainly  threatens  it. 

I  received  your  barrels  of  apples,  which  are  said  to 
be  excellent.  Thinking  that  all  apples  are  turnips 
growing  on  trees,  I  am  not  an  apple-eater. 

You  will  probably  hear  many  reports  about  the 
Prince's  health:  in  order  that  you  may  not  be  de- 
ceived, I  can  tell  you  that  he  is  in  reality  well.  There 
is  a  strange  numbness  in  his  hands,  but  even  if  it  gets 
worse  there  is  no  sort  of  danger,  for  I  understand  it 
is  a  very  common  thing.  Believe  me,  very  affectly. 
yours,  Aberdeen. 

Elisabeth,  Duchess  of  Devonshire, 

To  Augustus  Foster. 

Piccadilly  Terrace,  Feb.  29,  1812. 
I  begin  before  the  regular  day,  my  dearest  Augustus, 
because  I  want  to  tell  you  without  delay  how  much  I 
feel  the  kindness  of  your  letters,  and  of  how  great  a 
comfort  they  are  to  me.  They  are  the  greatest 
possible  comfort,  first,  because  they  prove  you  feel 
my  misfortune,  as  it  soothes  me  that  it  should  be 
felt,  great  and  terrible  even  to  think  of;  then  that 
you  shew  me  how  you  know  how  he  deserved,  and 
saw  how  I  adored  him  I  have  lost,  my  dear,  dear 
husband,  and  yet  that  you  try  to  turn  my  thoughts 


to  that  which  I  should  be  and  am  gratefull  for,  the 
affection  of  you  all,  my  dear  children,  and  of  his 
children,  and  that,  since  grief  did  not  kill  me  at  first, 
that  I  must  try  to  live  in  health  for  them  to  whom  I 
am  yet  a  source  of  comfort.  To  your  affection,  to 
your  conduct,  publick  and  private,  dearest  Augustus, 
I  look  for  much  of  what  I  can  yet  experience  of 
pleasure  and  comfort.  .  .  .  Caro  means  to  see 
la  bella  Anabella  before  she  writes  to  you.  I  don't 
like  the  last  letter  which  you  received,  and  I  shall 
almost  hate  her  if  she  is  blind  to  the  merits  of  one 
who  would  make  her  so  happy.  ...  As  to 
politicks,  they  are  in  a  state  as  novel  as  distressing. 
Dear  Lord  Wellesley  has  resigned.  Lord  Castle- 
reagh  succeeds.  The  Prince  Regent  quarrels  with 
his  old  friends,  and  abuses  his  new  ones.  Sheridan 
and  Lord  Lauderdale  declare  in  his  name  to  G. 
Ponsonby  that  the  Catholick  question  shall  not  be 
made  a  Cabinet  one,  and  Perceval  contradicts  this 
in  his  speech  in  Parliament  the  next  day.  It  is  all 

March  yd. 

To-night  on  Orders  in  Council  it  is  expected  to 
divide  so  strong  as  to  leave  Ministers  a  majority 
only  of  40.  This  in  common  times  would  have  been 
reckoned  a  defeat,  and  Lord  North  would  have 
resigned  on  it,  but  Perceval,  I  believe,  would  stay  in 
at  all  risks.  I  shall  add  a  few  lines  to-morrow.  It  is 
since  I  began  this  letter,  I  believe,  that  the  Ministers 
were  beat  on  Banks'  motion  for  not  granting  Col. 
M'Mahon  the  place  which  the  Prince  Regent  had 


given  him.  People  say  it  is  the  first  instance  of 
Parliament  refusing  to  confirm  the  first  act  of  favour 
of  a  new  reign.  To  me,  who  really  love  the  Prince, 
this  is  melancholy;  but  he  sits  all  evening  in  Man- 
chester Square,  and  loses  sight  of  all  but  the  politicks 
of  that  little  circle.  Now,  though  I  do  believe  that 
there  is  no  cry  for  the  opposition  in  the  country,  yet 
the  people  dislike  his  having  forsaken  his  friends  of 
25  years  in  that  way,  and  I  could  have  wished  that  he 
had  sent  to  them,  and  fairly  said  that,  being  deter- 
mined to  go  on  with  the  war  in  Spain,  that  he  would 
not  now  call  them  to  his  Councils,  but  having  the 
same  friendship  and  esteem  for  them,  that  he  should 
still  look  to  them  when  circumstances  allowed  him  to 
do  so.  No  half  measure  or  trickery  ever  did  credit 
to  the  person  or  service  to  their  cause.     .     .     . 

Lord  Palmerston 

To  Sir  Augustus  Foster. 

War  Office,  March  25,  1812. 

Dear  Foster, — Mr.  Lawrence,  the  bearer  of  this, 
is  connected  with  my  brother  in  law,  Mr.  Sulivan, 
and,  being  bound  to  America,  is  desirous  of  having 
the  advantage  of  being  made  known  to  you.  I  know 
too  well  the  extent  of  business  which  you  must  have 
upon  your  hands  at  the  present  moment  to  do  more 
than  write  two  lines  to  say  that  if  you  should  have  it 
in  your  power  officially  to  be  of  any  use  to  him  with- 
out much  inconvenience  to  yourself,  I  should  be  very 


much  obliged  to  you  for  any  attention  which  you 
may  shew  him. 

I  hope  Buonaparte's  last  communications  with  his 
Conservative  Senate  may  be  of  use  to  you  as  to  the 
question  of  the  existence  of  the  French  Decrees.  If 
you  make  musick  of  the  Americans  you  will  accom- 
plish what  appears  next  to  impossible,  and  yet  you 
seem  to  be  making  progress.  I  suppose  the  Suaviter 
in  Modo  fortiter  in  Re  tells  with  them  as  it  does 
with  others. — Yours  very  truly,  Palmerston. 

Augustus  Foster 

To  Elizabeth,  Duchess  of  Devonshire. 

Washington,  April  18,  1812. 

.  .  .  I  am  afraid  my  chance  is  small  with  Miss 
Milbanke.  Indeed,  staying  as  long  as  I  do  here,  it  is 
scarce  just  to  think  I  can  keep  an  interest  with  her 
sufficient  to  balance  in  any  degree  against  the  daily 
assiduities  she  must  listen  to.  I  wish,  however,  very 
much  that  I  could  go  home,  for  I  cannot  consent  to 
add  to  the  number  of  diplomatic  old  bachelors.  .  .  . 
Here  they  talk  more  loudly  than  before  of  war.  The 
French  Minister,  on  being  told  that  France  was 
threatened  as  well  as  England,  said  he  must  in  that 
case  solicit  an  interview  with  the  British  Minister,  in 
order  for  us  to  concert  together  measures  of  defence 
against  so  alarming  a  power.  A  great  many  people 
are  afraid  of  being  laughed  at  if  they  don't  fight.  It 
is  really  a  curious  state  of  things.  They  even  refer 
to  me  occasionally  to  ask  what  we  should  think  of 


them.  I  am  on  good  terms  with  almost  all.  Good 
living,  you  are  very  right  in  saying,  has  its  effect 

Elizabeth,  Duchess  of  Devonshire, 

To  Augustus  Foster. 

London,  May  4,  1812. 

.  .  .  I  have  sent  you  a  very  beautiful  poem 
by  Lord  Byron,  who  continues  to  be  made  the 
greatest  fuss  with.  The  Edinburgh  Review  is  just 
come  out  with  their  critique  on  it.  They  praise  it 
because  they  cannot  help  doing  so;  but  whilst  they 
accuse  him  of  bitterness  in  resenting  their  former 
illiberal  review  of  his  "  Minor  Poems",  they,  I  think, 
betray  how  much  they  smarted,  and  still  smart,  under 
the  keenness  of  his  lash  in  the  "  English  Bards 
and  Scotch  Reviewers":  Your  brother  read  it  to  me, 
which  is  a  favor  most  rare,  I  assure  you;  but  it  was 
very  pleasant,  and  I  wish  he  did  it  oftener.  The 
Character  is  really  all  written  by  Adair,  but  I  own 
to  you  I  thought  with  you  that  it  was  superior  to  his 
usual  powers;  but  it  is  his  and  his  alone;  he  did  it 
at  my  request,  and  in  two  days'  time.  I  will  send 
you  two  or  three  that  if  there  is  anybody  you  think 
worthy  to  possess  one  that  you  may  give  it  to  them 
— to  Randolph,  for  instance.  .  .  .  As  to  that 
particular  object,  you  will  have  had  letters  from  Caro- 
line and  me,  which  will  have,  to  our  great  regret, 
put  an  end  to  all  our  hopes  on  that  subject.  The 
only  comfort  is  that  it  was,  on  her  part,  though  not 


on  her  mother's,  over  before  you  went.  She  persists 
in  saying  that  she  never  suspected  your  attachment 
to  her,  but  she  is  so  odd  a  girl  that  though  she  has 
for  some  time  rather  liked  another,  she  has  decidedly 
refused  them,  because  she  thinks  she  ought  to  marry 
a  person  with  a  good  fortune,  and  this  is  partly,  I 
believe  from  generosity  to  her  parents,  and  partly 
owning  that  fortune  is  an  object  to  herself  for  happi- 
ness. In  short,  she  is  good,  amiable,  and  sensible, 
but  cold,  prudent,  and  reflecting.  What  I  have  told 
you  is  a  great  secret;  you  must  not  breathe  it,  and  I 
will  let  you  know  if  there  is  any  change.  She  is  at 
present  with  Lady  Gosford,  but  expects  her  parents 
this  week:  we  must  look  out  for  something  better. 
Lord  Byron  makes  up  to  her  a  little,  but  she  don't 
seem  to  admire  him  except  as  a  poet,  nor  he  her, 
except  for  a  wife.  Your  little  friend,  Caro  William,1 
as  usual,  is  doing  all  sorts  of  imprudent  things  for 
him  and  with  him;  he  admires  her  very  much,  but  is 
supposed  by  some  to  admire  our  Caroline  more;  he 
says  she  is  like  Thyrsa,  and  her  singing  is  enchant- 
ment to  him.  Dearest  life!  don't  fret  about  Anna- 
bella.  I  don't  think  you  will,  as  Lady  Selina  made  a 
little  episode — only  guard  against  American  beauties, 
and  we  must  seek  for  something  more  glowing  than 
Annabella;  and  when  you  return,  who  knows  what 
we  may  meet  with.  You  will  have  heard  of  the  fall 
of  Badajoz,  and  the  hope  of  liberating  the  South 
West  of  Spain  from  Ballesteros  being,  as  it  is  said, 
at  Seville.  Lord  Wellington  is  indeed  an  eminent 
Man,  and  all  parties  agree  in  their  praise  of  him. 

1  Caro  William — Caroline,  wife  of  the  Hon.  William  Lamb. 


Marmont1  is  said  to  have  invested  Ciudad  Rodrigo, 
which  must  cripple  Lord  Wellington's  movements  to 
the  South,  but  it  must  be  hoped  not  more  than  this; 
and  he  is  said  to  have  taken  Badajoz  four  days 
sooner  than  he  said,  and  to  have  sent  divisions  oft 
to  Ciudad  Rodrigo  two  days  after  its  fall.  I  hope 
there  may  be  some  news  to  send  you  before  the 
letter  goes. 


Ministers  were  beat  last  night  on  Mr.  Banks' 
motion  on  sinecure  places.  To-night  is  Lord  Hol- 
land's motion  about  America,  Mr.  Henry's  business, 
and  I  understand  that  Lord  Liverpool  will  deny  it, 
though  they  won't  give  up  the  correspondence. 
Pray  Heaven  that  they  may  be  able  to  do  so,  and 
that  dear  England  may  remain  with  unblemished 
honor.  The  accounts  from  Spain  seem  good  (the 
French  retired  from  Almeida  and  C.  Rodrigo),  and 
doubly  good,  in  that  the  Portuguese  troops  have 
learnt  to  fight  well,  even  when  not  in  the  presence 
of  the  hero  Wellington.  The  accounts  of  riots  in 
France  are  confirmed,  I  am  told,  and  "  Bread, 
Peace,  or  the  head  of  the  Tyrant"  was  stuck  upon 
the  Tuilleries.  .  .  .  Things  are  in  an  uncom- 
fortable state,  for  though  the  riots  are  amongst  the 
manufacturers,  there  is  no  doubt  but  that  there  are 
ill-intentioned  people  stirring  them  up,  and  that  there 
is  a  good  deal  of  alarm,  all  which  would  be  increased 
by  the  sort  of  unpopularity  attending  the  Royal 
family  from  the  want  of  state  and  show  which  all 

1  Marmont — Napoleon's  marshal  (1774-1852). 


communities  like,  and  which  the  people  think  their 
due.  I  trust,  however,  that  the  good  sense  of  the 
English,  and  the  example  of  the  French  will  keep  all 
things  quiet.  ...  I  told  Adair  how  much  you 
liked  his  character,  and  how  much  Randolph  liked  it, 
and  he  came  to  me  this  morning  to  thank  me,  and 
he  expressed  how  flattered  he  was. 

Elizabeth,  Duchess  of  Devonshire, 

To  Augustus  Foster. 

London,  May  10,  1812. 
.  .  .  You  will  see  with  pleasure  that  F.  Pon- 
sonby  has  distinguished  himself,  and  I  think  you 
must  be  proud  of  your  Country's  Victories,  and 
heroick  valour.  What  say  the  Americans  to  it.  .  .  . 
With  all  this  I  fear  we  have  a  weak  administration 
at  home,  and  a  systematized  spirit  of  riot  difficult  to 
subdue.  Every  body  regrets  Lord  Wellesley.  I 
sent  you  by  the  last  messenger  Lord  Byron's  beauti- 
full  poem.  The  parts  about  Greece  will  be  doubly 
interesting  to  you:  he  continues  to  be  the  great 
attraction  at  all  parties  and  suppers.  The  ladies,  I 
hear,  spoil  him,  and  the  gentlemen  are  jealous  of 
him.  He  is  going  back  to  Naxos,  and  then  the 
husbands  may  sleep  in  peace.  I  should  not  be  sur- 
prized if  Caro  William  were  to  go  with  him,  she  is  so 
wild  and  imprudent.  • 

May  II. 

I  am  sorry  to  have  to  add  to  my  parcel  the  horrid 
news  that  Perceval1  was  just  now  shot  dead  in  the 

1  Perceval— The  Prime  Minister. 


lobby  of  the  House  of  Commons.  I  never  felt  more 
horror  at  any  thing.  A  murder  of  that  kind  has  not 
happened  in  England  since  Queen  Anne's  time,  and 
in  the  midst  of  the  horror  and  concern  for  the  par- 
ticular event,  one  can't  help  dreading  its  opening  a 
new  epoch  in  the  English  character.  I  trust  not, 
and  it  really  is  most  horrid.  Think  of  his  poor  wife 
and  children.  If  I  hear  more  I  will  add  it  to  this. 
Your  brother  told  me  when  I  came  home  from 
a  quiet,  melancholy  walk.  He  had  been  walking 
with  Colonel  Foster.  They  saw  several  people 
riding  full  speed  towards  the  House,  and  soon  after, 
this,  which  they  thought  idle  rumour,  was  confirmed. 

Augustus  Foster 

To  Elizabeth,  Duchess  of  Devonshire. 

Washington,  May  26,  18 12. 

I  see  you  don't  like  Annabella1  much.  She  is  cer- 
tainly rather  too  cold  in  her  manners,  and  gives  to 
reason  too  much  empire  over  her  mind,  but  she  has 
good  eyes,  is  fair,  has  right  ideas,  and  sense,  and 
mildness.  I  don't  think  she  will  ever  be  able  to  love 
very  warmly;  but  yet  I  believe  she  thinks  she  ought 
to  wait  till  the  spirit  moves  her,  and  the  spirit  per- 
haps may  never  come,  as  I  fancy  happens  to  many 
of  her  temperament.  I  long  most  anxiously  to  get 
back  to  settle  that  point,  good  or  bad.  No  Minister 
ever  had  such  temptations  to  break  up  a  negotiation. 
I  would  give  the  world  to  go  back  for  six  months, 

1  Annabella — Miss  Milbanke. 


and  am  miserable  that  I  can't  do  so,  but  I  can't 
leave  these  members  to  themselves  two  days  to- 

From  General  Moreau 

To  Augustus  Foster,  Esq.,  then  at  Mentone. 

New  York,  zUh  Mai,  1812. 

Monsieur, — J'ai  recu  la  lettre  que  vous  m'avez 
fait  l'honneur  de  m'ecrire  &  les  passeports  que  vous 
avez  eu  la  Complaisance  de  m'envoyer.  Made- 
Moreau  vous  prie  de  vouloir  bien  agreer  tous  ses 
Remercimens.  Messres  le  Roy  &  Rayard  Croyent 
que  le  navire  le  powhatan  allant  sur  son  Lest  & 
muni  de  votre  recommendation  n'est  pas  susceptible 
d'etre  pris:  si  cependant  ces  Mess  se  ravisent  & 
desirent  que  le  navire  y  soit  mentionne  J'aurai 
l'honneur  de  vous  en  faire  part. 

Je  suis  tres  reconnoisant  des  Reproches  que  vous 
me  faites  d'avoir  Reste  si  peu  de  terns  a  Washington, 
mais  que  pouvait  y  faire  un  ministere  entre  les  decres 
de  Milan  &  de  Berlin,  les  ordres  en  Conseil,  L'acte 
de  non  importation,  L'ambargo  &  productions 
bizarres,  dont  tout  le  monde  parle,  que  peu  de 
personne  comprennent  &  sur  lesquelles  on  ne 
s'entendra  jamais,  &  puis  j'etais  presse  de  jouir  de 
l'importance  que  donne  le  Retour  de  la  Capitale, 
Aurons  nous  la  guerre  me  demandoit  on  de  toute 
part?  Je  repondois  que  n'ayant  vu  que  des  gens 
tres  tranquilles,  tres  pacifiques,  &  tres  dloignes  les 
uns  des  autres  (vous  savez  que  les  maisons  ne  se 
touchent    pas)    on    devoit   presumer   qu'on    ne    se 


battroit  pas:  que  Cependant,  ayant  entendu  tout  le 
monde  Se  plaindre  de  l'ennui,  ce  qui  a  la  longue 
donne  de  l'humeur,  it  etoit  possible  qu'on  fink  par  se 
facher  tout  de  bon. 

Avec  cette  maniere  de  repondre  on  se  trompe 
rarement,  on  n'ote  L'esperance  a  personne,  &  on 
acquiere  des  droits  a  devenir  prophete. 

Je  prie  v.  ex.  d'agreer  l'assurance  des  sentimens 
de  la  consideration  la  plus  distingues  avec  lesquels 
je  suis.  Monsieur,  Votre  tres  humble  and  tres 
obeissant  serviteur,  V.   Moreau. 

Elizabeth,  Duchess  of  Devonshire, 

To  Augustus  Foster. 

May  28,  181 2. 

.  .  .  The  Prince  Regent  was  there,  and  in 
pretty  good  spirits,  the  crowd  and  heat  enormous; — 
but  now  your  eyes  have  wandered  over  this  for  a 
name  more  interesting.  Well,  Annabella  was  there ; 
Annabella  looked  well;  Annabella  and  I  got  more 
acquainted  than  I  have  done  yet.  Caroline  called 
her  to  sit  by  her.  I  made  room,  and  we  all  three 
sat  on  a  couch.  I  liked  her  countenance  and  man- 
ners. Old  twaddle  Ralph1  and  I  are  all  cordiality, 
and  Lady  Milbanke  called  her  daughter  to  speak  to 
me,  who  said,  "  I  had  the  honor  of  talking  to  the 
Duchess  " — which  we  had  in  the  further  room.  She 
did  not  ask  me  about  you,  which  I  was  glad  of;  in- 
difference would  have  made  her  inquire  out  of  civility; 
the  father  did. 

1  Ralph— Sir  Ralph  Milbanke,  Bart.,  d.  1825, 


June  i. 

The  accounts  have  confirmed  the  Jersey  telegraph 
account.  Soult1  is  defeated  with  immense  loss.  .  .  . 
Lady  Milbanke  came  up  to  me  last  night  at  Mrs. 
Siddons',  and  inquired  most  kindly  about  you — said 
she  should  hear  from  you  as  soon  as  you  arrived, 
and  said  that  if  you  could  adjust  things  in  America 
you  would  come  home  to  honor  and  distinction,  and 
how  delightful  that  would  be.  The  girl  still  never 
names  you  to  me — tant  mieux. 

Elizabeth,  Duchess  of  Devonshire, 

To  Augustus  Foster. 

June  2,  1812. 

I  wrote  to  you  about  a  fortnight  ago,  just  after 
poor  Mr.  Perceval's  horrid  assassination,  and  we 
have  continued  since  that  without  an  administration. 
Lord  Liverpool  was  named  first  Lord  of  the  Treasury, 
but  not  kissed  hands,  and  Mr.  Wortley's  motion 
obliged  them  to  resign.  The  Regent  then  sent  to 
Lord  Wellesley  to  form  or  propose  a  plan  for  a  new 
administration,  and  Lord  Wellesley  brought  about  a 
reconciliation  between  the  Regent  and  Lord  Moira. 
Both  these  Peers  have  tried  to  make  arrangements 
for  opposition  to  come  in,  but  the  Prince  could  not 
be  prevailed  on  to  admit  them.  Down  to  the  30th 
nothing  was  done.  The  Prince  saw  all  parties,  ex- 
cept Grey  and  Grenville,  but  nothing  could  be  fixed 
on.     The  ex-Ministers,   except   Lord   Melville,  de- 

1  Soult— (1765-1851). 


clare  that  they  won't  serve  with  Lord  Wellesley. 
At  last,  yesterday,  Canning  announced  in  the  House 
that  Lord  Wellesley  had  the  Prince's  authority  to 
proceed  to  the  forming  of  a  new  administration,  and 
he  did  submit  a  paper  to  them.  The  Prince  ex- 
pressed a  wish  to  have  Moira,  Erskine,  and  Ellen- 
borough  in  the  Cabinet;  they  were  (Grey  and  Gren- 
ville)  to  name  the  others  of  their  party,  making  five 
opposition  Cabinet  Ministers  if  the  number  was  1 2, 
and  six  if  it  was  13 — Lord  Wellesley,  of  course,  to 
name  the  others.  Well,  all  appeared  smooth  and 
promising  when,  behold!  opposition  find  out  that  it 
is  unconstitutional  for  the  Sovereign  to  name  any  of 
the  Ministers  except  the  first  Lord  who  is  to  form  it; 
and  so  they  refuse.  My  brother  says  that  the  talk 
of  the  streets  was  to  blame  the  opposition;  to  say 
that  the  Sovereign  has  a  right  to  name  his  Ministers, 
and  that  the  opposition  have  refused  on  grounds  of 
personal  ambition.  This  is  a  most  provoking  de- 
nouement. I  will  hope  that  something  may  yet  be 
done,  but  it  is  a  faint  hope;  however,  I  will  add 
to-morrow  what  I  hear;  it  must,  I  think,  be  decided 
one  way  or  another.  The  Liverpools  have  been 
very  much  hurt  with  Wortley,  but  he  went  to  him 
first,  and  did  it  in  a  feeling  and  gentlemanlike  manner. 
The  truth  is,  the  administration  have  been  weak  to  a 
criminal  degree. 

Lady  Erne  was  so  fretted  and  vexed  that  she  went 
back  to  Hampton  Court.  Lady  Hervey  is  with  me, 
cheerful  and  good-humoured  as  she  always  is.  Caro- 
line W.  Lamb  is  quietly,  thank  heaven!  at  Brocket 
with  William  and  all  of  them.     My  Caroline  is  more 



than  ever  liked  and  admired — pur  non  e  felice.  Your 
Annabella  is  a  mystery;  liking,  not  liking;  generous 
minded,  yet  afraid  of  poverty;  there  is  no  making 
her  out.  I  hope  you  don't  make  yourself  unhappy 
about  her;  she  is  really  an  icicle.  Lady  Milbanke 
will  make  Sir  Ralph  stand  the  next  election,  which, 
as  it  will  be  a  contested  one,  will  ruin  him,  and  he  is 
with  one  foot  in  the  grave;  so  it  is  doubly  ill-judged. 
The  rest  of  your  friends  are  well,  and  I  am  better, 
and  only  wondering  that  I  live. 

General  Moreau 

To  Augustus  Foster. 

New  York,  le  7  juin,  1812. 

Monsieur, — J'ai  recu  la  lettre  que  vous  m'avez  fait 
l'honneur  de  m'ecrire  le  2  de  ce  mois  celle  du  3 
m'avoit  soulage  d'un  fardeau.  Bien  pesant  puisque 
comme  vous  l'observez  vous  m£me  ma  femme  se 
trouvoit  hors  de  grans  ambaras  et  eviter  un  detour 
et  des  retards  d'au  moins  40  jours. 

Votre  derniere  m'a  replonge  dans  des  inquietudes 
d'autant  plus  grandes  que  la  sante  de  Madame  Moreau 
epuisee  par  une  fatigue  consecutive  de  six  jours — 
Employes  a  faire  en  hatte  paquets  la  met  presque 
dans  l'impossibilite  de  profiter  du  paquebot  qui  sure- 
ment  fera  voile  cette  semaine — au  moins  ses  medecins 
le  pensent  ainsi,  Jugez  comme  elle  se  trouvoit  soulagee 
par  l'espoir  d'aller  sur  le  powhatan. 

J'ai  vu  Messres  le  Roy  and  Rayard;  ils  n'ont 
jamais  pense  a.  porter  une  Cargaison  sous  la  pro- 


tection  de  votre  recommendation,  et  m'ont  assure 
que  quelque  soit  la  Speculation  du  retour  du  navire 
ils  n'avoient  jamais  pense  a  en  profiter — il  me  semble 
au  reste  que  pour  L'empecher  vous  pouvez  specifier 
que  le  navire  doit  etre  sur  son  Lest  et  n'avoir  que 
des  passagers,  marchandise  dont  la  Capture  ne  l'em- 
barassent  guerres. 

Au  reste  si  le  vaisseau  etoit  conduit  en  Angleterre 
elle  n'auroit  pour  se  rendre  en  france  que  la  meme 
peine  qu'elle  auroit  en  y  allant  par  le  paquebot.  Une 
circonstance  dont  je  n'ai  pu  vous  faire  part  dans  ma 
lettre  de  Samedi,  C'est  que  quelque  personnes  de 
New  York  avoient  Recu  des  lettres  de  Washington 
ou  on  leur  Mentionnoit  Le  depart  du  powhatan  avec 
des  depeches  du  gouvernement  americain,  un  passe- 
port  de  vous  et  que  vous  m'en  aviez  donne  avis. 

Je  desirerois  Bien  que  Mr.  Monroe  persistat  dans 
cette  opinion,  mais  s'il  y  a  guerre  tous  les  Beaux 
Reves  peuvent  etre  detruites,  hier  on  n'y  Croyoit 
pas,  aujourd'hui  on  la  craint;  C'est  comme  la  fievre 
intermittente,  au  reste  on  pourrait  dire  a  ces  Mess,  il 
y  a  justement  20  ans  que  quelques  Scerveles  de 
L'assemblee  de  france  (1792)  declarerent  la  guerre  a 
l'autriche  et  a  la  prusse,  elle  dure  encore! 

J'attens  avec  Bien  de  l'impatience  une  reponse  a 
la  lettre  que  j'eus  l'honneur  de  vous  ecrire  le  6,  elle 
decidera  de  nos  esperances,  Je  presume  que  Mr. 
Monroe  me  repondra  aussi. 

Dans  le  cas  ou  ma  fern  me  ne  pourroit  partir  ni  par 
le  powhatan  ni  par  le  paquebot,  croyez  vous  qu'il  en 
viendra  un  autre,  ou  Supposez  vous  qu'il  y  aura 
quelqu'autre    occasion    pour    l'Angleterre    au    com- 

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mencement  du  mois  prochain;  la  guerre  pourroit  elle 
y  apporter  quelqu'  obstacle. — Monsieur,  votre  tres 
humble  and  tres  obeissant  Serviteur, 

V.   Moreau. 

Elizabeth,  Duchess  of  Devonshire, 

To  Augustus  Foster. 

July  4,  1812. 

On  the  8th  I  go  to  Portland  Place.  We  are  very- 
good  friends,  and  la  madre1  is  anxious  about  you. 
Annabella  is  silent  still.  I  hear  of  no  one  likely  to 
be  favoured  by  her,  so  I  shall  still  live  in  hope  for 

Augustus  Foster 

To  Elisabeth,  Duchess  of  Devonshire. 

Copenhagen,  August  10,  1812. 
.  .  .  Never  was  Minister's  arrival  so  grateful 
to  a  people  as  mine  here.  The  Queen  said  such 
things  to  me  as  proved  how  delighted  they  are.  For- 
tunately I  had  to  use  my  own  discretion  in  a  great 
measure,  and  had  to  use  all  the  grace  of  conferring 
the  greatest  obligation  on  a  Country  that  it  can 
receive.  I  was  first  in  recognizing  the  state  of  peace 
here,  and  the  Queen  said  to-day  my  coming  was  the 
first  moment  of  happiness  they  have  known  for  a 
long  time.     .     .     . 

1  La  madre — Lady  Milbanke,  d.  1822. 

FROM   THE   HON.   MRS.   GEORGE   LAMB.  373 

The  Honble.  Mrs.  George  Lamb 

To  Augustus  Foster. 

Chiswick,  August  31. 

My  dear  Augustus, — I  wrote  to  you  last  at  a  most 
melancholy  moment,  and  you  will  feel  anxious,  I  am 
sure,  to  hear  from  us  again,  and  particularly  to  know 
how  your  dear  mother  is.  We  have  now  been  at 
Chiswick  near  a  month,  and  I  think  the  fresh  air  and 
quiet  of  this  place  has  done  her  good,  and  though, 
of  course,  after  all  she  has  gone  through,  her  re- 
covery must  be  slow,  yet  it  is  a  great  deal  to  have 
been  free  from  fever  and  regaining  strength.  Her 
spirits  are  very  bad,  and.  here  there  are  a  thousand 
recollections  which,  though  they  endear  the  place  to 
us  all,  yet  keep  up  the  dreadful  recollection  that 
what  made  us  once  so  happy  is  gone  for  ever.  It 
gave  us  the  greatest  pleasure  to  hear  that  ministers 
are  very  much  pleased  with  your  dispatches:  the 
only  comfort  she  can  now  receive  is  from  the  affec- 
tion of  those  that  are  left  to  her,  and  we  must  exert 
ourselves  to  the  utmost  for  her. 

I  am  glad  to  hear  that  you  have  written  to  Lady 
Milbanke.  I  think  it  ought  to  keep  up  the  interest 
which  she  certainly  feels  for  you.  I  saw  a  good  deal 
of  Annabella  this  year,  and  liked  her  very  much 
indeed.  At  first  she  constantly  enquired  after  you, 
but  one  day  I  talked  of  you  as  knowing  of  your 
attachment  to  her,  and  she  was  much  embarrassed, 
and  has  never  mentioned  you  since.  Another  thing 
which  speaks  very  well  for  you  is  that  Sir  Ralph, 


whose  judgment  is,  I  believe,  entirely  formed  upon 
that  of  the  female  part  of  his  family,  praises  you,  I 
hear,  beyond  any  thing.  I  should  think  it  wrong, 
my  dear  Augustus,  to  make  you  too  sanguine  by 
telling  you  these  things,  but  that  I  think  that  at  such 
distance  and  parted  for  such  a  length  of  time  it 
would  be  cruel  not  to  give  you  all  the  comfort  I 
can.  Besides,  I  feel  great  horror  at  the  possibility 
of  an  American  Mrs.  Foster.  God  bless  you,  dear 
Augustus.  I  hope  we  shall  soon  have  you  amongst 
us  again.     Yours  very  aff.,  C.  J.  Lamb. 



The  sacred  song  that  on  my  ear 

Yet  vibrates  from  that  voice  of  thine, 
I  heard  before  from  one  so  dear, 

Tis  strange  it  still  appears  divine. 
But  oh!  so  sweet  that  look  and  tone 

To  her  and  thee  alike  is  given ; 
It  seemed  as  if  for  me  alone 

That  both  had  been  recalled  from  Heaven. 
And  though  I  never  can  redeem 

The  vision  thus  endeared  to  me, 
I  scarcely  can  regret  my  dream 

When  realized  again  by  thee. 


Elizabeth,  Duchess  of  Devonshire, 

To  Augustus  Foster. 

1812.  (?) 
.  .  .  I  always  say  that  you  don't  tell  me  what 
is  going  on,  but  I  make  it  a  rule  not  to  ask  you.  I 
am  most  anxious  for  it  if  it  is  possible  without  a 
sacrifice  of  national  honor.  It  does  seem  as  if  it 
were  more  for  the  interest  of  America  to  be  friends 
with  us,  who  are  masters  of  the  sea,  than  with 
France,  who  has  no  fleet.  Sweden  seems  deter- 
mined to  be  independent.  It  is  said  Russia  is  going 
to  war,  and  Armfeldt  to  have  a  command,  but  Bona- 
parte means,  they  say,  to  command  in  person,  and  if 
so,  the  odds  are  in  his  favor.  Meanwhile  dear  Spain 
maintains  the  conflict,  and  perhaps  may  profit  of  the 
war  between  Russia  and  France. 

The  subject  of  conversation,  of  curiosity,  of  en- 
thusiasm almost,  one  might  say,  of  the  moment  is 
not  Spain  or  Portugal,  Warriors  or  Patriots,  but  Lord 
Byron!  You  probably  read  the  Edinburgh  Review's 
criticism  of  his  "Minor  Poems",  published  in  1808, 
not  merely  severe,  but  flippant.  They  prophesied 
and  entreated  never  to  hear  more  as  a  Poet  of  this 
young  Lord.  On  this,  stung  to  the  quick,  he 
published,  without  a  name,  his  "  English  Bards  and 
Scotch  Reviewers  ".  The  prodigious  success  of  this 
made  him  publish  a  second  edition  with  his  name 
and  additional  lines  and  notes,  and,  going  abroad, 
said  that  on  his  return  he  would  answer  to  any  who 
called  on  him.  He  returned  sorry  for  the  severity 
of  some  of  his  lines,  and  with  a  new  poem,  "  Childe 


Harold",  which  he  published.  This  poem  is  on 
every  table,  and  himself  courted,  visited,  flattered, 
and  praised  whenever  he  appears.  He  has  a  pale, 
sickly,  but  handsome  countenance,  a  bad  figure, 
animated  and  amusing  conversation,  and,  in  short, 
he  is  really  the  only  topic  almost  of  every  conversa- 
tion— the  men  jealous  of  him,  the  women  of  each 
other.  I  have  my  accounts  from  Caroline,  Caro 
William,  and  Lady  Bessborough — all  agree  in  their 
accounts.  The  misery  is  that  his  severest  lines  were 
on  Lord  Carlisle,  and  therefore  Lord  Morpeth  has 
not  yet  and  can't  bear  to  meet  him.  But  Lord 
Byron  has  bought  up  all  the  third  edition,  which  is  a 
great  sacrifice  to  have  made,  and  ought  to  conciliate 
everybody.     .     .     . 

General  Moreait 

To  his  Wife. 

Laun,  30  aout,  1813. 

Ma  chere  amie, — A  la  bataille  de  Dresde  il  y  a 
trois  jours  j'ai  eu  les  deux  jambes  emportes  d'un 
boulet  de  canon. 

Ce  coquin  de  Bonaparte  est  toujours  heureux. 
On  m'a  fait  l'emputation  aussi  bien  que  possible 
quoique  l'armde  ait  foit  un  mouvement  retrograde 
ce  n'est  nullement  par  revers  mais  par  decousu,  et 
pour  se  rapprocher  du  Gal  Blucher  excuse  mon 
griffonage  je  t'aime  et  t'embrasse  de  tout  mon  coeur 
je  charge  Rapatel  de  finir.  V.  M. 


This  copy  of  Gen.  Moreau's  letter  to  his  wife  was 
given  to  me  by  her. 

E.  Devonshire.     Richmond,  1813. 

Madam  Moreau  gave  me  this  copy  of  General 
Moreau's  letter  to  his  wife.  I  saw  the  original  at 
her  house.  E.  D. 

Alexander  I.,  Emperor  of  Russia, 

To  Madame  Moreatt. 

Madame, — Lorsque  l'affreux  malheur  qui  atteignit 
a  mes  cotes  le  general  Moreau  me  priva  des  lu- 
mieres  et  de  l'experience  de  ce  grand  homme  je 
nourissois  l'espoir  qu'a  force  de  soins  on  parviendroit 
a  le  conserver  a  sa  famille  et  a  mon  amitie — la  provi- 
dence en  a  dispose  autrement — il  est  mort  comme  il 
a  vecu  dans  la  pleine  energie  d'un  ame  fort  et 
constant — il  n'est  qu'un  remede  aux  grandes  peines 
de  la  vie  celui  de  les  voir  partager — en  Russie 
Madame  vous  trouverez  partout  ce  sentiment  et 
s'il  vous  convient  je  rechercherai  tous  les  moyens 
d'embellir  l'existence  d'une  personne  dont  je  me  fais 
un  devoir  sacre  d'etre  le  consolateur  et  l'appui.  Je 
vous  prie  d'y  compter  irrevocablement  de  ne  me 
laisser  ignorer  aucune  circonstance  ou  je  pourrai 
vous  etre  de  quelqu'  utilite  et  de  m'ecrire  toujours 
directement  —  prevenir  vos  desirs  sera  une  jouis- 
sance  pour  moi — l'amitie  que  j'avois  voue  a  votre 
epoux  va  au  dela  du  tombeau  et  je  n'ai  pas  d'autre 
moyen  de  m'acquitter  du  moins  en  partie  envers  lui 
que  parceque  je  serai  en  meme  de  faire  pour  assurer 


le  bien  6tre  de  sa  famille — recevez  Madame  dans  ces 
tristes  et  cruelles  circonstances  les  t^moignages  et 
l'assurance  de  mes  sentiments, 


toplitz  C  C,  ybre,  1813. 

Copy  of  the  Emperor  of  Russia's  letter  to  Mad. 
Moreau.     She  gave  it  to  me.  E.  D. 

Augustus  Foster 

To  Elizabeth,  Duchess  of  Devonshire. 

December  13,  18 13. 

.  .  .  I  dined  at  the  Hollands'  yesterday,  where 
were  the  Cowpers,  Ossulstons,  Abercrombies,  Courte- 
nays,  &c.  Lord  Byron  came  in  the  evening.  Madame 
de  Stael  was  attacked  at  dinner  for  taking  up  so 
much  of  Sir  James  M'Intosh's  time,  and  impeding 
the  progress  of  the  history.  Allen,  in  the  evening, 
maintained  that  she  did  not  understand  many  of  the 
systems  of  the  Germans  she  undertook  to  explain, 
that  she  was  very  confused,  and  he  could  get  no 
further  than  Fichte.  ...  I  went  from  there 
rather  late  to  Madame  de  Stael's,  where  a  few 
remained  till  past  12  discussing  Pitt  and  Fox's 
comparative  merits  with  Tacitus  and  Demosthenes. 
Madame  de  Stael  strenuously  argued  Tacitus  to  be 
superior  to  all  the  rest,  and  Ward  as  strenuously 
put  Pitt  and  Fox  above  Tacitus  and  Demosthenes. 
Madame  de  Stael  said  Burke  shot  above  the  heads 
of  his  auditors,  which  was  agreed  to,  while  Pitt  was 


said  to  have  fired  point  blank.  Madame  de  Stael 
was  indignant  at  an  orator  being  put  above  the 
historian,  and  it  must  be  owned  to  have  been  dis- 
interestedness in  Sir  James  not  to  have  agreed  with 

Augustus  Foster 

To  Elizabeth,  Duchess  of  Devonshire. 

March  31,  18 14. 

Mr.  Dicot  is  come  from  Paris.     .  .     He  has 

much  to  relate  of  the  public  spirit  in  Paris.  He 
came  away  on  the  14th;  he  says  the  National  Guard 
of  Paris  refused,  both  collectively  and  individually,  to 
join  Bonaparte's  army;  that  it  was  proposed  to  eight 
hundred  of  the  officers  in  a  body  one  by  one.  He 
says  they  are  resolved  to  capitulate  if  any  corps  of 
the  Allies  approach  the  gates.  He  laughs  at  the 
attempt  to  fortify  the  town.  It  seems  part  of  the 
Bois  de  Vincennes  and  Boulogne  was  cut  for  chevaux 
de  frise  to  protect  the  town  against  the  Cossacks. 
Bonaparte  has  been  tres  grossier  in  his  language:  he 
told  the  Council  of  State  that  Robespierre  was  the 
only  great  man  produced  by  the  Revolution;  that  he 
knows  not  why  himself  is  detested  so  much,  as  he 
has  not  been  as  yet  assez  malheureux  pour  etre  cruel, 
and  abuses  them  for  their  cry  of  Peace,  Peace. 


Augustus  Foster 

To  Elizabeth,  Duchess  of  Devonshire. 

March  31,  1814. 

.  .  .  I  hear  there  is  a  Royalist  Committee  at 
Paris,  and  that  Talleyrand  communicates  with  them 
through  a  relation.  D'Ellioto  sounds  Augereau,  who 
professed  to  hate  Bonaparte,  but  to  be  for  a  Regency. 
Monni  goes  to  Nanci,  and  Louis  18  waits  the  certain 
account  of  the  rupture  of  negotiations  to  set  off  for 
Bordeaux.  At  Paris  they  shot  people  in  the  Bois  de 
Vincennes  and  filled  the  prisons,  but  now  the  police 
dare  not  act,  for  the  agents  are  known  and  would  be 
put  to  death  immediately.  This  is  very  like  insur- 

Letter  from  the  Countess  of  Liverpool. 

Friday,  April  18,  1 814. 

Moniteurs  are  just  arrived  with  most  excellent 
news.  A  provisional  Government  has  been  formed 
at  Paris,  and  their  first  act  has  been  to  set  aside 
Bonaparte  and  his  family.  Les  Dames  de  la  Halle 
had  waited  on  the  Emperor  Alexander,  and  had 
called  out,  "Vive  les  Bourbons".  God  bless  you. — 
Yrs.,  Louisa  Liverpool. 

Frederick  Foster 

To  Augustus  Foster. 

Paris,  May  1,  1814. 
My  dearest  Augustus, — I  miss  you  sadly.     The 
noise  drove  me  away  from  the  Hotel  de  Bruxelles, 


and  I  am  now  at  the  Hotel  des  Ministres  de  l'Uni- 
versite,  still  more  noisy,  but  in  a  different  way. 
Madame  de  Stael  is  arrived.  I  called  on  her  yester- 
day, and  found  her  in  high  spirits,  surrounded  by  a 
crowd  of  admirers,  and  all  talking,  of  course,  of 
Bonaparte.  They  say  he  took  opium,  but,  the  dose 
having  failed,  he  considers  himself  as  preserved  by 
Destiny  for  great  things  yet;  says  he  was  formed  to 
rule  the  World,  and  as  that  failed,  it  little  signifies 
between  France  and  Elba;  that  France  with  the  old 
limits  could  never  have  done,  the  army  would  not 
have  borne  it.  On  the  24th  March  the  inhabitants 
of  St.  Dizier,  I  think,  came  to  some  of  the  Marshals 
to  know  if  they  were  to  obey  Bonaparte's  order  of 
rising  en  masse.  They  replied,  Oh,  non;  cette  farce 
est  finie.  F.  Th.  F. 

Augustus  Foster 

To  Elizabeth,  Duchess  of  Devonshire. 

Paris,  May  3,  18 14. 

.  .  .  To-day  there  was  a  great  review  of  all  the 
foreign  troops,  from  25,000  to  30,000,  composing  the 
garrison.-  The  Russian  Guards  are  really  magnificent. 
Louis  XVIII.  was  at  a  window  to  see  them  pass. 
The  Emperor  of  Austria  in  the  centre,  with  Alex- 
ander on  his  left  and  Frederick  on  his  right,  passed 
by  me  and  joined  the  King  to-night  to  go  to  Sir 
Charles  Stuart's1  ball  given  to  Alexander.  .  .  . 
The  old  Guards  certainly  looked  very  brisk,  and  it 
is   not  to  be  disguised  that  Bonaparte  is  much  re- 

1  Sir  Charles  Stuart—  British  Ambassador  at  Paris. 


gretted  by  the  troops  of  the  line.  Count  Meister, 
who  used  to  be  so  sanguine,  now  occupies  himself 
with  the  King,  is  in  transports  of  joy,  and  thinks  the 
Bourbons  not  so  extremely  severe;  nevertheless  so 
many  general  officers  are  committed,  and  so  strong 
is  the  feeling  against  Napoleon  in  the  middle  orders, 
that  I  cannot  think  there  is  cause  for  apprehension. 
What  has  surprised  everybody  is  the  conduct  of  the 
Milanese,  for  Eugene  (Beauharnais)1  was  really  be- 
lieved to  have  been  a  favourite  with  them. 

The  ball  was  highly  interesting.  .  .  .  The 
Emperor  Alexander  was  there  in  an  English 
uniform  for  compliment;  he  was  in  stockings  and 
shoes,  a  thing  rare  for  him,  and  yet  he  did  not  wear 
the  Garter,  which  we  were  surprised  at;  he  puts 
the  Garter  round  his  own  Star  zigzag,  which  makes 
us  English  a  little  angry  with  him,  as  considering  it  is 
too  great  a  liberty  thus  to  alter  an  order:  he  was 
observed  to  pay  great  Court  to  La  Marechale  Ney; 
he  danced  with  her  and  spoke  a  great  deal  to  Ney; 
it  is  surmized  that  he  wants  to  get  as  many  Marshals 
as  he  can  into  his  Service;  there  is  not  half  so  much 
fuss  made  with  him  at  an  assembly  as  with  our 
Prince  (the  Prince  Regent);  he  had  scarcely  room 
to  pass,  and  backs  were  very  often  seen  by  him. 
The  Emperor  of  Austria  and  King  of  Prussia  have 
no  fancy  for  balls  it  seems,  but  we  had  the  two  sons 
of  the  King  and  hosts  of  German  Princes,  besides 
Schwartzenberg,  un  gros  de  tres  bonne  physionomie; 

8  Eugene  (Beauharnais)— Son  of  the  Empress  Josephine  by  her  first  husband. 


he  has  great  frankness  of  countenance:  there  was 
also  old  Blucher,1  with  eight  orders,  looking  like  an 
old  Satyr:  he  frequents  a  gambling-house  every 
night  and  wins  money :  he  is  by  no  means  so  much 
esteemed  for  his  military  talents  here  as  he  is  in 
London — indeed  none  of  them  are.  An  English 
officer  who  was  with  the  army  of  Blucher  says  if  he 
was  to  write  his  memoirs  they  would  contain  a 
succession  of  their  blunders.  I  saw  my  old  Weimar 
schoolfellow,  Mounier's  son,  yesterday.  He  was 
made  private  secretary  to  Napoleon,  and  was  em- 
ployed by  him  to  translate  the  English  and  German 
papers,  of  which  the  Courier,  Times,  and  Morning 
Chronicle  were  constantly  received.  He  said  the 
Emperor  treated  him  "  quelquefois  de  Philosophe, 
d'  Anglomane ",  and  was  proceeding  to  give  Sir 
Charles  Stuart,  with  whom  I  went  to  see  him,  some 
interesting  details  when  Berthier2  entered  en  frac. 
.  .  .  Augereau3  himself  gives  the  account  I  wrote 
to  you  in  my  last:  it  was  at  Porte  l'lsere  he  met 
Napoleon,  and  M.  De  Fitzjames  tells  me  an  officer 
who  was  with  Augereau  saw  Bonaparte  take  out  of 
his  pocket  a  copy  of  Augereau's  proclamation  to  his 
soldiers,  and  heard  him  ask,  "  Ah  comment  avez 
vous  pu  dire  ceci  de  moi ",  but  he  heard  nothing 
more.  Augereau  took  Bonaparte  apart;  they  walked 
together  some  time,  and  on  parting  embraced.  The 
soldiers  of  the  Old  Guard  are  very  loud  in  their 
discontent,  and  make  no  secret  of  their  reproaches 

1  Blucher—  Field  Marshal  B.  (1742-1819). 

2  Berthier — Marshal   B.       He   occupied   the   first   place   in   the    confidence  of 
Napoleon,  and  was  with  him  in  all  his  expeditions  (1753-1815). 

3  Augereau — Marshal  A.  (1757-1816). 


of  the  generals  for  having  betrayed  them.  Their 
joy  was  very  considerable,  and  no  doubt  they  feel 
the  conquest  at  Paris,  and  there  have  been  several 
duels  between  them  and  the  foreign  troops.  How- 
ever, they  are  too  few,  and  it  would  be  too  desperate 
for  them  to  attempt  anything.  General  Drouet,1 
who,  like  Bertrand,2  was  brought  up  by  Bonaparte 
and  pushed  into  a  high  situation,  has  accompanied 
him,  but  everybody  says  it  is  "  par  point  d'honneur 
et  par  principe  ",  and  not  from  attachment,  that  they 
accompany  him.  He  bought  the  Bible  at  Lyons,  and 
told  the  bookseller  to  address  it  to  him  as  Empereur 
Napoleon.  .  .  .  Think  of  Lord  Wellington  ar- 
riving yesterday  all  at  once  like  a  great  bomb  just 
before  the  review;  he  was  then  on  a  grey  horse,  en 
chapeau  rond,  and  people  as  soon  as  they  knew  it  were 
almost  estropies  in  hurrying  to  see  him.  The  Em- 
peror Alexander  had  called  on  him  immediately. 
He  looks  worn  and  older  than  Mr.  Pole.  .  .  . 
To-day  we  made  a  party  to  St.  Cloud.  Its  having 
been  the  favourite  residence  of  Bonaparte  was  to  me 
its  greatest  attraction,  though  the  view  is  delightful 
and  the  rooms  pretty  magnificent.  The  concierge 
said  he  kicked  his  servants,  and  the  gardener  thought 
him  amiable,  and  regretted  him.  They  have  taken 
away  Bonaparte's  family  pictures  which  were  there, 
and  which  Gerard  supposes  are  to  be  sent  to  him  in 
lieu  of  the  originals,  as  he  cannot  have  them. 

1  Drouet— Marshal  D.  (1765-1844).  2  Bertrand— General  B.  (1773-1844). 


Augustus  Foster 

To  Elizabeth,  Duchess  of  Devonshire. 

Paris,  May  5,  18 14. 
Napoleon  is  off:  he  embarked  at  Frejus:  he  has 
Elba  in  soverainete:  he  was  obliged  to  put  on  a 
white  cockade  near  Avignon;  to  ride  and  to  pass  as 
Lord  Burghersh  or  Colonel  Cambell,  and  even  to  cry 
Louis  18.  Lord  Wellington  came  yesterday  before 
the  review,  where  he  was  in  plain  clothes;  crowds 
pressed  to  see  him.  .  .  .  All  the  world  was  at 
Stewart's  ball  last  night,  and  Alexander  danced  with 
Madame  Ney.  People  think  he  wants  to  get  as 
many  Marshals  as  he  can  into  his  service. 

Augustus  Foster 

To  Elizabeth,  Duchess  of  Devonshire. 

Paris,  May  7,  1814. 

Paris,  May  7,  18 14.  .  .  .  We  are  just  come 
from  being  presented  to  the  King  of  Prussia.  The 
Duke  of  Wellington  was  there  in  the  Blue  Ribbon. 
Yesterday  the  messenger  arrived  with  the  Gazette, 
and  in  time  for  him  to  be  presented  as  Duke  to  the 
Emperor  of  Austria,  who  invested  him  with  the 
Grand  Order  of  Maria  Theresa,  which  he  wore  at 
the  opera.  He  was  loudly  applauded;  hats  taken 
off;  all  stood  up  and  hurrahed.  The  applause  was 
even  greater  than  that  given  to  the  Duke  of  Berri, 
who  had  come  into  the  Royal  box,  and  who  was 
repeatedly  obliged  to  bow  during  the  evening,  the 


piece  given — "  Colenetti  " — having  many  allusions  to 
the  Bourbons.  .  .  .  Yesterday  we  went  to  St. 
Cloud.  The  Concierge  says  there  is  no  servant  with 
Bonaparte  but  Ali,  a  Mamelouk,  who  had  been  sent 
away  through  the  jealousy  of  Rustan,  and  whom 
Napoleon  is  too  happy  now  to  have.  He  can  shave 
himself,  fortunately.  I  suppose  the  account  of  his 
journey  will  be  in  all  the  papers.  He  cried  a  good 
deal,  I  hear;  but  how  flattering  to  us  his  confidence 
in  us.  He  was  so  taken  up  with  saving  himself  and 
baggage  he  did  not  seem  to  pay  attention  to  the 
circumstance  of  embarking  at  Frejus,  which  took 
place  there  as  more  convenient  than  St.  Trogues. 
At  St.  Cloud  the  gardener  seemed  to  regret  him, 
and  described  him  as  walking  very  amicably  with  the 
Empress  in  an  avenue  every  morning,  when  they 
would  embrace  and  separate.  An  Austrian  who  was 
on  guard  there  expressed  surprise  at  the  Empress 
loving  him  as  she  did.  He  said  all  the  Austrian  and 
Russian  armies  were  firmly  convinced  the  child  was 
not  his  son.  We  see  very  few  of  the  French,  and 
at  the  opera  there  were  not  ten  ladies  to  a  hundred 

Elizabeth^  Duchess  of  Devonshire, 

To  Augustus  Foster. 

May  8,  1814. 

.  .  I  did  not  suspect  Bonaparte  to  have  been 
reduced  to  ride  for  his  life,  and  to  pass  for  an  Eng- 
lishman   to  save  himself,   and  cry  vive    Louis   18! 


What  a  lesson  for  ill  weaned  ambition!  I  am  de- 
lighted that  the  ceremony  of  the  3rd  was  so  fine,  and 
the  feeling  so  general  for  the  King.  We  must  ex- 
pect some  sadness  amongst  the  troops,  who,  accus- 
tomed for  so  long  to  war  and  plunder,  almost  dread 
a  state  of  quiet.     .     .     . 

Augustus  Foster 

To  Elizabeth,  Duchess  of  Devonshire. 

Paris,  May  8,  1814. 

May  8. — We  went  to  Gerard's  to-day.  He  is  the 
last  who  made  a  picture  of  Napoleon,  and  it  bears 
the  mark  of  the  Russian  and  Spanish  campaigns. 
There  is  a  savage  ferocity  in  the  countenance  that  is 
quite  disgusting.  I  was  much  pleased  at  Gerard's 
account  of  Drouet,  who  was  a  man  hardly  ever  seen 
at  Court,  but,  having  been  advanced  by  Napoleon, 
has  thought  it  dishonourable  to  quit  him.  He  even 
told  him  that,  having  a  few  thousand  livres  of  his 
own,  he  should  not  be  a  burden  upon  him,  but  pay 
his  own  expenses.  What  a  contrast  to  his  own 
family!  Pauline1  having  refused  to  follow  him,  and 
even  his  mother  not  coming  forward  to  comfort  him. 
She  was  a  most  avaricious  old  jade,  Gerard  says, 
that  was  always  putting  by,  as  she  thought  things 
would  not  last.  Gerard  says  the  Queen  of  Naples  is 
the  best  of  the  sisters,  and  Eliza  the  most  like  him. 
His  face  was  covered  with  tears  on  his  journey  at 
one  place,  and  the  next  day  he  talked  of  the  Powers 

1  Pauline — Sister  of  Napoleon,  married  first  to  General  Leclerc,  and  secondly  to 
Prince  C.  Borghese  (1780-1825). 


of  Europe  as  if  he  was  at  the  Tuileries.  ...  I 
find  Bernadotte1  had  a  great  party  here,  as  had  Maria 
Louisa,2  and  as  the  former  missed  stays  (excuse  a  sea 
term)  the  latter  would  have  had  his  men  had  she 
stayed  here.  I  saw  Madame  De  Coigny  to-day, 
who  thought  so  too.  ...  I  saw  Weissenberg 
at  Castlereagh's  last  night.  He  says  Bonaparte  did 
tell  him  he  should  have  fared  better  had  he  married 
a  Russian,  and  thinks  had  Maria  Louisa  stayed  at 
Paris  she  would  have  much  embarrassed  him.  Bona- 
parte had  commissioned  Weissenberg  to  abdicate  for 
him  in  favour  of  his  son.  Madame  De  Coigny  and 
another  lady  I  saw  at  her  house  think  there  is  no 
doubt  she  would  be  Regent  had  she  stayed.  Through- 
out the  Austrian  and  Russian  army  it  is  believed  the 
King  of  Rome  is  not  his  son,  but  Weissenberg  de- 
clares he  is  very  like  him,  and  it  is  "malheureusement 
trop  vrai ". 

Augustus  Foster 

To  Elizabeth,  Duchess  of  Devonshire. 

June,  1 8 14. 

.  .  .  I  am  sure  you  must  have  been  sorry  for 
poor  Josephine's  death.3  It  seems  to  have  been 
very  sudden,  and  I  dare  say  will  afflict  Napoleon  if 
he  ever  had  any  feeling.  They  say  he  is  very  busy 
arranging  his  Court.  I  suppose  he  will  actually  leave 
no  stone  unturned  in  his  whole  island.     .     .     . 

1  Bernadotte— Marshal  B.,  afterwards  King  of  Sweden  (1764-1844). 

2  Marie  Louise— Second  wife  of  Napoleon  (1791-1847). 
'Josephine's  death— She  died  29th  May,  1814. 


Augustus  Foster 

To  Elizabeth,  Duchess  of  Devonshire. 

[Fragment  of  a  letter  written  from  Paris  in  1814.] 

Mr.  saw  Napoleon  often  after  the  retreat 

from  Leipzig,  and  says  he  was  not  changed  in 
manner,  as  could  be  perceived,  except  that  he  took 
larger  doses  of  snuff  than  was  usual,  and  in  a  more 
hurried  manner;  and  when  the  Legislative  Body- 
met  he  hurried  across  the  hall  to  his  throne  and 
back  again  in  rather  a  precipitate  manner.  You 
know  Captain  Usher  kept  a  regular  journal  while  on 
board;  it  must  be  very  curious:  a  general  Montoro 
and  family  have  been  to  see  Elba :  they  saw  Napoleon, 
who  invited  them  to  return  in  a  few  hours,  and  they 
would  find  him  surrounded  by  his  Court.  In  effect, 
he  had  a  little  theatre  fitted  up  for  the  mock  assem- 
blage of  his  Elba  courtiers.  Lord  Liverpool  says 
nothing  surprizes  him  but  this  mania  of  being  sover- 
eign in  little;  to  me,  however,  it  appears  reconcilable 
to  the  general  feature  of  his  character,  namely,  con- 
tempt of  the  whole  human  race,  whom  he  uses  as 
the  servile  instruments  of  his  power,  or  of  his 
amusements.  I  wish  you  could  see  my  schoolfellow, 
Le  Mounier,  who  was  his  private  secretary  for  six 

Augustus  Foster 

To  Elizabeth,  Duchess  of  Devonshire. 

Bernadotte  is  quite  fallen  with  every  body.     One 
half  Paris  seems  to  blame  his  conduct  to  Bonaparte, 


and  the  other  his  slowness.  He  had  it  in  his  power 
to  act  a  magnificent  part,  and  he  has  ruined  himself 
by  too  nice  calculations:  however,  Alexander  will 
still  help  him  in  Norway.  He  stands  as  high  as  it 
is  possible  for  man;  every  body  praises  him.  The 
Parisians,  however,  are  not  yet  quite  rid  of  their 
fears  for  the  Museum;  he  was  observed  to  be  noting 
several  articles  a  few  days  ago  which  has  excited 
alarm.  Madame  de  Stael  called  here  yesterday, 
and  was  full  of  contempt  for  the  French  character 
and  of  blame  of  Bernadotte.  There  is  a  great  sore- 
ness at  the  having  a  foreign  garrison  in  Paris.  One 
meets  with  all  colours  of  foreign  uniforms  galloping 
in  every  direction,  and  Germans  and  Russians  stand- 
ing sentinels  in  almost  every  street.  The  generals 
and  Ministers  are  quartered  upon  French  houses. 
Castlereagh  was  put  into  that  of  the  Ministre  du 
tresor  publique,  Cathcart1  into  Berthier's  at  first, 
afterwards  into  Junot's,2Lord  Aberdeen  intoArrighi's.3 
The  latter's  Aide  de  Camp  swore  at  first  he  should 
not  come  in,  but  Aberdeen  very  spiritedly  threatened 
to  send  a  party  of  Cossacks  to  bivouack  in  his  yard; 
then  they  surrendered,  though  he  carried  away  every 
article  of  furniture  till  he  found  Aberdeen  was  a 
quiet  gentlemanlike  man,  and  then  he  sent  a  few 
articles  of  furniture,  and  came  back  to  lodge  in  the 
second  story  himself.  The  foreign  troops  are  going 
soon,  and  the  King  of  Prussia  is  to  set  off  in  a  week 
for  England.  Last  night  at  the  Theatre  des  Varietes 
they  acted  Le  Souper  de  Henry  IV.,  in  which  there 

1  Cathcart— -Lord  C,  British  general,  d.  1814. 

^Junot—  Marshal  J.  (1771-1813).  3  Arrighi — General  A.  (1778-1853). 


is  a  great  deal  inserted  for  the  occasion  and  with 
great  judgment,  full  of  moderation  and  of  menage  - 
ment  for  the  military  glory  of  the  Nation,  and  it  was 
received  with  great  applause.  It  is  impossible  to 
stand  higher  than  the  English  do  here;  people  of  all 
sorts  are  striving  which  shall  best  express  the  feeling 
to  us.  The  French,  too,  open  themselves  to  us 
without  scruple  upon  their  affairs.  One  man  at 
Amiens  absolutely  shed  tears  at  the  degradation  of 
his  country  when  he  found  himself  alone  with 
Frederick.  The  Prussians  behave  well  in  the  great 
towns,  but  commit  a  great  deal  of  injustice  in  the 
villages;  one  told  me  they  had  Champagne  enough 
to  bathe  in  in  Champagne.  ...  I  should  add 
here  that  Bernadotte  is  well  satisfied  with  his  allies, 
but  when  a  levde  he  was  to  have  had  was  put  off, 
ill  natured  persons  endeavoured  to  make  out  it  was 
because  few  persons  were  likely  to  attend. 

Frederick  Foster 

To  Augustus  Foster. 

Marseilles,  Dec.  27,  1814. 
My  dearest  Augustus.  .  .  .  We  have  seen 
Massena.  He  is,  I  believe,  stingy,  but  very  civil, 
and  very  interesting  to  see.  Bonaparte  on  embark- 
ing for  Elba  sent  him  his  amitids,  c'est  un  brave 
homme  je  l'aime  fort — but  Massena  says  he,  Bona- 
parte, loves  nobody;  that  once  when  he  was  ill, 
Bonaparte  never  took  the  least  notice  of  him,  never 
even  sent  to  enquire,  and  that  at  another  time,  when 


he  was  also  unwell,  and  that  Bonaparte  had  need  of 
his  services,  he  used  to  come  and  see  him  three  or 
four  times  a  day.  He  thinks  he  was  a  man  de  grandes 
conceptions,  particularly  when  things  went  on  well, 
but  that  in  adverse  fortune  he  failed.  Believes  that 
Austria  wishes  to  have  it  in  her  power  to  "lacker  un 
tel dogue"  against  Russia  and  France;  yet  Massena 
seemed  to  have  a  kind  of  liking  for  him ;  said  that  it 
was  him  who  had  named  him  l' enfant  de  la  Victoire, 
and  pointing  to  his  great  coat  said  he  was  happier 
when  he  bought  that,  it  was  at  Vienna.  He  wishes 
for  war,  if  it  was  only  to  push  forward  his  son. 
Massena  is  much  broken  and  altered  from  what  I 
remember  him  at  the  peace  of  Amiens.  He  and 
Wellington  met  at  Paris,  and  after  a  stare'  Massena 
said,  "Milord,  vous  m  avez  fait  bien penser".  "Et  vous 
Monsieur  le  Marichal  vous  m'avez  souvent  empichS,  de 
dormir."  We  have  heard  here  the  same  account  of 
Bonaparte's  southern  journey  as  we  did  at  Paris  in 

May.     At  Dijon  they  gave  L B the  same 

Bidet  that  poor  Napoleon  rode  when  disguised  as  a 

courier.     M told  that  at  Orgon  he  got  out  of  the 

carriage  pour ,  and  trembled  excessively:  had 

he  passed  through  here  they  tell  us  he  could  not  have 
escaped — and  indeed  this  is  far  the  most  Bourbon 
town  we  have  seen.  F.  T.  F. 


Elizabeth,  Duchess  of  Devonshire, 

To  Augustus  Foster. 

Marseilles,  December  30,  1814. 

Massena1  lives  in  the  same  street  with  us;  he  is 
full  of  attention  to  us,  and,  though  broken  in  health 
and  spirits,  animates  on  topicks  which  interest  him. 
I  heard  that  he  would  not  talk  about  Bonaparte, 
and  I  was  fearful,  though  very  anxious,  to  name 
the  subject.  Last  night  we  went  to  the  prefect's, 
who  has  a  fine  house,  and  gave  a  very  pretty  ball. 
Massena  sat  between  Lady  Bessborough  and  me; 
he  said  something  about  Grassini.  "Oh,"  I  said, 
too  happy  to  find  an  occasion,  "  Etoit  ce  quand 
Bonaparte  fut  si  amoureux  d'elle?"  "  Bonaparte," 
his  eye  assuming  a  stern  expression,  "  Bonaparte  n'a 
jamais  aime  personne,  personne."  I  then  went  on 
from  one  thing  to  another,  I  found  I  could  do  so, 
and  it  was  very  interesting.  "  Quelle  impression, 
Monsieur  le  Marechale,  vous  fit  il,  quand  vous 
le  connutes  premierement?"  "  Un  grand  orgueil, 
Madame  la  Duchesse.  Je  l'ai  connu  qu'il  n'etoit 
que  Lieutenant  colonel — des  moyens,  et  pour  cela 
de  grand  moyens,  surtout  dans  la  prosperity;  dans 
l'adversite  il  manquoit  de  t6te,  il  n'avoit  rien  de  grand." 
Of  himself  he  said,  "il  m'aimoit  ou  en  faisoit  semblant, 
car  jamais  il  n'a  rien  aim6  que  son  ambition;  il  me 
tutoya  c'etoit  a  Milan  quand  il  commandoit  en  chef 
qu'il  me  dit,  '  Massena  ne  voudroit  tu  etre  un  des 
directeurs?'  '  Non,'  je  lui  repondit,  '  je  ne  me  con- 
nais  pas  en  politique,  je  ne  sais  faire  que  la  guerre — 

1  Massena — Marshal  M.  (1758-1817). 


mais  toi  ne  voudrais  tu  pas  en  etre?'  II  me  repondit 
' avec  quatre  imbiciles,  non,  moi  seul  out'."  He 
continued,  "  C'est  lui  qui  m'a  baptise  enfant  de  la 
victoire — et  bien,  avec  cela  je  fis  une  chute  qui 
m'empechoit  d'etre  avec  l'armee;  il  vint  quatre  fois 
la  nuit  me  voir."  "Mais  cela,"  I  said,  "  marquoit 
quelque  sensibilite."  "  II  avoit  besoin  de  moi.  Je  fis 
une  maladie  apres,  non  seulement  il  ne  vint  pas;  il 
n'envoya  pas  meme  savoir  de  mes  nouvelles."  Many 
other  things  he  told  us,  and  we  talked  about,  and  it 
was  very  interesting.  I'm  afraid  he  don't  live  as  he 
ought  to  do,  but  to  us,  &c,  &c. 

Augustus  Foster 

To  Elizabeth,  Duchess  of  Devonshire. 

Date?  1814. 
...  I  hope  to  get  a  letter  from  you  at  Gothen- 
burg, and  long  to  know  if  you  think  that  Audrey 
Townsend  will  be  prevailed  upon  to  change  her 
mind,  or  if  you  advise  me  to  renounce  all  hope.  If 
she  will  but  authorize  me  I  would  write  for  leave  on 
my  return  from  Norway  and  go  and  meet  her  where- 
ever  she  is.  I  am  sure  we  should  be  very  happy, 
though  she  would  only  laugh  at  me  if  I  was  to  say  I 
was  in  love  with  her,  yet  I  think  of  her  every  day 
and  in  every  arrangement  I  make,  and  have  her 
beautiful  clean  hair  and  light  little  figure  continually 
before  my  eyes.  If  you  think  a  line  from  me  would 
have  any  effect  pray  send  the  inclosed.  She  must 
have  now  settled  her  mind  about  it,  and  I  should 
not  wish  to  be  kept  merely  in  hope.     .     .     . 


Augustus  Foster 

To  Elizabeth,  Duchess  of  Devonshire. 

January  10,  181 5. 

.  .  .  Mr.  Bourke  tells  me  that  Massena  three 
years  ago  was  very  ill,  but  would  not  be  persuaded 
by  his  wife  to  consult  a  physician,  on  which  she 
went  to  Bourgon,  a  physician,  and  told  him  the 
reason  was  Massena's  unwillingness  to  pay  the  neces- 
sary fee,  begging  the  physician  to  come  and  see  him 
as  a  friend,  which  he  did,  and  recommended  him  to 
change  his  climate:  then  he  went  to  Nice.  This 
he  told  me  a  propos  to  your  observation  about  his 
cuisine.  Madame  Massena  described  him  to  Bour- 
gon as  having  des  millions,  but  being  more  chary  of 
an  ecu  now  than  he  was  when  he  had  scarcely  one. 

Frederick  Foster 

To  Augustus  Foster. 

Marseilles,  March  4,  1815. 
My  dearest  Augustus, — Here's  pretty  news  in- 
deed. I  was  woke  this  morning  out  of  a  sweet 
sleep  with  "You  had  better  get  up,  Sir,  there  are 
crowds  of  soldiers  and  people  in  the  streets.  Bona- 
parte is  landed  at  Cannes."  I  got  up  in  a  hurry 
and  rushed  to  the  Prefect's,  and,  in  short,  the  history 
is  that  the  Emperor  Napoleon  has,  in  four  or  five 
transports,  and  a  zebeck  carrying  himself  and  his 
staff,  landed  at  Cannes  on  the  first  or  early  the 
second  March  with  about  1200  or  2000  men.      He 


attempted  to  surprize  Antibes,  but  the  Governor 
was  firm,  and  at  Cannes  the  mayor  behaved  very- 
well.  Bonaparte  asked  him  why  he  wore  a  white 
cockade;  he  replied  he  had  taken  an  oath  to  be 
faithful  to  Louis  18,  and  would  remain  so,  and  that 
he  might  do  with  him  as  he  pleased.  He  is  gone  in 
the  direction  of  Dauphiny.  Troops  are  gone  from 
Toulon  in  pursuit,  and  from  this  place  they  have 
been  marching  all  night.  The  Prefect's  Proclama- 
tion don't  name  him,  but  says  that  quelques  salari6s 
de  l'lsle  d'Elba  have  landed,  and  that  they  ought 
to  be  glad  of  this  mad  attempt  of  the  Exile"  de  l'lsle 
d'Elba,  as  he  will  now  receive  the  punishment  due 
to  his  forfaits.  Bonaparte  has  distributed  Procla- 
mations. I  have  not  as  yet  seen  any  of  them,  but  I 
am  told  they  contain  great  abuse  of  Marmont1  and 
Augereau.  They  are  in  General  Bertrand's  name. 
The  whole  of  Marseilles  is,  of  course,  in  great 
anxiety;  it  is  a  very  Bourbon  place,  and  the  white 
flag  waves  almost  from  every  window;  the  National 
Guards  are  all  out,  and  we  are  in  a  great  bustle. 
The  conduct  of  the  French  Government  seems 
inconceivable.  Colonel  Campbell,  on  leaving  the 
island,  warned  them  to  be  on  their  guard,  and  they 
had  only  two  frigates  to  cruise.  At  Grasse  he 
stopped  and  bought  stores  and  paid  for  them;  his 
six  pieces  of  cannon  he  has  been  forced  to  leave 
behind  him  from  the  badness  of  the  roads.  What 
a  noise  this  will  make  in  England!  What  second 
editions  of  the  Courier!  O  you  wise  Ministers,  to 
send  him  to  such  a  place  as  Elba;  several  soldiers 

1  Marmont — Marshal  M.  (1774-1852). 


landed  from  there  lately  and  were  from  suspicious 
conduct  arrested,  and  a  great  deal  of  money  found 
on  them,  with  which  they  had  been  endeavouring  to 
bribe  their  former  comrades.  I  forgot  to  tell  you 
that  the  Prince  de  Monaco  was  met  plump  by  Bona- 
parte, who  stopped  him  for  a  couple  of  hours  and 
then  let  him  go.  Estafettes  are  gone  off  in  all 
directions;  it's  inconceivable,  I  think,  his  hazarding 
this  without  being  pretty  sure  of  a  strong  party  to 
support  him.  Flahault,  a  son  of  the  famous  Madame 
de  Souza,  was  suspected  of  intriguing  for  him.  Did 
you  hear  of  a  sarcasm  of  Talleyrand  to  him  ?  F.  was 
talking  of  the  difficulties  of  his  position;  that,  in  his 
position,  favoured  as  he  had  been  by  the  Emperor, 
he  did  not  know  what  to  do,  and  that  in  short  his 
position  embarrassed  him  very  much.  Talleyrand 
with  his  cold  sneer  said,  vous  avez  done  une  position, 
Monsieur  de  Flahault.  I  wonder  what  will  be 
Talleyrand's  position  now  at  the  Congress,  and  when 
will  that  eternal  Congress  end?     .     .     . 

Elizabeth,  Duchess  of  Devonshire, 

To  Augustus  Foster. 

Marseilles,  March  7,  18 15. 

Caro  will  tell  you  about  Bonaparte.  Was  there 
ever  any  thing  so  extraordinary!  The  spirit  here  is 
excellent,  and  late  last  night  a  traveller  who  saw  him 
at  Sisteron  says  his  force  was  reduced  to  400.  People 
generally  seem  to  think  it  a  desperate  effort  made  on 
the  idea  that  he  was  to  be  removed  from  Elba — that 


the  great  mass  of  the  Nation  is  against  him — a  part 
of  the  army  for  him,  and  even  they  would  hesitate  at 
fighting  against  friends  and  relations.  Eight  hundred 
marched  from  here  yesterday — Guards,  volunteers, 
troops  of  the  line ;  the  concourse  which  accompanied 
them  was  immense  and  touching  to  see.  Monsieur 
de  Riviera  dined  with  us  on  Saturday,  and  at  the 
Prefect's  Sunday:  he  saw  Massena  late  Sunday,  and 
was  quite  satisfied  with  him.  My  love  to  Albinia, 
who,  I  hope,  will  be  my  daughter  by  the  time  you 
receive  my  letter. 

Frederick  Foster 

To  Augustus  Foster. 

Marseilles,  March  8,  1815. 
I  wrote  to  you  a  day  or  two  ago  with  the  first 
account  of  Bonaparte's  landing,  and  I  now  will  add 
the  few  details  I  have  heard  since.  He  was  so  sure 
of  having  possession  of  Antibes  that  his  manuscript 
proclamations  are  dated  thence.  He  has  had  the 
wicked  cunning  of  dressing  two  or  three  of  his 
officers  in  English  uniforms,  and  as  he  has  gone  on 
he  has  given  out  that  the  English  are  for  him,  that 
he  landed  from  an  English  frigate,  and  that  all 
France  recalls  him  to  the  throne.  He  appears  to  be 
almost  sunburnt  black,  and  to  be  excessively  fat ;  his 
men  are  said  to  be  in  a  wretched  state,  and  some 
have  deserted.  Nothing  can  be  more  active  and 
fine  than  the  conduct  of  the  Prefect  Marquis 
d'Allecetas  or  of  Comte  de  Panisse,  Commander  of 
the   National  Guards.     The  spirit  of  the  people  is 


quite  perfect.  Many  of  the  principal  young  men  of 
the  place  have  marched  as  common  soldiers.  Some 
merchants  here  have  dismissed  all  their  workmen  to 
enable  them  to  march,  and  still  continue  their  pay  or 
wages;  yet  the  confusion  this  fellow  has  created  is 
very  great.  They  had  just  received  their  franchise, 
and  every  thing  was  reviving,  and  now  every  thing 
is  at  a  stand.  Bonaparte  seems  to  proceed  with  the 
greatest  coolness;  at  least,  he  affects  it.  He  has 
brought  his  cook  with  him,  and  left  his  carriage  at 
Grasse,  to  wait,  as  he  said,  for  his  mother  and  sister 
Pauline.  At  any  town  he  comes  to  he  orders  rations 
for  six  or  seven  thousand  men,  so  that  the  inhabitants 
are  terrified  and  stupefied;  however,  his  freaks  that 
way  will  be  soon  found  out;  the  whole  country  is  in 
arms,  high  and  low,  rich  and  poor,  and,  excepting  a 
few  stupid  or  treacherous  public  functionaries,  every 
body  behaves  perfectly.  We  expect  one  of  the 
Princes  here  to  take  the  command  in  the  South. 
Precy  has  marched  from  Lyons,  and  Lecourbe,  they 
say,  from  Briancjon,  and  the  King  of  Sardinia  has 
granted  the  passes  of  his  mountains.  If  the  worst 
comes  to  the  worst,  and  he  gets  the  upper  hand,  they 
are  determined  to  make  a  Spanish  war  of  it,  and 
never  to  submit.  However,  I  think  it  will  be  soon 
over  with  him.  I  am  sorry  to  interrupt  your  Hy- 
meneal Pleasures  with  wars  and  rumours  of  wars, 
and  hope  Albinia  will  forgive  me. 


Frederick  Foster, 

To  Augustus  Foster. 

Marseilles,  March  9,  1815. 
You  will  be  too  much  engrossed  with  one  another 
to  care  about  news;  yet  the  extraordinary  event  of 
Bonaparte's  being  in  France  will  rouse  your  atten- 
tion. Three  times  to-day  have  we  been  told  that 
Bonaparte  has  been  taken,  and  the  whole  town  has 
poured  out  with  acclamations  of  joy;  but,  alas,  it  is 
not  so ;  the  news,  however,  is  satisfactory  as  far  as  it 
goes.  .  .  .  The  only  thing  for  us  to  mention  is 
the  excellent  spirit  of  the  people,  the  noble  conduct 
of  the  gentlemen  and  noblesse,  and  the  rapid  marches 
which  the  National  Guard  have  made  with  the  troops. 
They  are  now  within  two  leagues  of  Bonaparte. 
Monsieur1  arrived  at  Lyons  yesterday  with  Marshal 
Ney  and  Comte  de  Dumas.  Bonaparte  speaks  with 
astonishing  assurance  of  the  numbers  that  will  join 
him,  but  none  of  whom  have  done  so.  He  enters 
a  village  and  orders  rations  for  six  thousand  men, 
having  only  eight  hundred.  He  tells  the  people  that 
Massena  is  manoeuvring  with  twenty-five  thousand 
men  near  Paris,  and  that  the  King  has  fled  to  Lisle. 
It  looks  well  his  telling  such  falsehoods.  The  people 
here  were  growing  dissatisfied  with  Massena:  he  has 
at  last  published  a  proclamation,  in  which  he  ends  by 
saying  that  he  shall  spill  the  last  drop  of  his  blood  to 
defend  the  lawful  King.  It  had  an  immediate  effect 
on  the  funds,  which  rose.     Bonaparte  left  his  horse 

1  Monsieur — Louis,  brother  of  Louis  XVI. ,  whom  he  afterwards  succeeded  as 
Louis  XVIII.  (1755-1824). 


lamed  at   Sisteron,  and  forgot  a  fine  spying  glass 
there.      He  wears  a  cuirass  over  his  coat. 

Augustus  Foster 

To  Elizabeth,  Duchess  of  Devonshire. 

Whitehall,  March  10,  181 5. 

We  have  just  heard  of  Bonaparte's  having  landed 
between  Antibes  and  Nice  with  a  thousand,  and  of 
the  King  of  France's  proclamation.  Lord  Fitzroy 
Somerset  sent  it.  I  own  I  am  confounded  with  this 
news.  The  worst  is  the  uncertainty  of  knowing  who 
is  and  who  is  not  a  friend.  I  trust  Marshal  Massena 
will  take  care  of  you,  and  let  you  set  off  for  Paris 
and  the  north;  and  I  trust  in  your  admirable  good 
sense  and  decision,  or  I  should  be  greatly  alarmed. 
.  .  .  People  look  thunderstruck  at  this  news.  .  .  . 
Your  house  will  be  let  on  Monday  for  a  year — viz., 
to  March  12,  18 16.  I  cannot  alter  it  now,  for  Lord 
Byron  is  in  the  country. 

W.  H.  Hill  (H.  M.  Minister  at  Turin) 

To  Elizabeth,  Duchess  of  Devonshire. 

Turin,  April  12,  1815. 

Dear  Duchess, — I  have  just  received  your  letter 
of  the  9th,  and,  having  discharged  my  conscience  as 
to  the  little  danger  of  being  shut  up  in  Genoa  (and 
I  think  it  is  but  little),  I  will  tell  you  all  I  know 
of   Murat.      By  our   last  accounts   he  was    still  at 



Guastalla,  but  we  expect  every  hour  to  hear  of  his 
moving.  You  are  very  right,  I  hope,  in  your 
calculation  of  one  great  defeat  destroying  him,  and 
not  the  Austrians.  The  latter  will  not  have  less 
than  175  thousand  troops  in  Italy  when  all  their 
reinforcements  arrive,  but  they  have  scarcely  a  third 
of  that  number  at  present.  Murat  has  beat  the 
Austrians  once  in  a  pretty  smart  though  not  general 
affair  (Don't  quote  me  for  this  bad  news),  but  if  he 
does  not  beat  them  most  decisively  in  a  pitched 
battle  within  three  weeks,  I  trust  he  has  no  chance, 
for  by  that  time  a  great  body  of  Austrian  reinforce- 
ments will  arrive.  So  prevalent  is  the  idea  of 
Murat's  reaching  Milan  that  the  Marquis  D'O.  has 
just  been  telling  me  it  is  universally  reported  here 
that  he  is  already  there.  This  is  ridiculous.  There 
is  the  Po  between  him  and  the  Austrians,  i.e.,  the 
great  force  of  the  latter  is  on  the  other  side.  If  you 
are  determined  to  go  to  Genoa  you  had  better  make 
haste,  and  you  will  be  at  the  head-quarters  of  all 
news.  It  was  full  of  English,  but  they  are  beginning 
to  move.  The  Col  di  Tenda  is  very  passable. 
Mr.  Burrell  came  over  it  and  went  to  Genoa  this 
morning,  but  if  you  have  set  your  heart  upon  going 
there  now  I  can  only  hope  there  is  no  danger. 
Murat's  army  is  increasing;  he  has  been  joined  by 
many  old  soldiers.  Italy  discontented,  and  his  pro- 
clamations revolutionary.  The  news  from  Vienna  is 
good — eight  hundred  thousand  troops  to  be  ready 
next  month.  Many  European  Powers  appear  to 
have  signed  against  Bonaparte.  The  Emperor 
Alexander  at  Prague  hurrying  his  troops  through 


Bohemia.      The   Sovereigns   have  not  yet  met  at 
Frankfort,  but  are  still,  it  is  said,  to  meet  there. 

It  is  reported  the  King  of  France,  after  arriving  at 
Ostend,  was  invited  to  join  them  at  Frankfort.  In 
the  meanwhile,  what  is  to  become  of  the  South  of 
France?  We  are  in  the  greatest  distress  upon  that 
subject.     Yours  ever,  W.  H. 

Augustus  Foster 

To  Elizabeth,  Duchess  of  Devonshire. 

Whitehall,  April  22,  1815. 

.  .  .  Caro  has  got  yours  of  the  6th.  What  an 
interesting  diary!  and  how  Massena  deceived  you! 
How  covered  with  crimes  and  disgraceful  perjuries 
are  almost  all  Bonaparte's  generals  and  followers, 
and  how  they  render  the  race  of  Frenchmen  de- 
testable and  disgusting!  I  have  seen  D'Aumont, 
who  was  cheated  and  thwarted  by  Augereau  at  Caen. 
D'Aumont  had  his  volunteers  in  the  Castle,  but 
Augereau  was  his  superior,  and  sent  an  order  for  the 
admission  of  some  artillery,  and  D'Aumont  could  not 
refuse.  When  matters  were  becoming  desperate, 
D'Aumont  wanted  to  carry  off  the  caisses  for  the 
King,  but  Augereau  sent  an  order  that  not  a  sous 
should  be  touched  without  his  signature.  He  found 
gens  d'armes  following  him  and  preceding  him  wher- 
ever he  went,  and  two  at  his  door.  At  length 
Augereau,  who  had  been  in  the  habit  of  dining  with 
him,  advised  him  to  be  off,  and  when  he  said,  But 
you  run  as  much  risk  as  me,  oh!  non,  the  scoundrel 


answered,  C'est  different  pour  moi,  mais  peut  £tre 
que  demain  je  recevrais  l'ordre  de  vous  arreter.  So 
he  embarked  in  a  boat  in  the  river,  and  came  in  a 
storm  to  England.     .     .     . 

Elizabeth,  Duchess  of  Devonshire, 

To  Augustus  Foster. 

Milan,  June  21,  1815. 

Madame  de  Stael  has  shown  a  great  deal 
of  character.  Bonaparte  sent  to  tell  her  he  would 
pay  her  the  debt  which  Louis  18  had  acknowledged, 
but  on  condition  that  she  would  return  to  Paris. 
She  has  resisted,  which  is  the  more  remarkable,  as 
B.  Constant1  and  Sismondi2  are  both  won  over. 
What  a  crisis  we  are  at!  It  is  fearful  to  think  of. 
Your  King,  the  papers  say,  is  going  to  join  the 
other  Sovereigns.  Murat  dethroned  makes  Italy 
quiet,  I  think,  for  some  time  at  least.     .     .     . 

The  Honble.  Mrs.  George  Lamb 

To  Augustus  Foster. 

Richmond,  June  30,  1815. 
What  wonderful  events,3  my  dear  Augustus,  since 
I  last  wrote  to  you;  how  glorious  to  England,  but 
how  dearly  bought.  Poor  Frederick  Howard!  his 
death,  as  you  may  imagine,  has  affected  his  family 
very  much.      Mrs.    Howard   is  miserable,  and  has 

1  Constant — Benjamin  C.  (1767-1830). 

2 Sismondi — John  S.,  historian  (1773-1842). 

1  Wonderful  events — The  battle  of  Waterloo,  &c. 

FROM   THE   HONBLE.   MRS.   GEORGE   LAMB.         405 

scarcely  spoken  since.  Frederick  Ponsonby  happily 
is  doing  well,  and  is  out  of  danger,  but  his  wounds 
very  bad  ones :  both  arms  were  shot,  and  three  stabs 
in  the  body.  In  this  dreadful  state  he  lay  all  night, 
and  was,  besides,  rode  over  by  the  Prussian  Cavalry, 
and,  of  course,  is  bruised  all  over;  it  is  wonderful,  I 
think,  that  he  survived  it;  but  he  is,  thank  God, 
recovering  rapidly.  The  consequences,  too,  of  the 
victory  are  so  great  that  it  heightens  the  glory  of  it. 
Bonaparte's  abdication,  it  must  be  hoped,  will  stop 
all  further  bloodshed.  What  is  to  be  done  with  him 
is  the  puzzling  question  now,  and  who  is  to  succeed? 
The  forcing  the  Bourbons  back  upon  them  seems  a 
violent  measure,  and  one  they  are  strongly  against, 
but  yet  one  dreads  their  electing  young  Napoleon 
unless  Bonaparte  was  out  of  the  way.  All  sorts  of 
reports  are  afloat  to-day.  It  was  said  he  had  put 
himself  under  Lord  Wellington's  protection.  He 
had  better.  I  dare  say  he  would  have  more  honour 
towards  him  than  those  treacherous  Frenchmen,  who 
make  it  a  system  to  give  up  one  Sovereign  after  the 
other  the  moment  they  are  in  adversity.  As  to  pri- 
vate affairs,  I  suppose  you  have  heard  of  your  friend 
Lord  Aberdeen's  marriage  to  Lady  Hamilton1 — two 
miserable  creatures.  He  says,  What  else  have  we  to 
do?  The  truth  is,  she  is  beautiful  and  he  is  very 
much  in  love  with  her. 

1  Lady  Hamilton — Widow  of  Viscount  Hamilton.     Lord  Aberdeen's  first  wife 
had  been  dead  more  than  three  years. 


Augustus  Foster 

To  Elizabeth,  Duchess  of  Devonshire. 

Copenhagen,  July  u,  1815. 

.  .  ,  Gordon  is  said  to  have  lost  his  life  in 
screening  Lord  Wellington.  Having  in  vain  urged 
the  Duke  to  quit  the  place  where  he  was,  he  rode  up 
to  put  himself  before  him,  and  so  received  the  ball. 
Other  letters  say  he  was  pulling  the  bridle  of  the 
horse  to  get  him  out  of  the  way.  What  a  tremen- 
dous contest,  but  what  a  decisive  overthrow!  Boney's 
own  account  does  us  justice  as  much  almost  as  one 
could  wish.  How  curious  if  he  really  has  gone  from 
Havre  to  England.  I  hope  we  shall  give  refuge  to 
none  of  his  dastardly  generals  who  have  so  often 
perjured  themselves. 

.  .  .  The  King  of  Denmark  sends  the  Elephant1 
to  Wellington  and  Blucher  and  to  our  Prince  Regent. 
It  is  a  right  thing  to  do,  and  it  is,  I  suppose,  the 
order  Hamlet  wore.  A  propos  to  the  latter,  there  is 
an  old  chronicle  about  him  by  the  Danish  historian, 
Saxo  Grammaticus,  who  nourished  in  the  thirteenth 
century,  and  it  is  probably  from  this  that  Shakespeare 
took  his  story;  but  I  am  sorry  to  say  the  Danish 
Ophelia  was  an  improper  lady  employed  to  betray 
Hamlet,  though  she  deserves  to  be  called  proper,  for 
notwithstanding  she  consented  to  his  wishes  she 
kept  his  secret.  The  Danish  Hamlet  feigns  madness, 
and  manages  the  death  of  Rosencranz  and  Guilder- 
stern,  as  Shakespeare  says,  but  he  marries  both  an 

1  Elephant — The  Danish  order  of  the  ' '  Elephant "- 


English  and  a  Scotch  Princess,  and,  returning  to 
Denmark,  feigns  madness  again,  then  sets  fire  to  the 
palace,  stabs  the  King,  and  gets  possession  of  the 
throne,  when  he  reigns  gloriously  for  several  years, 
and  at  last  is  killed  in  a  duel  with  the  King  of  Jut- 
land. The  Danish  historian  makes  him  out  a  fine 
character,  and,  particularly,  says  he  never  told  an 
untruth  during  his  madness.  His  speech  to  his 
mother  is  real,  and  so  is  the  killing  of  Polonius, 
though  the  latter  is  killed  under  a  heap  of  straw 
instead  of  behind  tapestry.  The  story  of  the  Ghost 
seems  to  be  Shakespeare's,  as  also  the  manner  of 
the  murder.  The  whole  is  a  long  story,  and  there 
are  several  eloquent  speeches  of  Hamlet  to  the 

Augustus  Foster 

To  Elizabeth,  Duchess  of  Devonshire. 

Copenhagen,/^  23, 181 5. 

I  hope  you  received  my  account  of  Ham- 
let. I  have  to  add  that  the  story  of  Hamlet  belongs 
to  about  the  year  550,  and  I  was  mistaken  about  the 
history,  which  was  written  in  the  beginning  of  the 
thirteenth  century,  but  only  printed  in  the  sixteenth. 
I  must  add  the  remark  of  Saxo-Grammaticus,  the 
historian,  on  Amleth's  death,  which  was  caused  by 
his  fighting  with  inferior  forces  against  Vigletus, 
chief  of  the  Scandians  and  Zeelanders.  He  says 
such  was  the  end  of  Amleth,  who,  if  he  had  experi- 
enced an  equal  kindness  from  fortune  as  from  nature, 
would  have  equalled  the  Gods  in  brilliancy  of  deeds, 


and  surpassed  Hercules  in  the  acts  of  virtue.  He 
adds  that  his  burial  was  magnificent,  and  that  there 
exists  a  field  in  Jutland  called  after  him. 

The  Hon.  Mrs  Lamb 

To  Augustus  Foster. 

Holland  House,  Sept.,  1815. 

.  .  .  One  day  Captain  Maitland  of  the  Bellero- 
phon  dined  here,  and  you  may  believe  we  questioned 
him  very  much  about  Napoleon.  He  has  been  very 
much  hurt  at  being  accused  of  being  too  civil  to  him, 
as  he  merely  treated  him  with  the  usual  forms  of 
civility,  which  surely  it  would  have  been  very  wrong 
to  refuse  to  any  great  man  in  adversity.  He  was 
delighted  at  the  crowds  who  came  to  see  him,  and 
always  shewed  himself  whenever  he  might  be  about. 
Madame  Bertrand  attempted  to  drown  herself  upon 
finding  they  were  to  go  to  St.  Helena,  saying  she 
was  the  cause  of  his  coming  on  board  that  ship. 
Frederick  Ponsonby  has  been  here  too,  who  is  quite 
well  again,  and  grown  very  fat.  He  has  not  re- 
covered the  use  of  his  arms,  but  is  in  hopes  that  he 
shall  in  time.  His  quiet  and  simple  account  of  all  he 
suffered  is  very  interesting.  He  never  lost  his  recol- 
lection, and  says  it  was  not  pleasant  to  see  the 
Prussian  cavalry  advancing,  and  that  it  hurt  a  good 
deal.  Lord  and  Lady  Byron  have  also  been  here. 
She  is  to  lie  in  in  November.  He  appears  very 
happy,  and  is  very  much  improved  by  his  marriage. 


George1  and  he  are  two  of  the  new  managers  of 
Drury  Lane,  very  eager  about  it,  and,  as  it  has 
hitherto  gone  on  very  well,  it  is  only  a  great  amuse- 
ment to  them. 

Elizabeth,  Duchess  of  Devonshire, 

To  Augustus  Foster. 

Florence,  October  21,  181 5. 
Some  01  my  letters,  I  think,  must  have  missed, 
or  you  would  have  seen  my  indignation  at  Massena's 
conduct  before  I  left  Marseilles,  and  I  told  dear 
Riviera  so  at  Toulon.  You  will  soon  hear  of  Murat's2 
fate.  Mr.  Sneyd  brought  the  news  from  Rome  to- 
day that  he  had  been  shot.  It  was  so  reported  last 
night  at  Mme.  Apponis',  and  people  thought  it  was 
very  unfeeling  of  Lady  Oxford  to  be  there,  and  as 
merry  as  if  he  was  still  on  the  throne  of  Naples.  She 
asked  me  if  I  was  going  to  Naples,  adding  that  she 
thought  it  quite  a  paradise,  and  that  she  lived  in 
friendship  with  the  former  Government.  I  said  that 
I  should  not  go  to  Naples,  but  that  my  friendship 
was  with  the  present  King,  to  whom  my  brother  had 
been  much  attached  and  most  kindly  treated.  She  is 
a  strange  woman.  I  suppose  it  will  make  some  sen- 
sation. He  must  have  been  mad.  He  sailed  from 
Corsica,  telling  them  to  steer  for  Tunis :  arrived  at 
a  certain  point  he  told  them  to  steer  for  Calabria:  a 
storm  dispersed  two  of  his  feluccas;  with  the  third 
he  arrived  on  the  coast  of  Calabria:  he  called  to  the 

1  George — The  Hon.  George  Lamb,  brother  of  William  Lamb  who  succeeded  to 
the  title  of  Viscount  Melbourne. 

^Murat — Marshal  M.,  King  of  Naples  (1767-1815). 


people  to  shout  Viva  Giacchino,  that  he  was  come 
to  re-enter  his  kingdom.  The  peasants  fought  him; 
he  defended  himself  stoutly,  but  was  overpowered, 
bound,  and  carried  to  a  Sicilian  general,  who  had  him 
shot;  and  so,  I  think,  that  dynasty  is  at  an  end.  He 
was  such  a  false,  shabby  fellow,  except  in  personal 
courage,  that  I  can  hardly  pity  him.     .     .     . 

Augustus  Foster 

To  Elizabeth,  Duchess  of  Devonshire. 

Dublin,  December  31,  1815. 

.  .  .  I  hope  Massena  will  get  well  that  you 
may  see  him.  I  hear  the  Duke  de  Richlieu  is  likely 
all  in  favor  at  the  Tuilleries,  and  that  the  Duke  de 
Choiseul  Gouffier  is  also  in  great  favor.  You  don't 
mention  to  whom  Napoleon  spoke  about  the  Sim- 
plon,  &c.  Caro  says  it  only  prejudices  her  in  favor 
of  Napoleon  to  hear  of  the  calm  with  which  he  bears 
his  misfortunes.  One  cannot  certainly  help  pitying 
a  fallen  man,  but  he  seems  to  have  more  of  apathy 
than  calm,  and  he  surely  ought  to  be  repentant  or 
shew  some  remorse  for  the  evils  he  has  done.  I 
fear  he  despises  men  too  much  to  think  them  worth 
caring  about.  He  told  Vernon  the  opposition  was 
very  low,  and  Vernon  answered  it  was  because 
they  had  predicted  the  conquest  of  Spain  by  him. 
You  don't  say  any  thing  of  Mme.  de  Stael's  reported 
?  with  Rocca,1  so  I  conclude  it  is  a  report  you 
despise,  though  some  will  have  it  your  silence  argues 

1  Rocca — She  had  been  secretly  married  to  this  young  man  for  several  years. 


that  there  is  something  in  it.  She  told  a  friend  of 
mine  in  speaking  of  Ward  "  quel  dommage  qu'avec 
un  si  beau  talent  il  soit  si  egoiste  et  si  incapable 
d'une  veritable  amitie  ". 

Augustus  Foster 

To  Elizabeth,  Duchess  of  Devonshire. 

Copenhagen,  Jan  6,  18 16. 

Albinia  has  made  me  a  Papa.     The  event  hap- 
pened at  1  p.m.  on  the  3rd.     .     .     . 

Elizabeth,  Duchess  of  Devonshire, 

To  Augustus  Foster. 

RoME,/a«.  26,  1 8 16. 

I  see  Canova1  often.  He  is  delightful, 
and  gives  the  idea  of  what  the  great  artists  were  in 
1500.  He  says  he  believes  his  statue  of  Bonaparte 
which  is  at  Paris  is  to  be  ceded  to  the  Prince 
Regent,  and  that  he  means  to  place  it  in  the  house 
to  be  built  for  Wellington.  His  own  favourite 
statue,  a  nymph  which  is  here,  he  wants  to  give  to 
the  Prince,  for  Canova  is  the  most  liberal  person 
ever  known.  ...  I  hope  the  powers  mean  in 
earnest  to  do  something  to  protect  their  coasts  from 
the  Barbaresques.  It  is  dreadfull  to  have  whole 
families  carried  off  and  sold  in  Africa;  besides,  as 
we  have  taken  Malta,  we  are  called  upon  to  supply 

1  Canova — (1757-1822). 


the  place  of  the  Knights  who  used  to  protect  them. 
How  happy  Sir  Sidney  must  have  been — knighted 
by  the  Duke  of  Wellington.     .     .     . 

Elizabeth,  Duchess  of  Devonshire, 

To  Augustus  Foster. 

ROME,  February  9,  1 8 16. 

Rome  is  too,  too  beautiful.  Gonsalvi1  and  I  are 
such  friends  that  when  we  are  at  the  same  place  the 
crowd  gives  way  for  him  to  come  up  to  me.  He 
is  doing  much  here,  and  it  is  delightfull  to  see  the 
encouragement  given  to  improvements  of  all  kinds, 
and  the  publick  walks  are  finishing.  An  interesting 
scavato  is  to  take  place  next  month  at  Preneste.  .  .  . 
Bonaparte  used  to  say  of  his  sisters2  that  Madame 
Murat  was  l'ambitieuse;  Madame  Bajocchi,  la 
spirituelle;  and  the  Princess  Borghese,  la  jolie;  but 
they  said,  "  apres  son  mariage  avec  l'Autrichienne  il 
paroissoit  avoir  honte  de  nous  ". 

Augustus  Foster 

To  Elizabeth,  Duchess  of  Devonshire. 

Copenhagen,  Feb.  27,  1816. 
...    I  hear  a  report  that  Lord  and  Lady  Byron 
have  separated  from  incompatibility.     I  should  not 
be  surprised,  but  hope  it  is  not  so.     .     .     . 

1  Gonsalvi — Cardinal  G.,  Roman  Prime  Minister. 

2  His  sisters — Carlotta  (afterwards  named  Marie  Pauline),  married  to  Prince  C. 
Borghese;  Maria  Anna  (afterwards  named  Elise),  married  to  Felix  Baciocchi,  a 
Corsican  soldier;  she  was  created  by  her  brother  Princess  of  Piombino,  and  is 
said  to  have  been  more  respected  perhaps  than  any  other  member  of  the  Bonaparte 
family ;  and  Annunziata  (afterwards  named  Caroline),  wife  of  Joachim  Murat, 
whom  Napoleon  created  King  of  Naples. 


Elizabeth,  Duchess  of  Devonshire, 

To  Mrs.  Foster. 

Rome,  March  8,  18 16. 

.  .  We  have  a  squadron,  I  hear,  arrived  at 
Leghorn,  which,  I  hope,  is  to  protect  these  coasts 
against  the  barbaresques.  It  is  very  shocking  that 
there  should  be  a  vessel  left  them  to  carry  off  whole 
families  from  these  countries,  and  whilst  we  are  forc- 
ing all  countries  to  abolish  the  slave  trade,  we  allow, 
for  the  sake  of  gain,  of  this  worst  of  all  slavery  of 
Christians  to  the  Algerines.  If  Augustus  was  in 
Parliament,  and  in  England,  I  should  like  him  to 
take  up  this  cause.  What  a  fair  one  for  a  young 
and  ardent  mind !  We  are  all  astonished  here  at  the 
separation  of  Lord  and  Lady  Byron.  You  will  have 
heard  of  it  from  England.  Nobody  knew  the  cause 
when  my  last  letters  were  written,  but  every  body 
seemed  to  pity  her.  So  do  I  too;  but  yet  I  think 
that,  had  I  married  a  profligate  man,  knowing  that 
he  was  so,  and  that  I  had  a  child,  and  was  not  ill 
used  by  him,  I  would  not  part  from  him.     .     .     . 

Elizabeth,  Duchess  of  Devonshire, 

To  Augustus  Foster. 

March  22,  1816. 

Lady  Byron's  fate  is  the  most  melancholy  I  ever 
heard,  and  he  must  be  mad  or  a  Caligula.  Caro  will 
have  told  you  some  of  the  stories.  It  is  too  shocking, 
and  her  life  seems  to  have  been  endangered  whilst 


with  him  from  his  cruelty,  and  now  by  her  sufferings. 
I  pity  her  from  my  heart:  she  might  have  been  a 
happy  person.  ...  I  am  sure  I  have  mentioned 
Thorwaldsen,1  whom  I  admire  very  much,  but  when 
they  attempt  to  place  him  above,  or  equal  to,  Canova, 
I  think  it  is  like  comparing  cinque  cento  to  the 
antique ;  but  he  is  very  good,  and  full  of  genius,  but 
idle.  .  .  England  seems  in  an  odd  state :  opposi- 
tion strong,  and  making  shabby  obstacles  to  publick 
monuments;  foolish  remonstrances  against  guards  at 
the  Prince  Regent's  levee;  and  an  odd  marriage 
decided  on  for  the  future  Queen  of  England;  yet 
every  body  speaks  well  of  Prince  Leopold  of  Saxe 
Cobourg,  and  he  is  very  handsome.  Some  say  that 
Lord  Liverpool  is  out  of  favor. 

Augustus  Foster 

To  Elizabeth,  Duchess  of  Devonshire. 

March  23,  18 16. 

.  .  .  Caroline  seems  quite  shocked  at  Lord 
Byron's  conduct  to  poor  Annabel,  but  don't  give  me 
the  particulars.  They  were  certainly  two  very 
opposite  people  to  come  together,  but  she  would 
marry  a  poet  and  reform  a  rake.  As  to  him,  he  has 
at  length  proved  himself  the  true  Childe  Harold. 

1  Thorwaldsen  (1770-1844). 


Elizabeth,  Duchess  of  Devonshire, 

To  Augustus  Foster. 

April  6,  1 8 16. 

Thorwaldsen  is  very  clever,  but  terribly  lazy.  .  .  . 

Poor    Lady   Byron's   fate    is    enough    to   alarm   all 

parents.     She  is  wretched,   ill,   and  persecuted  by 

him,  who  now  refuses  to  sign  the  deeds  of  separation. 

Elizabeth,  Duchess  of  Devonshire, 

To  Augustus  Foster. 

Rome,  April  6,  1816. 

Canova  is  delightful,   and   has  the  en- 
thusiasm so  necessary  to  make  a  good  artist.    .    .    . 

The  Countess  of  Liverpool 

To  Elizabeth,  Duchess  of  Devonshire. 

Fife  House,  May  ^d,  18 16. 

I  must  write  one  line  to  you,  dearest  sister,  to  tell 
you  that  I  was  at  the  Royal  marriage1  yesterday,  and 
not  the  worse  for  the  exertion,  though  I  had  a  return 
of  ?  ,  and  had  been  bled  two  days  before. 

Lord  Liverpool  did  not  venture,  though  nearly  well. 
Dr.  Pemberton  was  afraid  the  heat  and  the  standing 
might  have  brought  on  a  relapse  of  his  complaint. 
Nothing  could  go  off  better  than  the  whole  ceremony 

1  Royal  Marriage — Marriage  of  the  Princess  Charlotte,  daughter  of  the  Prince 
of  Wales,  to  Prince  Leopold  of  Saxe-Coburg  (afterwards  King  of  the  Belgians). 


did  in  all  its  parts.  The  Bride  and  Bridegroom 
looked  very  handsome,  and  every  body  was  very 
struck  and  pleased  with  the  very  uncommon  manner 
in  which  they  both  followed  through  the  service  in 
their  prayer  books  and  distinctly  and  earnestly  pro- 
nounced their  mutual  vows.  May  they  be  happy! 
I  wish  it  from  my  very  heart!  They  are  gone  to 
Oatlands  for  about  a  week.  When  the  ceremony 
was  over  the  Princess  knelt  to  her  father  for  his 
blessing,  which  he  gave  her,  and  then  raised  and 
gave  her  a  good  hearty,  paternal  hug  that  delighted 
me,  and  took  her  up  to  the  Queen,  who  kissed  her,  as 
did  her  Aunts.  The  Prince  Regent  then  embraced 
his  son-in-law,  and  afterwards  took  him  up  to  the 
Queen,  who  embraced  him,  as  did  the  Princesses. 
They  all  like  him  extremely,  and,  indeed,  it  is  im- 
possible not  to  like  him.  His  manners  are  perfect, 
particularly  quiet,  and  mildly  dignified  without  any 
affectation,  but  great  self-possession.  They  say  he 
is  as  truly  amiable  as  he  is  pleasing,  and  very  re- 
ligious, which  gives  the  greatest  satisfaction  here. . . . 

Augustus  Foster 

To  Elizabeth,  Duchess  of  Devonshire. 

Copenhagen,  May  18,  1816. 

Caroline  relieved  me  much  about  poor 
Lady  Caroline  Lamb.  I  was  afraid  it  had  been 
madness,  but,  though  bad  enough,  it  seems  to  have 
been  a  passionate  fit  against  her  page,  and  will  prob- 
ably be  a  good  lesson  to  her.     It  is  impossible  not 


to  feel  some  regard  for  her  from  old  times,  and  it  is 
really  painful  to  see  so  delightful  a  person  as  she 
once  was  in  absolute  danger  of  committing  so  horrid 
a  crime,  and  so  entirely  unmanageable.  I  must  say 
I  think  her  husband  is  a  great  deal  to  blame,  for, 
had  he  studied  a  little  more  Shakespeare's  taming  of 
the  shrew,  he  might  have  checked  her,  at  least  so  as 
to  prevent  such  dreadful  and  shameful  excesses  in  a 
disposition  not  naturally  wicked.  I  cannot  conceive 
what  it  was  Lord  Byron  did  to  his  wife.  You 
thought  her  wrong  at  first,  but  now  you  find  her 
grossly  injured.     .     .     . 

Countess  of  Liverpool 

To  Elizabeth,  Dtichess  of  Devonshire. 

Coombe  Wood,  July  17,  1816. 

.  ,  .  I  saw  the  Bishop  of  London  two  days 
ago,  and  he  gave  me  some  comfort  about  poor 
Sheridan.1  The  Bishop  assured  me  that  during  his 
last  visit  Mr.  Sheridan,  though  too  weak  to  speak, 
most  decidedly  joined  in  prayer,  and  by  very  ex- 
pressive gestures  applied  to  himself  every  word 
which  particularly  mentioned  the  mercy  of  God, 
the  mediation  of  our  Saviour,  the  great  sinfulness  of 
his  own  life,  and  the  blessed  hope  of  pardon  founded 
on  repentance  through  the  merits  of  our  Redeemer. 
Poor  man!  his  terror  of  death  had  been  dreadful, 
but  that  his  last  feelings  were  those  of  humble  hope. 
The  good  dear   Bishop  has   taken    Mrs.   Sheridan 

1  Poor  Sheridan — Richard  Brinsley  S.  (1751-1816). 



home  to  his  own  house.  She  has  scarce  left  her 
bed  since  her  husband's  death.  She  has  some  hope- 
less inward  complaint — it  was  her  who  first  sent  for 
the  Bishop. 

Augustus  Foster 

To  Elizabeth,  Duchess  of  Devonshire. 

Copenhagen,  August  13,  1816. 

.  .  .  I  have  read  Glenarvon,1  and  only  just 
read  it.  .  .  .  As  for  the  story,  I  had  not  patience 
to  get  through  it,  it  is  so  disordered  and  confused, 
but  the  traits  of  character,  the  sentiments,  and  the 
uncommon  impudence  that  runs  through  it  is  to  me 
astonishing;  yet,  if  Lord  Avondale  reads  it,  he  must 
be  a  little  conscience  struck  at  his  character  of  a  free 
thinker,  for  I  am  convinced  that,  with  all  his  good 
and  noble  qualities,  he  was  used  to  scout  at  all  fixed 
principles,  and  taught  her,  or  helped  her,  to  do  the 
same.  Glenarvon  seems  almost  too  bad  for  nature, 
yet  agrees  very  much  with  the  being  it  is  meant  for,2 
and  squares  in  with  his  own  portrait  in  the  Corsair, 
Childe  Harold,  &c.  She  don't  give  me  the  idea  of 
being  at  all  cured,  notwithstanding  her  confessions. 
I  had  a  letter  from  Adair  the  other  day,  who  says  he 
has  made  it  a  matter  of  conscience  not  to  read  the 
book,  and  talks  of  her  as  going  on  the  same  as  ever. 
I  sadly  fear  some  bad  end  for  her;  she  certainly  is 
past  all  advice.     .     .     . 

1  Glenarvon — A  novel  written  by  Lady  Caroline  Lamb. 

2  The  being  it  is  meant  for — Lord  Byron. 


Antonio  Canova 

To  Elizabeth,  Duchess  of  Devonshire. 

ROMA,  23  Settembre,  1816. 

Excellenza,  —  Dall  Emi.  Card.  Gonsalvi  ho  ri- 
cevuto  la  gentilissima  Letterina  di  S.  E.  per  la  quale 
vengo  nuovamente  confermato  nella  speranza,  anzi 
nella  certezza,  di  ritenere  qualche  parte  nella  sua 
memoria,  cosa  che  sommamente  desidero  e  che 
riconosco  quale  prezioso  ornamento  del  viver  mio. 
Ho  seguito  il  di  lei  aviso  di  scrivere  al  Principe 
Reggente  sul  proposito  dei  Gessi  dei  marmi  Elgini- 
ani  e  ne  ho  consegnata  la  lettera  alia  lodata  Eminenza 
sua.  Spero  che  avremo  il  bene  di  rivederla  fra  noi 
nel  prossimo  inverno  come  odo  che  da  molti  viene 
asseverato.  Se  altri  cio  desidera  di  cuore  io  sono 
uno  di  questi,  e  credo  che  non  mi  bisognino  gran 
parole  a  rendernela  persuaso.  Ella  conosce  abba- 
stanza  la  sincerita  e  il  carattere  candido  di  miei  senti- 
menti  onde  far  justizia  alle  mie  asserzioni,  ma  non 
potrebbe  mai  formarsi  idea  adequata  del  sentimento 
di  stima  e  di  affezionata  considerazione  ed  ossequio 
con  cui  mi  onero  essere. — di  V.  E., 

Antonio  Canova. 

Translation  of  the  above. 

Rome,  September  23,  1816. 

Your  Excellency,  —  I  have  received  from  his 
Eminence,  Cardinal  Gonsalvi,  your  Excellency's 
most  esteemed  note,  which  confirms  anew  the  hope, 
and  indeed  the  certainty,  of  my  retaining  some  place 


in  your  memory,  which  I  greatly  desire  and  prize  as 
a  precious  ornament  of  my  existence.  I  have  fol- 
lowed your  advice  by  writing  to  the  Prince  Regent 
on  the  subject  of  the  plaster  casts  of  the  Elgin 
marbles,  and  have  consigned  my  letter  to  the  care 
of  his  Eminence.  I  hope  we  shall  have  the  happi- 
ness of  seeing  you  again  among  us  next  winter,  a 
wish  which  I  hear  uttered  by  many.  If  any  persons 
heartily  desire  your  return  I  am  of  the  number, 
and  I  think  I  do  not  need  to  use  many  words  to 
persuade  you  of  this.  You  are  sufficiently  aware 
of  the  sincerity  and  candid  character  of  my  senti- 
ments to  do  justice  to  my  assertions,  but  you  could 
never  form  an  adequate  idea  of  the  sentiments  of 
esteem  and  affectionate  consideration  with  which  I 
have  the  honor  to  be  your  Excellency's,  &c,  &c. 

Antonio  Canova. 

Antonio  Canova 

To  Elizabeth,  Duchess  of  Devonshire. 

Roma,  12  Ottobre,  18 16. 
Preclarissima  Signora  Duchessa, — Le  sono  infinita- 
mento  obbligato  della  graziosa  lettera  di  cui  le  piacque 
onorarmi.  L'espressioni  di  amorevolezza  che  fa  uso 
a  mio  riguardo  mi  adornano  6  lusingano  troppo  perche 
io  non  abbia  a  sentirne  tutto  il  valore  e  la  riconos- 
senza  che  meritano.  Duolmi  che  la  sua  brama  di 
far  collocare  nel  Panteon  il  ritratto  del  Cavaliere  di 
Reynolds  non  possa  adempirsi;  io  pure  dentro  di 
me  stesso  sentiva  il  dubbio  6  il  peso  di  quella  con- 
siderazione  ch'ella  mi  dichiaro.     Sono  lietissimo  della 


dolce  novella  da  lei  datami  del  suo  vicino  ritorno  a 
Roma.  Ne  aspetto  il  momento  colla  piu  viva  im- 
pazienza  conforme  ed  equale  al  sentimento  dell'  alta 
forma  che  le  professo. 

Io  non  ho  mai  fatto  nulla  che  abbia  rapporto  al 
poeta  Virgilio,  ne  statua  ne  ritratto. 

Mi  conservi  la  preziosa  sua  benevolenza  e  credami 
cogli  offizii  del  fratello  pieno  di  venerazione  e  di 
osservanza. — Di  Lei  aff.  Antonio  Canova. 

Translation  of  the  above. 

Rome,  October  12,  18 16. 

Most  Illustrious  Lady  Duchess, — I  am  infinitely- 
obliged  to  you  for  the  gracious  letter  with  which  you 
have  been  pleased  to  honor  me.  The  kind  expres- 
sions which  you  make  use  of  towards  me  are  too 
complimentary  and  flattering  for  me  not  to  feel  the 
full  force  of  the  acknowledgment  which  is  their  due. 
I  am  sorry  that  it  is  not  in  my  power  to  carry  out 
your  wish  that  the  portrait  of  the  cavaliere  Reynolds 
should  be  placed  in  the  collection  of  the  Pantheon. 
I  had  indeed  my  own  doubts  on  the  subject,  and  felt 
the  weight  of  the  considerations  which  you  laid 
before  me. 

I  am  very  glad  of  the  good  news  which  you  an- 
nounce to  me  of  your  proposed  early  return  to  Rome. 
I  look  forward  to  that  moment  with  the  most  lively 
impatience  proportioned  to  the  high  regard  which  I 
entertain  for  you. 

I  have  never  done  any  thing  having  any  reference 
to  the  poet  Virgil — neither  statue  nor  portrait. 


Pray  continue  your  precious  friendship  to  me,  and 
believe  my  brother  and  myself  to  be  full  of  veneration 
and  respect. — Yours,  &c,  Antonio  Canova. 

G.  Thorwaldsen 

To  Frederick  Foster. 

Copenhagen,  October^,  1816. 

My  dear  Sir, — Yesterday  at  length  the  proprietor 
of  the  Rosenborgen  Pluto  appointed  the  hour  to- 
morrow 1  afternoon.  At  the  same  time  I  was  un- 
fortunately decoyed  into  company  of  Highnesses, 
Excellencies,  Ribbands,  stars  and  keys.  I  thought 
myself  in  holy  place;  but  alas!  two  villains,  infamous 
by  their  very  names,  Cold  and  fever — these  wretches 
seized  me  and  carried  me  off,  though  I  made  strong 
protestations.  They  told  me  that  precedents  pub- 
lished by  one  of  the  greatest  nations  upon  earth 
warranted  this  proceeding.  Not  entirely  free  from 
violence,  yet  impelled  by  knavery,  my  enemies  have 
stretched  me  on  my  bed,  where  I  am  alternately  tor- 
tured by  heat  and  cold.  My  state  is  that  of  a  vol- 
cano. However,  I  hope  soon  to  outwit  my  enemies, 
to  throw  them  out  of  doors,  and  banish  them  for  ever. 
To-morrow  my  son  Frederick  will  pay  mine  and  his 
owne  homage  to  you,  and  request  the  honour  to  be 
in  your  guide  to  Pluto's  metropolis,  one  of  the  great 
Inigo  Jones'  works.  Pray  give  my  best  respects  to 
your  brother,  the  ambassador,  whom  I  will  ever  love 
and  admire.  Conceal  my  sufferings  from  the  ladies; 
their  generous  feelings  can  not  bear  incident  mis- 


fortunes  to  their  fellow  creatures.  Above  all,  bid 
God  to  have  mercy  on  me;  so  doing  I  shall  be 
benefited  without  your  loss.  I  am  for  ever,  my 
dear  Sir,  your  faithfull  and  very  humble  servant, 

G.  Thorwaldsen. 

Monsieur  Frederick  de  Foster, 
Senateur  de  l'Angleterre. 

Elizabeth,  Duchess  of  Devonshire, 

To  Mrs.  Foster. 

Rome,  Nov.  16,  18 16. 
.  .  .  Before  I  forget  it,  I  must  tell  Augustus 
that  the  Danish  sculptor  Thorwaldsen  is  grown 
excellent.  Some  of  his  works  are  really  admirable, 
and  he  is  so  modest  and  so  excellent  a  man  that  he 
is  liked  and  esteemed  by  all.  He  hopes  to  go  to 
Denmark  this  next  year,  and  they  have  good  reason 
to  be  proud  of  him. 

Elizabeth,  Duchess  of  Devonshire, 

To  Augustus  Foster. 

Rome,  Dec.  10,  18 16. 
...  Mr.  Playfair,  Mr.  Elmsley,  Mr.  Sotheby 
are  among  the  clever  men  of  science  and  literature 
at  Rome,  and  Mr.  Brougham1  and  Vernon— Lord 
Henry,  the  clever  men  of  the  set  now  here,  and  all 
almost  alike  flock  to  the  Princess  Borghese,  and  the 
grave  Lord  Lansdowne,  the  silent  Lord  Jersey,  the 

'Ifr.  Brougham — Henry  B.r  afterwards  Lord  B.  (1778-1868). 


politician  Mr.  Brougham,  all  go  and  play  aux  petits 
jeux  with  Pauline.  Forfeits  condemned  Lord  Jersey 
to  recite;  he  got  off  by  promising  to  waltz.  Lord 
Cowper  was  to  soupirer  pour  une  dame  and  so  on. 
She  shows  her  fine  plate  with  the  eagle,  &c,  and  gets 
dozens  of  fine  dresses  from  Paris.  I  admire  the 
Pope's  firmness  in  letting  them  all  of  that  family 
remain  at  Rome,  but  I  think  that  the  English  should 
put  a  little  reason  in  their  eagerness  to  go  to  her. 
Were  it  Josephine,  who  did  thousands  of  benevolent 
generous  acts;  Maria  Louisa,  who  was  twice  a  sacrifice 
to  politicks;  Madame  Lucien,1  who  is  an  excellent 
mother  and  wife,  I  think  the  attentions  would  be 
natural  and  commendable,  but  this  person  has  only 
been  cited  for  extreme  arrogance  in  prosperity,  ex- 
treme gallantry,  and  a  good  deal  of  beauty.  Louis 
Buonaparte2  inspires  great  esteem,  I  think,  but  he  is 
sickly  and,  I  believe,  scarcely  goes  to  his  sisters.  .  .  . 

Elizabeth,  Duchess  of  Devonshire, 

To  Augustus  Foster. 

Rome,  Dec.  16,  1816. 
.     .     .     I  hear  from  England  that  Lord  Byron's 
third  canto  of  Childe  Harold  is  beautiful,  but  Lord 

^■Madame  Lucien — She  was  widow  of  Monsieur  Jouberthon,  a  stockbroker,  and 
was  second  wife  of  Lucien  Bonaparte,  to  whom  she  bore  nine  children,  the  eldest 
of  whom,  Letitia,  married  Thomas  Wyse,  Esq.,  an  Irish  gentleman,  one  of  whose 
descendants,  Bonaparte  Wyse,  is  a  Government  Inspector  of  Irish  National  Schools. 

2  Louis  Bonaparte — Third  brother  of  Napoleon,  who  made  him  King  of  Holland. 
He  married  in  1802  Hortense  Eugenie  Beauharnais,  daughter  of  Viscount  B.  and 
of  Josephine,  who  was  daughter  of  Count  Tascher  de  la  Pagerie,  and  was  the  first 
wife  of  Napoleon.  His  son,  Charles  Louis  Napoleon  Bonaparte,  was  elected  in 
1848  President  of  the  French  Republic  by  5,562,834  votes  out  of  a  total  of  7,500,000, 
and  again  by  more  than  7,000,000  votes  in  1851,  and  in  the  following  year  he 
assumed  the  title  of  Emperor. 


Cowper  don't  like  it  so  much,  and  Lady  Bessborough 
is  sending  it  to  me,  and  I  long  for  it,  as,  however 
odious  his  character,  he  is  a  great  Poet.  M.  Lewis1 
told  me  that  he  believed  he  was  gone  to  Venice  in 
order  to  embark  for  Dalmatia.  M.  Lewis  till  last 
night  has  never  appeared.  Here,  as  at  Florence, 
he  shuts  himself  up  to  hold  converse  only  with  the 
departed.  I  have  begun  a  little  excavation  in  the 
Foro  Romano,  and  they  found  a  little  cup  or  calice. 
In  digging  close  to  the  single  Pillar,  they  found  it 
to  be  a  column  to  Phocas.2  I  am  having  the  Cup 
cleaned  a  little  and  put  together.  At  the  great 
excavation  they  found  a  part  of  the  Plan  of  Rome, 
which  joins  on  to  that  which  is  preserved  in  the 
Capitol  Museum.  Nothing  can  be  greater  than  the 
interest  which  this  excites.  I  have  employed  poor 
labourers  instead  of  forcats,  which  is  a  charity.  I 
saw  it  particularly  pleased  my  friend  Cardinal  Gon- 
salvi,  and  therefore  I  was  doubly  pleased  to  do  it.  .  .  . 

Elizabeth,  Duchess  of  Devonshire, 

To  Augustus  Foster. 

Rome,  December  29,  18 16. 

.  .  I  have  told  you,  I  think,  what  a  pro- 
digious improvement  Thorwaldsen  has  made  in  his 
works.  He  really  is  excellent,  and  a  very  interest- 
ing person  in  himself.  He  has  had  a  great  deal  to 
do,  and  Mr.  Hope,  his  great  patron,  has  desired  that 

1 M.  Lewis— M.  G.  L.,  novelist,  author  of  The  Monk  (1775-1818). 
5  Phocas — Emperor  of  Constantinople,  d.  610. 


he  will  finish  his  Jason  for  him;  but  Canova's  group 
for  the  Prince,  Mars  and  Venus,  is  the  most  beautiful 
thing  I  ever  saw,  and  the  best  of  his  works,  I  do 
think.  This  is  done  by  order,  and  he  is  finishing 
for  the  Prince  his  Nymph  and  Amorino,  which  he 
means  as  an  offering.  He  has  works  ordered  that 
will  take  up  twelve  years.  I  would  give  any  thing 
for  a  small  work  of  his,  but  it  is  hopeless,  and  a 
group  or  figure  I  can't  afford. 

Lord  Byron 

To  Elizabeth,  Duchess  of  Devonshire. 

Venice,  November  3,  1817. 

I  was  yesterday  honoured  by  your  Grace's  letter 
of  the  19th  ult.  The  newspapers  have,  I  fear,  de- 
ceived your  Grace,  in  common  with  many  others,  for, 
up  to  my  last  letters  from  England,  Newstead  Abbey 
has  not  been  sold,  and,  should  it  be  so  at  this 
moment,  I  shall  be  agreeably  surprized. 

Amongst  the  many  unpleasant  consequences  of 
my  residence  in  Piccadilly,  or  rather  the  cause  of  that 
residence,  I  can  assure  your  Grace  that  I  by  no 
means  look  upon  it  as  the  least  painful  that  my 
inconvenience  should  have  contributed  to  yours. 
Whatever  measures  Mr.  Denen  might  find  it  proper 
to  take  were  probably  what  he  deemed  his  duty,  and, 
though  I  regret  that  they  were  necessary,  ...  I 
am  still  more  sorry  to  find  that  they  seem  to  have 
been  inefficacious.  Indeed,  till  very  lately,  I  was 
not  aware  that  your  Grace  was  so  unlucky  as  to  have 


me  still  among  the  number  of  your  debtors.  I  shall 
write  to  the  person  who  has  the  management  of  my 
affairs  in  England,  and  although  I  have  but  little 
controul  over  either  at  present,  I  will  do  the  best  I 
can  to  have  the  remaining  balance  liquidated. — I 
have  the  honour  to  be,  with  great  respect,  Your 
Grace's  most  obedient,  Very  humble  servant, 


Augustus  Foster 

To  Elizabeth,  Duchess  of  Devonshire. 

Copenhagen,  August  25,  1818. 
.  .  I  find  M.  la  ferronays  a  great  resource 
here.  I  do  not  know  if  you  are  acquainted  with  him. 
He  has  been  nearly  caught  and  hung  by  Bonaparte's 
creatures;  often  on  the  coast  of  France  disguised  as 
a  smuggler,  and  for  six  years  a  common  soldier  in 
the  Austrian  army,  frequently  without  enough  to 
eat.  His  brother  was  killed  as  a  common  soldier  at 
the  battle  of  Lutzen,  being  then  in  the  French  ser- 
vice as  a  conscript.  He  was  with  Korsakow  at  the 
tremendous  battle  of  Zurich,  and  saw  the  ditches  of 
Waterloo  strewed  with  French  and  English  soldiers. 
Freddy  and  Cavendish  are  nourishing,  the  latter  as 
fat  as  ever. 

Augustus  Foster 

To  Elizabeth,  Duchess  of  Devonshire. 

Copenhagen,  Sept.  1,  18 18. 
.     .     .     Albinia  has  something  more  than  a  sus- 
picion that  a  third  little  being  is  on  its  way  up  to  the 


regions  of  light.  This,  I  know,  will  be  looked  on  as 
a  misfortune  by  you,  and  I  think  so  too,  unless  it 
should  be  of  the  female  sex  this  time,  which  would 
be  some  consolation.  We  shall  not  know  this,  how- 
ever, till  about  April,  so  there  may  be  time  to  make 
an  Italian  of  the  little  creature.     .     .     . 

Augustus  Foster 

To  Elizabeth,  Duchess  of  Devonshire. 

Copenhagen,  Jan.  9,  18 19. 
.     .     .     Cavendish  is  all  fat  as  yet,  but  speaks  at 
an  earlier  age  than  his  brother  did. 

Augustus  Foster 

To  Elizabeth,  Duchess  of  Devonshire. 

Copenhagen,  April  27,  1819. 
I  am  happy  to  tell  you  that  Albinia  has  at  last 
been  safely  delivered,  but  it  is  of  a  son  instead  of  the 
wished  for  daughter;  however,  as  I  assisted  this  time 
and  witnessed  her  sufferings,  the  little  delivered  was 
made  welcome.  The  event  happened  yesterday, 
early  in  the  morning.  .  .  .  You  never  mentioned 
the  affair  of  poor  Mr.  Colycar:  he  was  a  descendant 
of  the  Dukes  of  Ancaster,  and,  as  such,  one  out  of 
the  way  of  Freddy's  succession  to  the  situation  of 
Great  Chamberlain  (?)  of  England,  formerly  belonging 
to  the  Veres.  As  younger  sons  should  have  good 
names,  we  mean  to  give  the  newcomer  that  of  Vere 
to  shew  that  he  is  a  link  in  that  chain  of  descent. 


Augustus  Foster 

To  Elizabeth,  Duchess  oj  Devonshire. 

Krokkedahl,  June  7,  1819. 

.  .  .  What  you  say  of  A'  Court  I  think  very  just. 
Why,  with  a  good  estate  and  right  if  necessary  to 
a  pension,  dawdle  out  his  days  in  foreign  missions. 
It  is  well  enough  for  us  younger  brothers  who  have 
nor  house  nor  home,  but  the  Lords  of  the  Soil  might 
stay  in  their  castles,  particularly  when,  like  him, 
they  have  boroughs  at  their  disposition.  Peel1  has 
certainly  now  come  very  forward  on  the  Bullion 
question,  and  will  no  doubt  soon  verify  his  father's 
prediction  of  him.  It  is  really  interesting  to  see  the 
success  that  has  attended  old  Sir  Robert  Peel's  plan 
of  education.  He  was  himself  a  common  mill  boy, 
made  a  fortune  by  some  invention  in  the  manufactory, 
I  believe,  of  cotton,  and  determined  to  bring  up  his 
son  to  the  imitation  of  Pitt,  and  behold  that  very 
son  now  at  3  or  4  and  20,  putting  his  foot  into  the 
stirrup,  and  this  in  his  father's  lifetime,  and  in  spite 
of  his  father's  opposition  on  the  Bullion  question. 
Methinks  I  see  Freddy  at  a  distance  on  the  selfsame 
road,  and  Cavendish,  and  Vere  Henry  Louis  follow- 
ing at  full  gallop:  what  a  prospective  for  John  Bull. 
.  Matters  go  on  better  at  Paris,  thanks  to  De 
Serre.  It  was  necessary  to  stop  somewhere,  and 
shew  that  Louis  18  was  not  as  weak  as  poor  Louis 
16,  and  the  Ministers  may  now  have  a  little  more 
confidence  since  they  have  learned  that  Benjamin 

1  Peel— Sir  Robert  Peel,  second  baronet  (1788-1850).     The  statement  that  the 
first  baronet  was  once  "  a  common  mill  boy"  is  not  quite  correct. 


Constant,  Lafayette,1  &  Co.,  are  really  only  Jaseurs, 
and  that  their  friends  the  Regicides  are  not  popular. 
I  like  your  saying  that  the  difficulties  were  not  so 
great  at  Naples  when  poor  Lady  Shaftesbury,  with 
all  her  money,  could  not  get  lodged  there,  but  was 
obliged  to  invade  the  Duke's  apartments.  .  .  .  Lady 
Liverpool  seems  better;  she  has  consented  to  be 
Godmother  to  the  child,  so,  besides  the  names  of 
Vere  Henry,  we  have  called  him,  from  her,  Louis. 

The  Hon.  Mrs.  Lamb 

To  Augustus  Foster. 

Tunbridge  Wells,  July  31,  1819. 

.  .  .  I  like  this  place  very  much.  The  walks 
and  drives  are  beautiful,  and  I  drive  in  the  little  gigs 
of  the  place  with  quiet,  steady  ponies  who  know 
every  turn.  The  Noels2  and  Lady  Byron  are  my 
only  acquaintances  here,  but  as  I  am  very  fond  of 
the  latter,  it  satisfies  me.  She  has  been  very  much 
abused  in  Lord  Byron's  new  poem  of  Don  Juan 
under  the  name  of  Donna  Inez.  It  is  very  bad  in 
him,  and  the  whole  poem  is  in  a  very  bad  style, 
improper,  and  flippant,  and  very  odious,  but  it  is 
reckoned  clever. 

.  .  .  I  never  saw  so  clever  and  entertaining  a 
child  as  little  Ada,3  Lord  Byron's  child.  She  is  full 
of  fun,   but  very  good-tempered  and  good,  and  I 

1  Lafayette — Marquis  de  la  Fayette  (1757-1834). 

2  The  Noels — The  Milbankes  had  assumed  the  surname  of  Noel. 

3  Little  Ada — Only  child  of  Lord  Byron,  afterwards  married  to  the  Earl  of  Love- 
lace (1816-1852). 


hope  she  will  inherit  none  of  his  faults.  Poor  little 
thing!  she  is  early  celebrated  in  verse,  and  I  have 
no  doubt  he  will  be  always  trying  to  work  on  her 
mind  by  his  writings.     .     .     . 

Augustus  Foster 

To  Elisabeth,  Duchess  of  Devonshire. 

Copenhagen,  August  14,  18 19. 

.  .  .  Vere  is  like  Freddy,  and  is  a  very  fine 
child.  Cavy  shews  much  character,  but  is  too  fat 

Augustus  Foster 

To  Elizabeth,  Duchess  of  Devonshire. 

Copenhagen,  October  12,  18 19. 
Thorwaldsen  at  last  arrived  here  ten  days  ago,  but 
only  called  here  yesterday.  He  has  been  so  dis- 
coursed to  and  drank  to,  praised  and  panegyrized, 
that  the  poor  man  seems  quite  bothered;  but  he  was 
at  Albinia's  conversazione  last  night  and  appeared 
delighted  to  find  an  old  Roman  acquaintance  to  talk 
to  in  Italian.  .  .  .  Thorwaldsen  says  he  must 
have  occupation  and  means  to  model  through  the 
winter;  he  left  them  a  model  in  Alto  Rilievo  for  the 
public  walk  at  Lucerne  to  be  cut  out  of  the  rock.  I 
dare  say  it  will  be  very  fine,  but  he  leaves  it  to  the 
Swiss  to  execute  his  design;  so  the  Mercury  which 
you  admire  so  much  is  not  yet  in  marble.  He 
talks  of  the  work  in  marble  as  mere  mechanical.     It 


certainly  is  the  chief  thing,  however,  else  we  might 
be  satisfied  with  what  the  ancients  have  left  us. 

Augustus  Foster 

To  Elizabeth,  Duchess  of  Devonshire. 

Copenhagen,  Nov.  6,  1819. 

Lord  Strangford1  was  necessarily  em- 
ployed to  treat  with  Sweden  because  it  was  only  at 
Stockholm  that  the  Convention  could  be  negotiated. 
To  answer  your  question  as  to  what  share  I  had  in 
it,  I  have  only  to  send  you  the  extract  from  Lord 
Castlereagh's  Despatch,  which  follows:  —  "There 
remains  for  me  only  the  gratifying  task  of  signifying 
to  you  His  Royal  Highness'  full  approbation  of  your 
conduct  in  the  share  which  you  have  taken  in  the 
discussions  which  have  produced  the  settlement". 
This  I  look  upon  as  a  proof  of  bienveillance  in  Lord 
Castlereagh,  for  the  business  was,  of  course,  mainly 
carried  on  at  Stockholm.  Let  me  add  from  Planta's 
private  letter  of  October  7,  in  stating  that  Lord 
Castlereagh  acquiesced  in  my  request  to  remain 
here,  he  says,  "  and  that  he  is  very  well  pleased  that 
you  should,  for  the  present,  remain  where  you  have 
done  so  very  well  and  are  so  deservedly  esteemed. 
In  conveying  to  you  this  intelligence  I  use  Lord 
Castlereagh's  own  words."  .  .  .  Freddy  is  much 
admired  here,  Cavy  less  so,  though  he  improves. 
Vere  is  like  Freddy,  but  has  not  cut  teeth  yet. 

1  Lord  Strangford— A  distinguished  diplomatist  (1780-1855). 


Augustus  Foster 

To  Elizabeth,  Duchess  of  Devonshire. 

Copenhagen,  January  29,  1820. 
Cavendish  is  very  well  on  his  legs,  fat  and  stout, 
but  no  beauty — he  has,  however,  got  a  dimple  or 
two  and  a  pleasing  smile.      The   little    Vere  is  a 
beautiful  child. 

Baron  d 'Engestrbm 

To  Augustus  Foster. 

le  %juin,  1820. 

Monsieur, — Vous  savds  Monsieur  que  le  refus 
constant  de  Sa  Majeste"  Britannique  de  reconnaitre 
le  Roi  Charles  XIII  a  depuis  longtems  fait  prevoir 
la  necessity  de  faire  cesser  les  relations  Diplomatiques 
entre  les  deux  Monarques,  sans  faire  naltre  un  etat 
de  guerre  entre  les  deux  Nations. 

Le  Roi  a  par  consequent,  sans  manquer  au  Roi 
d'Angleterre,  pu  promettre  a  la  France,  la  cessation 
de  relations  qui  deja  touchaient  a  leur  fin. 

Le  Traite"  de  paix  conclu  a  Paris  le  6  Janvier 
dernier,  a  etd  dans  le  terns  communique"  au  Ministere 
de  Sa  Majestd,  et  la  Mission  de  Suede  a  quittd 

Votre  presence  quelqu'  agr^able  quelle  nous  soit, 
pourrait  donner  lieu  a  des  doutes  sur  l'intention  du 
Roi,  de  remplir  ses  engagemens.  Vous  sav^s  com- 
bien  II  y  est  fidele,  et  vous  ne  serds  pas  ^tonnd  que 
le  ze"le  dont  Je  suis  animd  pour  Son  auguste  personne, 
m'impose  le  devoir  de  vous  prier  de  ne  pas  accrediter 


434  THE   TW0   DUCHESSES. 

en  restant  plus  longtems  ici,  des  souptjons  que  le 
caractere  loyal  de  Sa  Majeste-  ne  merite  nullement. 

Je  crois  etre  ass^s  connu  de  Vous  Monsieur,  pour 
que  Vous  soyez  persuade^  de  la  parfaite  consideration 
et  de  l'attachement  sincere  avec  lesquels  j'ai  l'honneur 
d'etre,  Monsieur,  Votre  tres  humble  et  tres  obeissant 
Serviteur,  Le  Baron  d'Engestrom. 

The  Hon.  Mrs.  Lamb 

To  Augustus  Foster. 

Whitehall,  November  16,  1820. 

.  .  .  Isn't  it  extraordinary  that  the  Queen  has 
suddenly  dismissed  Bergamo  and  all  the  family  upon 
finding,  she  says,  in  the  Evidence  that  they  had 
cheated  her  in  some  old  money  matters.  Now  that 
the  trial  is  over,  people  are  wondering  what  is  to  be 
done  with  her  next.  I  suppose  there  will  be  some 
battling  about  it  in  the  House  of  Commons  now  it  is 
over.  It  would  be  handsomer  to  treat  her  at  once  as 
Queen,  and  the  moment  she  is  no  longer  persecuted 
her  popularity  will  cease.  Every  body  here  seems 
to  rejoice  that  the  business  is  at  an  end  without 
coming  to  the  other  house,  as  it  would  have  been  a 
horrid  scene.  She  burst  into  tears,  I  hear,  when  the 
news  was  brought  her.  It  is  true  that  in  signing  her 
last  protest  she  said,  "  Regina  still  in  spite  of  them". 
Many  of  her  bon  mots  are  told.  I  suppose  you  have 
heard  of  her  saying  she  never  committed  adultery 
but  once,  and  that  was  with  Mrs.  Fitzherbert's  hus- 
band, and  she  has  repented  of  it  ever  since. 


Angus  his  Foster 

To  Elisabeth,  Duchess  of  Devonshire. 

Copenhagen,  Nov.  25,  1820. 

.  .  .  We  are  in  the  greatest  anxiety  about  poor 
little  Vere,  whose  teething  has,  I  fear,  brought  on 
water  on  the  brain.  The  little  fellow  is  very  strong, 
and  struggles  hard  with  his  malady,  or  rather  maladies, 
for  he  has  several  on  him,  which  come  on  in  suc- 
cession. His  nurse  has  now  been  up  with  him  for 
six  successive  nights.  Last  night  I  watched  till  7 
this  morning,  and  could  with  difficulty  force  his 
Mamma  away  to  take  an  hour's  rest.     .     .     . 

Augustus  Foster 

To  Elizabeth,  Duchess  of  Devonshire. 

Copenhagen,  Nov.  28,  1820. 

I  must  write  a  line  to  say  that  your  little  grandson 
Vere  has  overcome  his  malady.  When  we  had 
given  him  over,  I  warmed  his  feet  with  my  hands 
until  the  perspiration  came,  and  his  nurse  put  him  in 
a  hot  bath,  which  slowly  brought  back  the  life  into 
his  body.  Albinia  has  had  nothing  but  fatigue  and 
watching,  and  yet  bore  it  with  more  strength  than  I 
thought  she  possessed.  I  believe  I  wrote  by  last 
mail  to  say  the  child  could  not  recover,  as  all  the 
doctors  thought.  .     . 


Lord  Byron 

To  Elizabeth,  Duchess  of  Devonshire. 

Ravenna,  July  15,  1821. 

Madame, — I  am  about  to  request  a  favor  of  Your 
Grace  without  the  smallest  personal  pretensions  to 
obtain  it.  It  is  not,  however,  for  myself,  and  yet  I 
err,  for  surely  what  we  solicit  for  our  friends  is,  or 
ought  to  be,  nearest  to  ourselves.  If  I  fail  in  this 
application,  my  intrusion  will  be  its  own  reward — if 
I  succeed,  Your  Grace's  reward  will  consist  in  having 
done  a  good  action,  and  mine  in  your  pardon  for  my 
presumption.  My  reason  for  applying  to  you  is  this: 
Your  Grace  has  been  long  at  Rome,  and  could  not 
be  long  any  where  without  the  influence  and  the 
inclination  to  do  good. 

Amongst  the  list  of  exiles  on  account  of  the  late 
suspicions,  and  the  intrigues  of  the  Austrian  Govern- 
ment (the  most  infamous  in  history),  there  are  many 
of  my  acquaintances  in  Romagna,  and  some  of  my 
friends :  of  these  more  particularly  are  the  two  Counts 
Gamba,1  of  a  noble  and  respected  family  in  this  city. 
In  common  with  thirty  or  more  of  all  ranks  they  have 
been  hurried  from  their  home  without  process,  without 
hearing,  without  accusation:  the  father  is  universally 
respected  and  liked;  his  family  is  numerous  and 
mostly  young,  and  these  are  now  left  without  pro- 
tection; the  son  is  a  very  fine  young  man,  with  very 
little  of  the  vices  of  his  age  or  climate;  he  has,  I 
believe,   the  honor  of  an  acquaintance  with  Your 

1  Counts  Gamba — Father  and  brother  of  the  Countess  Guiccioli,  whose  connection 
with  Byron  is  sufficiently  well  known. 

FROM   LORD   BYRON.  437 

Grace,  having  been  presented  by  Madame  Martinetti. 
He  is  but  one  and  twenty,  and  lately  returned  from 
his  studies  at  Rome.  Could  Your  Grace,  or  would 
you,  ask  the  repeal  of  both,  or  at  least  of  one  of  these 
from  those  in  power  in  the  holy  city.  They  are  not 
aware  of  my  solicitation  in  their  behalfs,  but  I  will 
take  it  upon  me  to  say  that  they  shall  neither  dis- 
honour your  goodness  nor  my  request.  If  only  one 
can  be  obtained,  let  it  be  the  father,  on  account  of 
his  family.  I  can  assure  Your  Grace  and  the  very 
pious  Government  in  question  that  there  can  be  no 
danger  in  this  act  of — clemency,  shall  I  call  it?  It 
would  be  but  justice  with  us — but  here\  Let  them 
call  it  what  they  will.  ...  I  cannot  express  the 
obligation  which  I  should/^/.  I  say  feel  only  because 
I  do  not  see  how  I  could  repay  it  to  Your  Grace.  I 
have  not  the  slightest  claim  upon  you,  unless,  perhaps, 
through  the  memory  of  our  late  friend,  Lady  Mel- 
bourne.1 I  say  friend  only,  for  my  relationship  with 
her  family  has  not  been  fortunate  for  them,  nor  for 
me.  If,  therefore,  you  should  be  disposed  to  grant 
my  request,  I  shall  set  it  down  to  your  tenderness 
for  her  who  is  gone,  and  who  was  to  me  the  best  and 
kindest  of  friends.  The  persons  for  whom  I  solicit 
will  (in  case  of  success)  neither  be  in  ignorance  of 
their  protectress  nor  indisposed  to  acknowledge  their 
sense  of  her  kindness  by  a  strict  observance  of  such 
conduct  as  may  justify  her  interference.  If  my  ac- 
quaintance with  Your  Grace's  character  was  even 
slighter  than  it  is  through  the  medium  of  some  of  our 

1  Lady  Melbourne — Sister  of  Sir   Ralph   Milbanke,  and  aunt  of  Lady  Byron 


English  friends,  I  had  only  to  turn  to  the  letters  of 
Gibbon  (now  on  my  table)  for  a  full  testimony  to  its 
high  and  amiable  qualities.  I  have  the  honor  to  be, 
with  great  respect,  Your  Grace's  most  obedient,  very 
humble  servant,  Byron. 

P.S. — Pray  excuse  my  scrawl,  which  perhaps  you 
may  be  enabled  to  decypher  from  a  long  acquaintance 
with  the  handwriting  of  Lady  Bessborough.  I 
omitted  to  mention  that  the  measures  taken  here 
have  been  as  blind  as  impolitic — this  I  happen  to 
know.  Out  of  the  list  in  Ravenna  there  are  at  least 
ten  not  only  innocent  but  even  opposite  in  principle 
to  the  liberals.  It  has  been  the  work  of  some 
blundering  Austrian  spy,  or  angry  priest,  to  gratify 
his  private  hatred.     Once  more  your  pardon. 

Augustus  Foster 

To  Elizabeth,  Duchess  of  Devonshire. 

Copenhagen,  July  20,  1821. 

I  hear  Lord  Byron  is  at  Ravenna,  deeply  in  love 
with  the  fairest  and  wealthiest  sposa1  in  the  place. 
Is  it  so?  An  Italian  here  tells  me  he  was  making 
love  to  a  Venetian  lady  when  the  other  came  into 
the  room,  and  instantly  he  asked  to  be  introduced, 
followed  her  to  Ravenna,  and  there  fixed  himself. 

Of  all  the  cities  in  Romanian  lands, 

The  chief  and  most  renowned  Ravenna  stands 

may  therefore  again  be  trumpeted  forth  by  another 

1  Sposa — The  Countess  Guiccioli. 


Lord  Byron 

To  Elizabeth,  Duchess  of  Devonshire. 

Ravenna,  July  30,  1821. 

Madam, — The  inclosed  letter,  which  I  had  the 
honor  of  addressing  to  Your  Grace,  unfortunately  for 
the  subject  of  it,  and  for  the  writer,  arrived  after 
Your  Grace's  departure.  I  venture  to  forward  it  to 
Spa,  in  the  hope  that  you  may  be  perhaps  tempted 
to  interest  yourself  in  favour  of  the  persons  to  whom 
it  refers,  by  writing  a  few  lines  to  any  of  your  Roman 
acquaintances  in  power.  Two  words  from  Your 
Grace,  I  cannot  help  thinking,  would  be  sufficient, 
even  if  the  request  were  still  more  presumptuous. 
I  have  the  honor  to  be,  with  the  greatest  respect, 
your  most  obedient  very  humble  servant,     Byron. 

To  Her  Grace  The  Duchess  of  Devonshire,  &c.  &c.  &c. 
Spa.    In  Allemagne  presso  Liege,  Ibi  vel  ubi. 

Elizabeth,  Duchess  of  Devonshire, 

To  Lord  Byron. 

Spa,  August  17,  1821. 

I  regret  very  much  that  the  letter  which  your 
Lordship  directed  to  Rome  did  not  arrive  before  I 
left,  for  it  is  always  easier  to  explain  the  subject 
which  one  is  anxious  about  in  conversation  than  by 
writing,  unless  indeed  the  pen  is  held  by  the  author 
of  Childe  Harold.  I  will,  however,  certainly  write 
to  Rome  about  the  persons  who  interest  you  so 
much,  and  shall  be  happy  if  I  can  be  of  any  use  to 


them.  I  recollect  Madame  Martinetti's  introducing 
to  me  a  gentleman  of  the  name  of  Gamba,  but  it  is 
the  warm  interest  which  you  express,  my  Lord,  that 
will  make  me  particularly  anxious  to  succeed  for 
them.  Lady  Melbourne  had,  I  know,  the  greatest 
regard  and  friendship  for  you,  and  I  had  ever  the 
sincerest  affection  for  her.  Whatever  regrets  subse- 
quent occurrences  might  have  occasioned  her,  I 
believe  her  friendship  for  you  was  unvaried.  I  have 
found  no  difficulty  in  decyphering  your  letter  without 
ever  being  indebted  to  Lady  Bessborough  for  that 
advantage,  and  I  have  only  to  wish  that  I  may  be 
successful  in  my  application,  and  may  be  able  to 
realize  the  hopes  you  have  formed  from  any  influence 
I  may  possess  at  Rome.  I  always  wish  to  do  any 
good  I  can,  and  in  that  poor  Gibbon  and  my  other 
friends  have  but  done  me  justice,  but  believe  me 
also  that  there  is  a  character  of  justice,  goodness,  and 
benevolence  in  the  present  Government  of  Rome 
which,  if  they  are  convinced  of  the  just  claim  of  the 
Comtes  de  Gamba,  will  make  them  grant  their 
request.  Of  Cardinal  Gonsalvi  it  is  truly  said,  "  II 
a  etabli  une  nouvelle  politique  formee  sur  la  verite 
et  la  franchise.  L'estime  de  toute  1' Europe  le  paye 
de  ses  fatigues."  Pray  do  not  judge  of  the  holy  City 
from  the  reports  of  others,  and,  as  no  one  has  ever 
described  its  monuments  with  such  beauty  of  poetry 
as  yourself,  so  no  one,  I  am  sure,  would  do  more 
justice  to  the  merits  of  its  inhabitants  if  you  staid 
long  enough  to  know  them.  I  beg  of  you,  my  Lord, 
once  more  to  be  assured  of  the  pleasure  with  which 
I  shall  undertake,  and  the  satisfaction  which  I  shall 


feel,  if  I   obtain  the  recall  of  your  friends  to  their 
mother  country.  E.  Devonshire. 

I   give  up  the  Austrian   Government  to  all  you 
choose  to  say  of  them. 

The  Duke  of  Wellington 

To  Elizabeth,  Duchess  of  Devonshire. 

London,  Nov.  25,  1821. 

My  dear  Duchess, — I  received  your  note  in 
Staffordshire,  and  on  my  arrival  in  London  your 
beautiful  present.  Be  assured  that  I  prize  the  latter 
much,  and  that  I  will  have  the  addition  made  to  it 
of  your  own  Picture,  and  keep  it  in  my  own  Library 
as  a  memorial  of  your  kindness  to  me.  I  hear  that 
you  go  on  Tuesday,  and  I  call  with  this  note  in 
hopes  of  seeing  you  once  more  before  you  go,  as  I 
am  going  out  of  town  to  stay  this  evening.  Ever 
yours  most  sincerely,  Wellington. 

Elizabeth,  Duchess  of  Devonshire, 

To  Augustus  Foster. 

Paris,  December*),  1821. 

.  .  .  Our  affairs  seem  settled  at  home,  except 
as  to  Canning.  Never  surely  did  so  clever  a  man 
so  mar  his  own  fortunes;  he  now  declines  India.  It 
is  only  strange  that  they  should  ever  think  of  send- 
ing him.  It  is  his  eloquence  which  they  want  and 
not  his  government  of  India.     .     . 


Augustus  Foster 

To  Elizabeth,  Duchess  of  Devonshire. 

Richmond,  December  16,  1821. 
.  .  .  I  am  sorry  for  Canning,  but  I  certainly 
think  he  was  right  to  refuse  India;  had  he  accepted 
it  would  have  been  put  to  the  score  of  necessity. 
As  it  is,  I  think  even  the  Mogul  himself  must  think 
better  of  him,  and  things  may  turn  up  better  for  him 
hereafter;  besides,  what  would  have  become  of  his 
daughter  and  other  children.     .     .     . 

Elisabeth,  Duchess  of  Devonshire, 

To  Augustus  Foster. 

Mav  27,  1823. 

There  is  illness  and  influenza1  all  over  London. 

August  20,  1823. 

Lord  Byron  has  put  into  Naples;  he  is  carrying 
out  arms,  provisions,  and  medicines. 

February  24,  1824. 

.  .  .  .  Grecian  affairs  also  promise  well,  and 
Byron  has  given  them  ;£  10,000,  besides  arms,  medi- 
cine, and  surgeons. 

The  Earl  of  Aberdeen 

To  Augustus  Foster. 

Nice,  January  19,  1826. 

It  is  a  great  disappointment  to  me  to  be  so  near 
without  being   able  to   see    you.     This    indeed   at 

1  Influema — This  remark  shows  that  the  term  influenza  is  not  of  recent  origin. 

FROM  THE  EARL  OF  ABERDEEN.        443 

present  would  not  be  easy  from  the  state  of  the 
roads  and  the  quantity  of  snow,  but  I  fear  I  shall  be 
obliged  to  leave  Nice  in  a  short  time,  and  before  the 
communication  is  opened  for  carriages  with  Turin. 
Lady  Aberdeen  was  unwell  when  I  left  England, 
and  has  been  worse  since,  so  that  the  physicians 
have  forbidden  her  to  think  of  coming  to  join  me 
here,  and  although  she  is  now  rather  better,  she  is 
impatient  for  my  return.  I  have  not  quite  deter- 
mined whether  to  leave  my  daughter  here  or  take 
her  back  with  me  to  England.  For  myself,  I  like 
this  place  extremely,  the  climate  delightful,  and  the 
country  very  beautiful.  I  could  pass  three  or  four 
months  here  every  winter  with  great  pleasure.  I 
am  very  glad  that  you  like  your  residence;  indeed 
you  must  be  difficult,  with  two  such  towns  as  Turin 
and  Genoa,  not  to  be  well  pleased.  I  had  never 
seen  Turin  until  last  year,  and  was  quite  surprised 
to  find  so  beautiful  a  town.  It  has  the  reputation  of 
being  rather  dull,  but,  compared  with  this  place  it 
must  be  all  liveliness  and  gaiety,  for,  notwithstand- 
ing the  natural  charms  of  Nice,  I  never  knew  a 
place  with  fewer  intellectual  resources.  It  is  very 
full  at  present;  many  English,  but  not  such  as  I  know. 
There  are  some  very  good  French  families  and  other 
foreigners.  Madame  Narischkin  arrived  here  on 
the  very  day  on  which  we  received  the  news  of  the 
death  of  the  Emperor  Alexander.  This  death  has 
thrown  his  country  into  great  confusion,  for,  although 
matters  may  be  settled  for  the  present,  it  is  to  be 
presumed  that  at  some  future  period  a  catastrophe 
is  by  no  means  improbable.     Whatever  happens,  I 

444  THE   TW0   DUCHESSES. 

have  only  one  wish,  which  is  that  we  may  preserve 
peace;  if  we  succeed  in  this,  it  ought  to  be  a  matter 
of  indifference  to  us  who  is  Emperor.     .     .     . 

Miss   Vere  Hobart1 

To  Mrs   Foster. 

Whitehall,  April  27,  1827. 

Since  I  wrote  to  you  last  Tuesday,  I  believe  what 
I  then  told  you  as  positive  news  has  been  undone, 
and  (?)  twenty  times.  Lord  James  Stuart  has 
just  been  here  in  great  joy  saying  that  Lord  Lans- 
down  has  agreed  with  Mr.  Canning,  but  what  his 
place  will  be  is  not  yet  declared.  It  is  a  grand 
jumble  altogether.  We  were  last  night  at  the 
Robinsons.  After  Sarah2  desiring  to  see  us  she  was 
too  unwell  to  do  so  when  we  arrived;  she  is  to  be  kept 
so  exceedingly  quiet,  but  I  believe  her  matters  are 
going  on  perfectly  well.  Mr.  R.s  gave  us  all  the 
history  of  his  Peerage  and  his  Majesty's  gracious- 
ness,  and  shewed  us  the  arms  and  supporters  of  his 
new  dignity.  He  is  to  be  gazetted  to-night,  conse- 
quently from  this  day  we  must  call  him  Viscount 
Goderich.  Lady  de  Grey4  declared  she  will  spell 
him  Goodrich,  because  elle  s'est  mise  en  tete  that  it 
should  be  so,  but  he  says  not.     .     .     . 

1  Miss  Vere  Hobart — Half-sister  of  Mrs.  Foster,  and  afterwards  married  to 
Donald  Cameron  of  LochieL  2  Sarah — Lady  Sarah  Robinson. 

8  Mr.  R. — Frederick  Robinson,  created  in  1827  Viscount  Goderich.  He  was 
Prime  Minister  for  a  few  months  in  1827-8  in  succession  to  Canning,  and  was 
created  Earl  of  Ripon  in  1833(1782-1859). 

4  Lady  De  Grey— Countess  De  Grey,  sister-in-law  of  Lord  Goderich  (1782-1859). 


Count  John  Anthony  Capo  d'fstrias,1  President  of  the  Greek 
Republic,  on  his  embarkation  for  Greece,  to  Augustus 

ANCONA,20^^,  1827. 
3  December 

Je  ne  saurais  assez  exprimer  a  Votre-  Excellence 
combien  je  suis  toucb.6  de  l'interet  quelle  se  plait  de 
me  temoigner,  et  dont  sa  lettre  du  26  Novembre 
m'apporte  une  nouvelle  preuve. 

Monsieur  le  Vice-Consul  d'Angleterre,  en  se  con- 
formant a  ses  ordres,  me  fit  trouver  a  Bologne  une 
lettre  de  sa  part  dans  laquelle  il  me  donnait  tous  les 
renseignments  qui  etoit  a  sa  connaissance.  La  saison 
orageuse  dans  ces  mers  cette  annde  plus  que  de 
coutume  ne  laisse  cependant  aborder  dans  le  port 
d'Ancona  depuis  le  20  novembre  aucun  batiment 
ni  grand  ni  petit,  et  ce  fait  explique  assez  le  retard 
qu'eprouve  celui  que  j'attends.  Je  prends  patience, 
et  je  tache  de  me  consoler  en  m'occupant  d'avance 
des  affaires  tres  difficiles,  et  assur&nent  peu  agreables, 
qui  me  sont  reserves;  celle  de  la  piraterie,  dont 
Votre  Excellence  me  parle,  en^st  une,  et  elle  reclame 
sans  doute  de  promptes  et  fortes  mesures ; — mais 
comment  s'y  atteindre  tant  que  la  misere  la  plus 
effrayante  maitrisera  absolument  en  Grece  tous  les 
hommes  et  toutes  leurs  situations.  Lorsqu'il  en  sera 
autrement,  et  je  l'espere  de  la  justice  et  de  la 
munificence  des  cinq  cours  alliees,  je  vais  repondre 
qu'une  simple  proclamation  donnee  avec  pleine  con- 
naissance de  cause,  et  soutenue  par  des  forces  mari- 
times  soldts  fera  disparaitre  le  desordre  et  devoilera 

1  Count  Capo  dlstrias— See  Appendix. 


a  l'Europe  les  veritable  pirates.  Jusque  la  je  ne  puis 
que  faire  des  veux,  et  V.E.  ne  doute  pas  de  ceux  que 
je  forme  pour  etre  une  heure  plutot  sur  les  lieux. 
Quelle  veuille  me  continuer  son  amitie\  et  croire 
aux  sentimens  avec  les  quelles  j'ai  l'honneur  d'etre 
de  Votre  Excellence  le  tres  humble  et  tres  obeissant 
serviteur.  J.  Capo  d'Istrias. 

A  Son  Excellence,  Mons.  de  Foster,  a  Turin. 


Copy  of  a  letter  from  Count  John  Anthony  Capo  d'Istrias, 
President  of  the  Greek  Republic,  to  Augustus  Foster  on 
his  embarkation  for  Greece. 

.  20  November    a 

Ancona,        '  — ^-,  1827. 
3  December 

I  know  not  how  sufficiently  to  express  to  your 
Excellency  how  much  I  am  affected  by  the  interest 
which  you  are  pleased  to  testify  towards  me,  and  of 
which  your  letter  of  November  26  brings  me  fresh 

The  English  Vice-Consul,  in  accordance  with  the 
instructions  received  from  your  Excellency,  addressed 
to  me  at  Bologna  a  letter,  in  which  he  gave  me  all 
the  information  in  his  possession.  The  more  than 
usually  stormy  season,  however,  of  this  year  in  these 
seas  has,  ever  since  November  20,  rendered  it  im- 
possible for  any  vessel  whatever,  large  or  small,  to 
enter  the  port  of  Ancona,  and  this  fact  sufficiently 
explains  the  delay  in  arrival  of  the  one  which  I  am 
expecting.  I  try  to  be  as  patient  as  possible,  and 
endeavour  to  console  myself  by  occupation  in  ad- 
vance   with    the    many  difficult   and   by  no  means 


agreeable  affairs  which  await  my  attention.  One  of 
these  is  the  question  of  piracy,  which  is  referred  to 
in  your  Excellency's  letter,  and  it  no  doubt  requires 
prompt  and  strong  measures.  But  how  deal  with  it 
so  long  as  the  most  frightful  misery  shall  continue  to 
dominate  absolutely  in  Greece  all  the  people  and  all 
their  belongings.  Whenever  different  circumstances 
shall  arise,  as  I  hope  will  be  the  case  through  the 
justice  and  munificence  of  the  five  allied  Courts,  I 
will  reply  that  a  simple  proclamation,  couched  in 
plain  language,  and  backed  by  a  display  of  armed 
maritime  forces,  will  cause  the  disappearance  of  dis- 
order, and  will  unveil  to  Europe  the  real  pirates. 
Until  then  I  can  only  form  resolutions,  and  your 
Excellency  cannot  doubt  my  desire  to  be  as  early  as 
possible  on  the  ground. 

I  beg  you  will  continue  your  friendship  and  rest 
assured  of  the  sentiments  with  which  I  have  the 
honor  to  be  your  Excellency's  very  humble  and  very 
obedient  servant,  J.  Capo  d'Istrias. 

To  His  Excellency,  Mr.  de  Foster,  &c,  Turin. 

Christian  8,  King  of  Denmark, 

To  Augustus  Foster. 

Copenhagen,  le  10  Avril,  1840. 

Monsieur,  vous  m'avez  sensiblement  rejoui  en 
m'adressant  vos  vceux  a  l'occasion  de  mon  avene- 
ment  au  trone  de  mes  ancetres. 

Des  antdcedants  qui  sont  graves  dans  ma  memoire 


et  qui  vous  reservent  une  place  bien  honorable  dans 
mon  souvenir  ne  me  laissaient  aucune  doute  sur  la 
part  sincere  que  vous  voudriez  bien  prendre  a  un 
evenement  aussi  important  pour  moi  et  pour  le 
Dannemarc,  que  vous  avez  appris  a  cherir  durant  un 
long  sejour  pres  de  nous.  Mais  il  ne  m'a  pas  ete 
moins  agrdable  d'en  recevoir  l'assurance  par  la  lettre 
que  vous  m'avez  adressee. 

J'aurai  d'abord  voulu  vous  repondre,  arm  de  vous 
porter  mes  sinceres  remercimens,  mais  des  occupa- 
tions assidues  m'ont  empeche  de  m'acquitter  d'un 
devoir  cher  a  mon  cceur,  aussi  savais-je  que  vous 
etiez  occupe  a  quitter  Turin  a  cet  epoque. 

Je  saisis  avec  empressement  la  perspective  que 
vous  me  donnez  d'une  visite  en  Dannemarc;  je  n'ai 
pas  besoin  de  vous  assurer  que  vous  serez  toujours 
le  bienvenu  pres  de  moi  et  que  nommement  durant 
cet  ete  la  fete  du  sacre  (?)  au  Chateaux  de  Frederiks- 
borg,  fixe  au  28  Juin,  presenterait  peutetre  un  double 
inter£t  pour  vous.  Celui  que  vous  voudrez  bien  me 
porter  en  qualite  d'ancien  ami,  me  sera  toujours  le 
plus  cher,  et  c'est  en  vous  assurant  de  l'inviolabilite 
de  mes  sentimens  pour  vous  que  j'ai  le  plaisir  de 

[A  line  torn  out]. 
— Votre,  tout  affectionne,  Christian  R. 

Madame  Foster  trouve  ici  mes  complimens  et 
ceux  de  la  Reine,  mon  epouse. 

FROM  THE   HON.   MRS.  LAMB.  449 

The  Hon.  Mrs.  Lamb 

To  Augustus  Foster. 

D.  House,  Wednesday,  1845. 

You  will  have  heard  of  poor  Lady  Holland's1 
death.  She  will  be  a  great  loss  to  society,  and  one 
thinks  now  only  of  her  kind  feelings  and  steady 
friendship,  and  forgets  her  little  whims  and  failings, 
and  all  one  disliked  before.  Her  will  is  much  talked 
of;  it  is  said  she  has  left  Lord  John  Russell  ^1500 
a  year,  the  Kensington  estate  for  his  life,  and  to 
go  at  his  death  to  Lady  Lilford;  to  Charles  Fox 
^2000.  He  was  provided  for  before  when  Ampt- 
hill  was  sold,  and  is  well  off;  innumerable  little 
legacies  to  friends;  to  Lady  Palmerston  ^300,  a 
picture  of  Lord  Melbourne  by  Landseer,  and  all  her 
fans;  to  Charles  Howard  her  dictionaries  and  ^200; 
to  her  doctor  ^1500  and  ^50  a  year;  to  Harold, 
her  page,  ^150  a  year;  to  all  her  servants  some- 
thing; a  picture  to  the  Queen  if  she  would  con- 
descend to  accept  it;  her  Napoleon  box  to  the 
National  Museum;  ^300  for  a  neat  monument  of 
herself.  How  much  she  seems  to  have  thought  of 
what  every  body  supposed  she  dreaded  the  idea,  but 
she  met  death  calmly  and  with  fortitude.  Lady 
Lilford  and  her  younger  sons  were  with  her. 

1  Lady  Holland — See  Appendix. 


The  Hon.  Mrs.  Lamb 

To  Augustus  Foster. 

Devonshire  House,  Monday,  July  20,  1846. 

My  dear  Augustus, — Here    I   am   indeed  in  the 

tourbillon,  such  as  I  never  thought  to  have  mixed 

in  again;    a  great  ball  to-night — a  dinner  first  to 

Royalties — this,  however,   I  am  not   to  be  at,   the 

tables  were  full.     I  don't  go  to  any  parties  out  of 

the  house,  and  the  heat  is  so  overcoming  that  I  shall 

be  happy  to  find  myself  at  Melbourne  again,  where 

I  return  with  Lord  Melbourne :  he  is,  of  course,  not 

able  to  come  to  these  parties,  though  pretty  well. 

Lord   Beauvale  has  suffered  much  from  gout,  and 

wants  to  go  to  Buxton.     Lady  Carlisle  goes  back 

Tuesday,  and  all  the  world  seems  on  the  wing.     I 

am  very  glad  Frederick  enjoys  himself,  and  can  be 

driven   about.      Lady   Palmerston   says  they  have 

nothing  to  give,  and  are  tormented  with  applications. 

It  is  reported  Lord  Minto  is  to  go  to  Vienna;  he 

did  not  wish  it  originally. 


I  hear  things  are  not  quite  settled.  Ministers 
were  beat  on  the  question  of  the  Bishopricks  of 
Bangor  and  St.  Asaph  in  the  Lords,  and  will  be, 
very  likely,  on  the  sugar  duties  in  the  Commons;  if 
so,  they  mean  to  dissolve,  so,  what  will  come  of  it 
all?     Nothing,  it  seems,  is  ever  to  be  fixed  again. 

The  fete  last  night  was  most  brilliant.  The  new 
fashion  of  dinners  is  to  have  several  little  round 
tables  instead  of  one  large  one,  and  it  seems  to 
answer  and  to  be  thought  pleasant.     Every  body's 


place  was  settled  beforehand,  and  the  lady's  name  on 
her  plate.  Lady  Pollington  rebelled  and  tried  not 
to  sit  in  her  allotted  place;  she  ran  away,  but  was 
brought  back.  Lord  Salisbury1  has  been  a  second 
time  refused  by  Lady  Mary  West;  there  are  many 
jokes  about  it;  he  was  overheard  telling  her  he 
should  not  live  above  five  years,  and  then  she  would 
be  a  rich  widow;  she  asked  him  for  24  hours  to 
consider,  and  was  heard  to  say,  "I'll  tell  you  at 
Lady  Shelley's  ",  but,  however,  it  ended  in  a  refusal, 
and  he  looks  very  sheepish.  She  said  there  were 
some  things  she  liked  in  him,  his  caring  for  the 
poor,  and  living  in  the  country,  and  that  she  could 
like  him  better  than  the  idle  dandies  about  town. 

Lady  Byron 

To  Vere  Foster. 

Brighton,  February  14,  1854. 
Wishing  to  contribute  anonymously  I  will  trouble 
you  with  the  inclosed  480  quarts  of  soup  and  the 
use  of  the  tickets.  The  entrance  of  a  third  person 
prevented  me  from  expressing  all  the  sympathy  I 
felt  in  your  earnest  desire  for  Truth,  and  my  wish 
that  your  Life  may  be  the  means  of  promoting  it — 
for  "  the  Life  is  the  Light "  in  no  mystical  sense,  but 
as  matter  of  fact  open  to  the  observation  of  every 
one, — Believe  me,  with  sincere  esteem,  yours, 

A.  J.   Noel  Byron. 

1  Lord  Salislury — James  B.  W.  G.  Cecil,  eighth  Earl  and  second  Marquis  of  S. 
(1791-1868),  father  of  the  present  Prime  Minister.  He  married  first  in  1821  Frances 
Gascoyne,  by  whom  he  had  seven  children,  including  the  present  Marquis,  and 
secondly,  in  1847  Lady  Mary  West  (whose  second  refusal  was  not  final),  daughter 
of  the  Earl  of  Delawarr,  by  whom  he  had  five  children. 


Lady  Byron 

To  Vere  Foster. 

October  6,  1855. 

I  have  not  as  much  time  to  write  to  you  by  this 
post  as  I  could  wish.  But  as  your  stay  at  Kirkby,1 
for  which  I  heartily  thank  you,  will  be  drawing  to 
a  close,  I  will  touch  on  one  or  two  points.  Your 
observations  are  all  of  a  very  useful  character. 

As  to  the  difference,  I  believe  that  which  is  gener- 
ally recognized  as  to  man  and  wife  is  true  of  most 
intimate  associations  —  that  if  the  parties  cannot 
settle  their  own  quarrel,  nobody  can  do  it  for  them. 
Regulations  made  by  authority,  even  if  it  were 
possible  to  secure  their  justice,  are  likely  to  irritate 
one  side  at  least.  However,  I  will  consider  the 
matter.  Congeniality  seems  to  me  essential  between 
the  two  heads  of  the  school.  Have  you  heard  Miss 
F.?  I  quite  agree  about  the  Crochet,  and  have 
more  than  once  urged  the  bread-making  occupations 
in  preference  to  the  Lady-like.  Brick  floor  shall  be 
attended  to.     .     .     . 

Lady  Byron 

To  Vere  Foster. 

Brighton,  October  7,  1855. 

On  reading  your  letter  again  I  saw  that  you  had 
heard  both  plaintiffs.  If  the  wife  of  the  future  In- 
cumbent should  prove,  as  I  hope,  a  kind  and  sensible 

1  Kirkiy — Kirkby-Mallory  in  Leicestershire,  where  Lady  Byron  owned  an  estate. 

FROM   LADY   BYRON.  453 

person,  she  may  have  a  good  influence  on  such 
matters,  and  present  legislation  is  so  much  better 
than  absent — or  Colonial — that  I  should  willingly 
waive  my  rights. 

Mr.  Noel  does  much  more  than  could  be  expected 
from  any  regular  Land  Agent  with  respect  to  Schools 
and  plans  for  the  Poor,  but  it  is  not  the  province  in 
which  he  is  specially  qualified  to  judge,  and  his 
opinions  are  not  always  coincident  with  my  own, 
though  his  aims  are.  The  Pastoral  Institution,  were 
it  properly  carried  out,  would  complete  the  economy 
of  a  rural  district  better  than  any  other  means. 

What  is  your  opinion  of  the  course  which  might 
be  most  effectual  in  lessening  the  temptation  to 
drunkenness  in  such  a  Village?  Games?  Good 
Readers  reading  amusing  stories  to  small  groups? 
Little  Exhibitions?  I  dare  not  propose  what  I  should 
think  best — Dramatic  Representations.     .     .     . 

Lady  Byron 

To  Vere  Foster. 

February  5,  1856. 

Much  might  be  said  in  answer  to  Mr.  Barnard's1 
enquiry  about  Preventive  Institutions.  I  wish  I 
know  who  could  say  it.  Ill  as  I  have  been  and  still 
am,  I  can  neither  attempt  to  give  detailed  accounts 
nor  to  methodize  facts.  I  will  merely  express  such 
views  as  arise  without  effort  in  my  mind,  and  you  or 
Mr.   Barnard  may  pick  out  something  from  them. 

1  Mr.  Barnard— The  Hon.  Henry  Barnard,  a.  distinguished  American  educa- 


Thirty  years  ago  all  the  Educational  Institutions  in 
England  might  be  called  "  Preventive  "  in  the  sense 
of  obstructing  Nature. 

i  stly.  The  physical  demands  in  the  first  instance — 
Fresh  Air,  Exercise,  Relief  of  Muscles,  &c. 

2ly.  The  mental  demands — Instruction  appro- 
priate to  the  age,  to  the  powers  and  aptitude  of  the 

3ly.  The  moral  demands — Means  of  exercising 
the  best  dispositions  and  acquiring  the  best  habits,  and 
of  putting  precepts  into  practice  in  mutual  relations. 

Education  was  then  really,  as  it  is  in  a  great 
measure  still,  a  plan  for  preventing  health  of  body 
and  mind.  Good  Education  might  perhaps  be  more 
justly  called  Promotive  than  Preventive  according  to 
these  views. 

But,  accepting  the  word  "  Preventive"  in  its  now 
popular  signification  as  opposed  to  the  development 
of  Evil,  I  will  put  down  what  I  have  had  reason 
from  an  experience  with  several  hundreds  of  boys 
since  1834  to  believe  the  great,  and  if  administered 
before  bad  habits  have  become  inveterate,  the  un- 
failing Prevention  of  Moral  Evil  and  of  Intellectual 

1  st.  At  least  as  many  hours  of  the  day  spent  in 
the  open  air  and  in  active  pursuits  as  indoors  and  in 
sedentary  tasks. 

2ly.  A  practical  object  intelligible  and  attractive 
to  the  young  mind  connected  with  the  active  em- 
ployment. (This  is  especially  the  case  when  Garden 
Allotments  are  rented  by  boys,  and  more  or  less  in 
trade  work.) 


3ly.  Order,  for  the  exercise  of  Obedience  and  Self 
Controul,  never  passing  into  severe  discipline — viola- 
tion of  Order  being  a  cause  of  the  loss  of  social  or 
other  privilege  of  the  Offender. 

4ly.  Liberty.  Herein  De  Fellenberg1  said  that  the 
Schoolmaster  should  imitate  Providence,  not  with- 
drawing Temptations  entirely  (were  it  possible),  but 
ever  watching  over  those  exposed  to  them,  often 
unconsciously  to  the  objects  of  his  care.  They  will 
thus  learn  to  know  themselves,  and  be  stronger  for 
having  failed.  The  man  who  acts  this  Guardian  part 
in  the  spirit  of  cheerfulness  and  hope  always  attaches 

5ly.  Variety  of  Stimuli  applied  occasionally  to 
discover  and  test  various  kinds  of  ability  latent  in 
different  Individuals — for  Music,  Drawing,  Building, 
Moulding,  &c,  with  promise  of  cultivation  to  this 
special  talent,  directly  or  indirectly.  Every  faculty 
rightly  trained  is  preventive  of  its  misuse,  and  I 
might  have  added  under  each  of  the  former  heads 
how  they  prevented  some  form  of  practical  or  ima- 
ginative error. 

6ly.  Affectionate  reference  to  Parents  (where  of  a 
character  to  meet  it)  by  little  acts  of  kindness.  Family 
feelings  in  some  way  to  be  brought  out.  Their  pre- 
ventive power  was  well  known  to  Shakespeare  when 
he  made  Lady  Macbeth  say,  "Had  he  not  resembled 
my  Father  as  he  slept  /  had  done  it ".  Among  the 
lower  humanizing  influences  Kindness  to  Animals  is 
to  be  made  part  of  the  Education.  The  care  of  them 
contributes  to  this. 

1  De  Fellenberg— -See  Appendix. 


7.  As  Nature  is  presented  to  the  young  Gardener, 
who  has  to  make  a  profit  of  his  little  Allotment 
(generally  one  sixteenth  of  an  Acre)  in  the  Utilitarian 
point  of  view  only,  it  should  be  an  object  to  awaken 
his  sense  of  Natural  Beauty  by  Holiday  excursions 
to  scenes  which  are  likely  to  make  such  impressions 
through  contrast  with  the  monotony  of  his  common 
Locale.  Coleridge  speaks  of  the  ministering  influ- 
ence of  Nature  even  on  hardened  Criminals,  and 
their  Preventive  influences  on  the  unhardened  are 
too  little  appreciated.  Ruskin  says,  "  The  whole 
force  of  Education  until  very  lately  has  been  directed 
in  every  possible  way  to  the  destruction  of  the  love 
of  Nature  ",  and  afterwards,  "  The  next  character  we 
have  to  note  in  the  Landscape  Instinct  (and  on  this 
much  stress  is  to  be  laid)  is  its  total  inconsistency 
with  evil  passion;  its  absolute  contrariety — whether 
in  the  contest  it  were  crushed  or  not — to  all  care, 
hatred,  envy,  anxiety,  and  moroseness".  He  does 
not  say  that  in  certain  characters  the  love  of  Nature 
may  not  alternate  with  evil  passion,  but  they  cannot 
co-exist.  To  refer,  however,  from  theory  to  fact, 
De  Fellenberg  told  me  that  the  Mountain  excursions 
of  his  boys  in  Switzerland  were  as  conducive  to  their 
moral  as  to  their  physical  improvement.  To  some 
of  those  English  boys,  now  men  engaged  in  active 
life,  the  remembrance  of  those  rambles  always  brings 
back  a  purifying  and  elevating  influence.  In  my 
own  village  schools  I  have  traced  similar  effects, 
though  my  means  of  affording  such  enjoyments  were 
comparatively  very  limited.  Ought  not  the  Sabbath 
to  be  devoted  at  least  occasionally  to  the  opening  of 


the  blind  eye  to  "all  the  glories  of  the  Light".  How- 
many  of  those  who  sing  the  Evening  Hymn  have 
ever  raised  their  eyes  to  a  Sunset  with  grateful  ad- 
miration? Might  not  such  associations  be  formed 
with  the  silvery  moon  and  countless  stars  as  could 
not  "  co-exist "  with  the  purposes  of  the  nocturnal 

If  I  have  dwelt  long  on  this  Preventive  Culture  it 
is  because  it  is  usually  thought  one  of  the  weakest, 
and  is  in  my  opinion  one  of  the  most  effectual  means. 
But  there  must  be  an  ^Esthetic  touch  in  the  School- 
master to  elicit  any  thing  beyond  Self-interest  in 
connexion  with  "this  goodly  Universe"  from  the 
minds  of  his  pupils. 

81y.  As  preventive  of  extravagance  Savings  Banks 
for  the  boys'  pence — -habits  of  care  and  forethought 
also  called  forth  with  respect  to  the  Garden  Produce, 
either  for  its  preservation  from  weather  and  other 
injury  or  from  decay  after  being  gathered  in. 

I  have  said  enough  to  show  my  principle,  which 
has  been  most  successfully  tested  in  practice,  of 
leaving  no  neglected  soil  for  weeds  to  occupy.  There 
is  a  fault  which  may  be  called  an  exaggeration  of 
this  principle — the  over  cultivation  of  the  human 
mind,  and  of  which  there  have  been  sad  examples 
both  in  private  and  public  Education.  But  then 
Nature  was  utterly  disregarded  in  the  kind  of  culture, 
and  in  nothing  more  palpably  and  mischievously,  as 
is  now  recognized,  than  in  the  substitution  of  words 
for  things. 

You  will  learn  something  of  what  has  been  the 
result  of  my,  or  rather   De  Fellenberg's  principles 


during  an  eighteen  years'  trial,  if  you  will  make 
searching  inquiries  of  Mr.  Atlee,  to  whom  the  in- 
closed is  addressed.  If  there  had  ever  been  a' 
"Village  Historian"  the  plan  would  doubtless  have 
been  more  generally  tried.  I  was  obliged  to  be 
content  with  doing,  in  trust  that  all  is  not  lost  which 
is  not  published. — Yours  very  truly, 

A.  J.  Noel  Byron. 

Lady  Byron 

To   Vere  Foster. 

Brighton,  February  18,  1856. 

Dear  Mr.  Foster, — I  expressed  in  my  letter  on 
education  the  use  which  I  wished  to  have  made  of 
it,  merely  to  afford  suggestions  or  fragments  from 
which  a  more  complete  system  might  be  formed.  I 
did  not  revise  it  with  a  view  to  its  publication  in  any 
other  way.  Never  having  aimed  at  Authorship,  I 
got  out  my  ideas  just  sufficiently  for  them  to  be 
taken  up  if  worth  any  thing  by  those  better  able  to 
give  them  a  popular  form.  .  .  .  You  will  be 
glad  to  hear  that  I  am  promoted  to  the  Drawing 
room  for  a  few  hours  daily.  On  Sunday  last — I 
don't  know  whether  it  was  so  throughout  England — 
all  the  preachers  in  Brighton  took  the  Sabbath  for 
their  subject,  and  abridgments  of  their  discourses  are 
in  the  Brighton  Examiner.  Such  a  heap  of  Rubbish; 
but  it  is,  I  hope,  in  the  act  of  being  "  shot "  to  form 
a  foundation  for  something  better — not  that  I  am 
for  obliterating  Sunday,  but  I  would  no  longer  have 

FROM   LADY   BYRON.  459 

it,  as  Ross  called  it,  the  " vicarioits  day",  atoning  for 
all  the  sins  of  the  Week!  Griffiths,  though  very- 
liberal  in  most  things,  could  not  assent  to  the  Re- 
creative or  renewing  principle  of  a  seventh  day, 
both  to  health  of  mind  and  body. 

You  will  see  how  little  disposed  the  County  of 
Leicester  is,  compared  with  the  other  Counties  of 
England,  to  give  pecuniary  support  to  a  Reforma- 
tory. They  ought  to  be  stirred  up  by  some  eloquent 
Appeal  from  a  Lawyer,  Clergyman,  or  Layman. 
^200  per  annum  more  is  wanted.  Mr.  Young 
undertakes  the  responsibility  of  superintending  25 
boys — not  more,  on  account  of  other  duties,  and,  I 
am  sorry  to  say,  delicate  health.  But  with  a  power- 
ful Master,  an  Ex-Director  would  be  less  needed. 
Yours  very  truly,  A.  J.  Noel  Byron. 

Mrs.  Follen  declares  that  the  Southern  States  are 
not  serious  in  the  threat  of  War,  because  they  know 
it  would  raise  the  Slave  population. 

Lady  Byron 

To   Vere  Foster. 

February  28,  1856. 

I  see  that  the  next  Reformatory  meeting  is  to  be 
on  the  1  st.  Shall  you  attend?  I  want  to  find  out 
what  course  the  R.  Catholics  are  taking.  Patrick 
Murray,  Catholic  Publisher,  has  just-  published  a 
pamphlet,  which  I  like,  in  their  favour.  As  regards 
Ireland,  if  there  should  be  a  R.  Catholic  Association 
in   Leicester,    I   should  be  inclined  to  subscribe   a 


trifle  to  it  as  a  Testimony.     I  did  not  consider  it  a 
Theological  question. 

Lady  Byron 

To   Vere  Foster. 

March  18,  1856. 

Your  letter  received  to-day  contains  much  which 
is  not  only  very  interesting  to  me,  but  which  can  be 
turned  to  good  account.  ...  Mr  Young  is  to 
preach  the  Visitation  Sermon  at  Leicester,  and  he 
means  to  include  the  subject  of  Reformatories.  The 
Rev.  Charles  Rattcliffe  of  that  County  has  sent  me 
a  pamphlet  advocating  that  object,  and  addressed  to 
Lord  Calthorpe — not  very  clever.  I  have  no  confi- 
dence in  Reformatories  for  Adults  in  the  heart  of  a 

Have  you  heard  of  the  attempt  made  by  Mr.  C. 
Buxton  in  Spitalfields  to  withdraw  the  people  from 
the  Public  House  on  Sunday  evenings  by  opening  a 
room  where  they  will  find  amusing  occupation?  I 
have  been  talking  to  some  of  those  best  acquainted 
with  the  condition  of  the  working  class  only  just 
above  pauperism  about  the  means  of  affording  them 
some  relief  on  Sunday  without  leaving  them  more 
money  to  spend  at  the  Public  House  after  receiving 
their  wages  on  Saturday.  This  is  what  I  would  do, 
if  it  could  be  made  practicable. 

On  condition  of  their  paying  into  a  deposit  Fund, 
the  accumulation  of  which  should  belong  to  them  at 
a  certain  period — so  many  pence  or  farthings,  on 

FROM   LADY   BYRON.  \6l 

Saturday  they  should  find  ready-dressed  for  them 
a  Sunday's  dinner,  to  be  taken  from  the  Kitchen 
(wherever  appointed)  to  their  homes  by  Family  Men 
or  Women,  and  perhaps  eaten  on  the  spot  by  the 
aged  or  infirm  Single.  I  see  these  advantages  in 
the  plan : 

i.  Relieving  the  Poor  from  preparations  for  the 
meal  and  by  the  service  of  the  Rich — a  bond  of 

2.  Obviating  the  Sunday's  dealings  with  Bakers, 
&c,  which  many,  and  I  also,  think  better  avoided. 

3.  Giving  to  the  day  an  association  with  Charity, 
which  it  has  not  either  in  the  R.  Catholic  Church  or 
ours.  Perhaps  you  would  accept  an  invitation  from 
me,  as  I  should  have  a  room  to  spare  next  week, 
before  you  go  to  Ireland. 

I  am  much  gratified  by  Mr.  Ross's  engagement 
to  a  daughter  of  the  well  known  Sterling,  whose 
life  was  written  by  Carlisle — a  very  superior  young 
woman,  and  calculated  to  be  a  real  Help-mate.  I 
have  borne  the  severe  weather  tolerably. 

P.S. — I  must  communicate  to  you  an  idea  sug- 
gested to  me  by  Mr.  Ross,  that  in  order  to  obviate 
the  reasonable  objection  to  having  places  of  amuse- 
ment and  instruction  open  on  the  Sabbath,  namely, 
the  hardship  upon  the  door-keepers,  &c,  there 
should  be  Sunday  Volunteers  for  that  office.    .    .    . 


Lady  Byron 

To   Vere  Foster. 

March  28,  1856. 

The  "  Five  Points"  which  I  send  is  chiefly  an 
Appeal  for  pecuniary  aid,  and  ought  to  be  met.  I 
should  like  to  entrust  to  you  when  you  go  to  New 
York  any  larger  contribution  in  order  to  be  sure  of 
its  proper  application,  but  I  will  remit  a  Subscription 
through  Mrs.  Follen  now.  I  must  also  trouble  you 
with  money  for  the  postage  and  purchase  in  the 
United  States  of  any  printed  reports,  &c,  which 
might  serve  my  objects  here. 

I  shall  have  copied  for  you  a  sad  report  of  the 
Peckleton  Reformatory,  adding  another  proof  of  the 
folly  of  attempting  reformation  by  the  stern  retribu- 
tive course  such  as  the  Leicester  Magistrates  require 
of  the  Schoolmaster.  Amongst  the  indirect  mischief 
of  Executions  is  to  be  reckoned  their  charm  for 
Law-breakers,  to  whom  what  "  some  deem  danger  is 
delight ".  I  doubt  whether  the  Reformatory  can 
succeed  under  the  direction  of  such  Magistrates. 
Mr.  Young  himself  is  too  timid  and  despondent.  .  .  . 

Lady  Byron 

To   Vere  Foster. 

Ham,  May  5,  1856. 
I  sent  to  ask  you  to  stay  to  see  Lady  Annabella, 
who  was  expected. 

Ockham  can't  go  to  the  United  States,  but  I  have 


an  idea  that  I  can  get  him,  though  only  on  condition 
of  working,  on  board  the  Atlantic  Cable  vessel. 
Ask  him  if  he  would  like  it. 

You  want  a  Tour  without  an  object,  if  possible; 
but  I  suppose  it  must  be  to  the  Moon.  Lord  P.1 
won't  be  allowed  to  resign  by  the  People. 

Lady  Byron 

To   Vere  Foster. 

Brighton,  May  13,  1856. 

.  .  .  I  shall  be  glad  to  hear  what  success  you 
have  met  with  in  the  Girls'  Emigration  scheme. 
The  value  of  that  article  will,  I  hope,  rise  in  the 
market  in  consequence.  Believe  me,  always  truly 

Lady  Byron 

To   Vere  Foster. 

Brighton,  June  14,  1856. 

Dear  Mr.  Foster, — I  am  just  going  to  London, 
No.  4  Cavendish  Square,  till  the  25th  inst,  and  then 
No.  1  Cambridge  Terrace,  Regent's  Park,  a  house 
which  I  have  taken  for  the  summer,  thinking  it  a 
happy  medium  between  town  and  country;  and  when 
I  am  tired  of  my  fellow  creatures  I  can  find  society 
almost  as  rational  in  the  Zoological  Gardens.  I  may 
well  say  this  after  reading  what  you  have  to  endure 
from  the  folly  of  those  who  prove  their  knowledge 

1Lord  P. — Viscount  Palmerston,  Prime  Minister  from  1855  to  1858,  and  again 
from  1859  till  his  death  in  1865  (1784-1865). 


of  God  by  their  ignorance  of  Man!  At  the  same 
time  I  am  hearing  how  Mr.  Young  is  reviled  in 
Leicestershire,  and  excluded  from  the  Reformatory 
as  a  Papist  in  disguise.  A  man's  religion  seems  every- 
where to  be  his  neighbour's  business,  not  his  own. 

Do  not  for  want  of  ,£5,  which  I  shall  be  happy  to 
give  for  such  a  purpose,  allow  any  Emigrant  in  real 
need  to  lose  the  passage.  "The  Philanthropist" 
paper  must  be  given  up  for  want  of  funds.  Believe 
me,  yours  very  truly,  A.  J.  Noel  Byron. 

Lady  Byron 

To   Vere  Foster. 

Ham  Common,  March  18,  1857. 

The  wish  expressed  by  Mr.  West  that  I  should 
see  the  printed  paper  containing  his  views  makes  it 
less  presumptuous  than  it  would  otherwise  be  on  my 
part  to  offer  some  remarks.  I  do  not  know  whether 
you  are  aware  that,  notwithstanding  my  personal 
intimacy  with  some  of  the  Abolitionists,  I  have 
scrupulously  avoided  any  appearance  of  concurring 
in  their  -mode  of  action.  It  has  appeared  to  me  too 
vehemently  antagonistic;  but  I  own  that  since  I  have 
known  the  cruel  course  pursued  by  Slave  Owners 
towards  Opponents  who  had  not  provoked  them 
by  any  kind  of  hostility  beyond  the  simple  expression 
of  Dissent,  I  have  doubted  whether  that  opinion  of 
mine  were  not  a  mistake.  It  is  of  little  moment 
whether  it  be  so  or  not. 

As  to  Mr.  West's  plan,  the  chief  feature  of  which, 
the   Emancipation  of  the    Unborn,   presumes  their 

FROM   LADY   BYRON.  465 

Parents  to  remain  in  Slavery.  We,  in  England, 
should  think  it  rather  strange  if  the  Owners  of  Cotton 
Mills  or  Collieries,  so  ill-managed  as  to  shorten  the 
lives  or  injure  the  powers  of  the  men  employed  in 
them,  were  merely  to  give  security  to  those  workmen 
that  such  evils  should  not  descend  to  their  Children. 
I  sympathize  with  the  living  more  than  with  the 
future  generation.  The  social  condition  under  which 
the  Children  of  the  next  twenty  years  may  be  born 
will  in  all  probability  be  so  changed  as  to  frustrate 
our  plans  for  them,  but  our  Cotemporaries  belong  to 
us,  as  part  of  the  World's  Common  Weal.  Ameliora- 
tions long  talked  of  are  less  likely  than  ever  to  be 
carried  into  effect  under  the  mutual  exasperation  of 
Masters  and  Slaves,  and  also  with  the  new  views 
promulgated  as  to  the  Servile  position. 

What  is  to  be  hoped  for?  What  can  be  done  for 
the  redress  or  mitigation  of  actual  wrongs?  Provi- 
dence must  show  the  way,  either  through  the  agency 
of  some  unforeseen  political  convulsion,  or  through 
the  influence  of  some  Master-mind.  In  the  mean 
time  let  Right  Thought  spread  as  widely  as  possible, 
supported  by  Right  Action  only  when  a  conflict  with 
Wrong  Action  is  inevitable.  Oppression  has,  I  fear, 
never  yet  been  remedied  peacefully.  The  Host  must 
perish  in  the  Red  Sea.  It  was  their  own  doing, 
however,  rather  than  that  of  Moses.  I  quite  enter 
into  the  horror  of  civil  discord  felt  by  Mr.  West. 
Some  American  Authorities  have  contended  that 
more  decision  on  the  part  of  the  North  would  pre- 
vent it.     Believe  me,  yours  very  truly, 

A.  J.  Noel  Byron. 


Lady  Byron 

To   Vere  Foster. 

March  25,  1857. 

Next  month  I  hope  to  say  something  better  of 
myself  than  I  can  at  present.  Happily  I  can  enter 
into  distant  interests  as  well  when  I  am  bed-ridden 
as  at  any  other  time,  and  feel  great  pleasure  in  the 
continued  success  of  your  endeavours1  for  the  good 
of  those  who  would  otherwise,  it  appears,  have  no 

I  will  send  you  some  American  papers.  Is  not 
Buchanan's2  "  Laissez  aller"  about  the  Slave  Ques- 
tion very  favourable  to  the  free  cause. 

Lady  Byron 

To    Vere  Foster. 

Full  text  of  a  letter  from  Lady  Byron,  inclosing  the  gift  of 
two  £20  shares  in  the  Original  Atlantic  Telegraph. 

February  1,  1859. 

A  bit  of  Waste  paper.      I  hope  Lady  Albinia  is 
well;  I  am  not. 

1  Your  endeavours — This  refers  to  two  special  schemes  carried  out  by  Mr.  Foster 
from  1849  to  1897,  in  aiding  the  building,  flooring  with  boards  in  lieu  of  damp 
clay,  or  equipment  of  upwards  of  2000  National  Schoolhouses  situated  in  every 
County  in  Ireland ;  and  in  assisting  the  emigration  of  honest  poor  girls  between 
18  and  30  years  of  age  from  the  congested  districts  of  the  West  of  Ireland,  with 
the  hearty  co-operation  of  all  the  R.  Catholic  parish  priests  and  curates  without 
a  single  exception,  in  addition  to  nearly  all  the  Protestant  clergy.  More  than 
twelve  hundred  clergymen  co-operated  with  Mr.  F.,  and  upwards  of  25,000  girls 
were  so  assisted,  about  one-tenth  of  the  expense  being  met  by  subscriptions,  and 
the  rest  supplied  by  Mr.  F.  Owing  to  want  of  funds  both  these  schemes  are  now 
in  abeyance. 

*  Buchanan— James  Buchanan,  President  of  the  United  States  from  1857  to 
1861  (1791-1868). 

FROM   LADY   BYRON.  467 

Lady  Byron 

To   Vere  Foster. 

February  28,  1859. 

I  wish  for  your  opinion  on  a  question  concerning 
my  eldest  Grandson,  and  if  you  should  agree  with 
me,  I  may  ask  some  assistance  from  your  kindness 
in  promoting  the  object  by  kindly  communicating  it 
to  him,  as  your  representations  would  be  likely  to 
have  influence. 

It  is  to  bring  him  into  Parliament  for  some  Con- 
stituency to  which  an  Advocate  of  the  Working 
Classes  would  be  welcome.  On  consulting  with 
some  of  Ockham's  best  friends,  I  find  that  this  is 
thought  the  only  chance  for  changing  his  present 
habits  of  inertness  and  self-neglect,  not,  however, 
connected,  as  far  as  known,  with  any  bad  propensities, 
and  he  has  ceased  to  be  intemperate.  If,  therefore, 
at  such  a  moment,  a  mental  stimulus  could  be  given 
him,  it  might  work  probably;  and  should  he  not 
have  power  to  speak  in  Public,  his  lineage  and  pro- 
spects would  give  a  certain  weight  to  his  Vote 

You  will  see  in  to-day's  Times,  what  I  had  known 
from  a  private  source,  that  there  will  be  an  Election 
for  Greenwich  in  April.  The  proximity  to  Millwall 
might  be  something  in  his  sight,  and  the  Voters  are 
very  radical.  Admiral  Dundas,  who  was  once  the 
Member,  is  said  to  have  most  interest  there,  and  I 
could  obtain  help  from  other  (Metropolitan)  Mem- 
bers, but  the  difficulty  will  be  to  make  Ockham  enter 
into  the  scheme. 


Trusting  to  your  kindness,  I  send  this  long  story, 
which  could  not  be  shortened. 

The  Father  will  take  no  part.  I  would  supply  a 
few  hundreds. 

The  following  copy  of  a  letter,  which  purports  to  have  been 
written  by  Napoleon  Bonaparte,  has  been  found  among 
the  papers  of  my  father,  the  late  Sir  Augustus  J.  Foster, 
Bart.  It  appears  to  have  been  addressed  in  the  year  1 797 
to  Citizen  Barras,1  a  member  of  the  French  Republican 
Directorate.  I  have  not  been  able  to  authenticate  it, 
and  insert  it  here  merely  in  the  hope  that  it  may  fall 
under  the  notice  of  some  one  who  may  inform  me  of 
its  being  a  true  copy  of  an  original  really  written  by 
Napoleon.  There  are  evidently  some  faults  of  tran- 
scription, and  one  word  in  the  copy  I  have  is  un- 
decipherable. Vere  Foster. 
Belfast,  January  1,  1897. 

4  Vendemiaire. 
Citoyen, — Je  suis  malade,  et  j'ai  besoin  de  repos. 
Je  demande  ma  demission.  Donnez  la  si  tu  es  mon 
ami.  2  ans  dans  une  campagne  pres  de  Paris  re- 
tablira  ma  sante,  et  redonnera  a  mon  caractere  la 
popularite  que  la  continuity  du  pouvoir  .    Je 

suis  esclusif  dans  ma  maniere  de  sentir  et  d'agir,  et 
j'estime  le  coeur  bien  plus  que  la  tete. 


Je  suis  au  desespoir.  Ma  femme  ne  vint  pas;  elle 
a  quelques  amans  que  la  retienne  a  Paris.  Je  maudis 
toutes  les  femmes  mais  J'embrase  de  coeur  mes  bons 
amis.  Bonaparte. 

L  Barras — See  Appendix. 


(P.  5.)  The  Earl  of  Bristol,  Bishop  of  Derry. — The 
following  obituary  of  Lord  Bristol  is  taken  from  the  Gentleman's 
Magazine  for  1803,  p.  769: — 

August  8.  At  Albano,  near  Rome,  of  a  severe  attack  of  the 
gout,  Frederick  Hervey,  Earl  of  Bristol,  grandson  of  the  first  earl, 
in  which  title  he  succeeded  his  brother,  Augustus  John,  1779,  and 
Bishop  of  Cloyne  1767,  of  Derry  1768,  and  a  privy-councillor  of 
Ireland.  He  was  born  in  1730;  educated  at  Mr.  Newcome's 
school  at  Hackney;  admitted  of  Corpus  Christi  College,  Cam- 
bridge, 1747,  where  he  took  no  degree;  but  the  honorary  one  of 
D.D.  was  conferred  on  him  by  mandamus.  He  was  appointed 
chaplain -in -ordinary  to  the  king,  and  a  principal  clerk  of  the 
privy-seal,  both  which  he  resigned  when  appointed  a  bishop.  He 
married  Elizabeth,  daughter  of  Sir  Germayn  Davers,  who  died  at 
Ickworth,  Suffolk,  Dec.  19,  1800,  by  whom  he  had  two  sons, 
George,  late  captain  of  the  Zealous  man-of-war,  and  Augustus  John, 
and  two  [three,  V.F.]  daughters,  Mary,  married  to  John,  Lord 
Erne,  of  Ireland,  and  Elizabeth,  married  to  John  Thomas  Foster 
[and  Louisa,  married  to  Lord  Hawkesbury,  afterwards  Earl  of 
Liverpool,  prime  minister  from  1812  to  1827,  V.F.].  He  was 
among  the  leaders  of  the  Irish  patriots  during  the  American  war, 
and  a  member  of  the  famous  Convention  of  Volunteer  Delegates 
held  in  Dublin  in  1782  [1783,  V.F.],  on  which  occasion  he  was 
escorted  from  Derry  to  Dublin  by  a  regiment  of  volunteer  cavalry, 
and  received  military  honours  in  every  town  through  which  he 
passed  on  that  long  journey.  His  lordship  was  building  at  his 
family  seat  at  Ickworth  a  villa  on  the  Italian  model  by  Italian 
architects  and  artists  of  every  class,  to  which  he  had  appropriated 
^12,000  annually,  and  the  ornaments  of  which  are  so  tender 
and  sharp  as  to  require  covering  to  preserve  them  from  injury  by 
the  external  air.  As  an  amateur,  connoisseur,  and  indefatigable 
protector  of  the  fine  arts  he  died  at  his  post  surrounded  by  artists, 
whose  talents  his  judgment  had  directed  and  whose  wants  his 


liberality  had  relieved.  His  love  of  the  sciences  was  only  sur- 
passed by  his  love  of  his  country  and  his  generosity  to  the  unfor- 
tunate of  every  country;  neither  rank  nor  power  escaped  his 
resentment  when  any  illiberal  opinion  was  thrown  out  against 
England.  In  1798  he  was  arrested  by  the  French  in  Italy,  and 
confined  in  the  castle  of  Milan;  was  plundered  by  the  republicans 
of  a  valuable  and  well-chosen  collection  of  antiquities,  which  he 
had  purchased  with  a  view  of  transmitting  to  his  native  country, 
and  was  betrayed  and  cheated  by  many  Italians  whose  benefactor 
he  had  been.  But  neither  the  injustice  nor  the  ingratitude  of 
mankind  changed  his  liberal  disposition;  he  no  sooner  recovered 
his  liberty  than  new  benefactions  forced  even  the  ungrateful  to 
repent,  and  the  unjust  to  acknowledge  his  elevated  mind. 

The  Earl  of  Bristol  was  one  of  the  greatest  English  travellers  (a 
capacity  in  which  his  merits  have  been  duly  appreciated  by  the 
celebrated  Martin  Sherlock),  and  there  is  not  a  country  in  Europe 
where  the  distressed  have  not  obtained  his  succour  and  the 
oppressed  his  protection.  He  may  truly  be  said  to  have  clothed 
the  naked  and  fed  the  hungry,  and,  as  ostentation  never  constituted 
real  charity,  his  left  hand  did  not  know  what  his  right  hand  distri- 
buted. The  tears  and  lamentations  of  widows  and  orphans  have 
discovered  his  philanthropy  when  he  is  no  more ;  and  letters  from 
Swiss  patriots  and  French  emigrants,  from  Italian  Catholics  and 
German  Protestants,  prove  the  noble  use  his  lordship  made  of  his 
fortune  indiscriminately  to  the  poor,  destitute,  and  unprotected  of 
all  countries,  of  all  parties,  and  of  all  religions.  But,  as  no  man  is 
without  his  enemies,  and  envy  is  most  busy  about  the  most  deserv- 
ing, some  of  his  lordship's  singularities  have  been  the  object  of 
calumny,  and  his  pecularities  ridiculed  as  affected;  when  the  former 
were  only  the  effect  of  pure  conduct,  unrestrained  by  ceremony, 
because  it  meant  no  harm,  and  the  latter  the  consequence  of  an 
entire  independence,  long  enjoyed,  serviceable  to  many,  baneful 
to  none. 

Do.,  p.  836.  The  late  Earl  of  Bristol,  when  in  Italy,  distinguished 
himself  by  a  peculiarity  of  dress.  He  wore  a  white  hat  edged  with 
purple,  a  coat  of  crimson  silk  or  velvet  (according  to  the  season), 
a  black  sash  spangled  with  silver,  and  purple  stockings.  It  need 
hardly  be  added,  what  was  the  fact,  that  the  good  inhabitants  of 
Naples  and  other  places  looked  upon  this  fanciful  suit  as  the  cos- 
tume of  an  Irish  bishop. 


The  following  is  copied  from  Memoirs  of  James  Caulfield,  Earl 
of  Charlemont,  by  Francis  Hardy,  1810: — 

"  If  this  work  should  chance  to  survive  the  present  day,  those 
who  come  after  may  not  be  incurious  to  learn  something,  however 
slight,  of  that  singular  man.  He  was  the  son  of  Lord  Hervey,  so 
generally  but  so  imperfectly  known  by  the  malign  antithesis  and 
epigrammatic  lines  of  Pope.  His  mother,  Lady  Hervey,  was  also 
the  subject  of  that  poet's  muse,  but  his  muse  when  playful  and  in 
good  humour.  Two  noblemen  of  very  distinguished  talents,  the 
Earls  of  Chesterfield  and  Bath,  have  also  celebrated  her  in  a  most 
witty  and  popular  ballad  (see  verses  on  Molly  Lepel — Lady  Hervey 
was  the  daughter  of  General  Lepel).  Lord  Bristol  was  a  man  of 
considerable  parts,  but  far  more  brilliant  than  solid.  His  family 
was  indeed  famous  for  talents;  equally  so  for  eccentricity,  and  the 
eccentricity  of  the  whole  race  shone  out  and  seemed  to  be  concen- 
trated in  him.  In  one  respect  he  was  not  unlike  Villiers,  Duke  of 
Buckingham.  'Everything  by  starts  and  nothing  long';  generous 
but  uncertain;  splendid  but  fantastical;  an  admirer  of  the  fine  arts, 
without  any  just  selection;  engaging,  often  licentious  in  conversa- 
tion ;  extremely  polite,  extremely  violent ; — it  is  incontestably  true 
that  amidst  all  his  erratic  course  his  bounty  was  not  seldom  directed 
to  the  most  proper  and  deserving  objects.  His  distribution  of 
church  livings,  as  I  have  been  informed,  among  the  older  and 
respectable  clergy  in  his  own  diocese,  must  always  be  mentioned 
with  that  warm  approbation  which  it  is  justly  entitled  to.  It  is 
said  (how  truly,  I  know  not)  that  he  had  applied  for  the  bishopric 
of  Dublin,  afterwards  for  the  lieutenancy  of  Ireland;  was  refused 
both,  and  hinc  illae  lacrymae,  hence  his  opposition.  But  the 
inequality,  the  irregular  flow  of  his  mind  at  every  period  of  his  life, 
sufficiently  illustrate  his  conduct  at  this  peculiar  and  momentous 
period.  Such,  however,  was  this  illustrious  prelate,  who,  notwith- 
standing he  scarcely  ever  attended  Parliament,  and  spent  most  of 
his  time  in  Italy,  was  now  called  upon  to  correct  the  abuses  of 
Parliament,  and  direct  the  vessel  of  state  in  that  course  where 
statesmen  of  the  most  experience  and  persons  of  the  calmest  judg- 
ment have  had  the  misfortune  totally  to  fail.  His  progress  from 
his  diocese  to  the  metropolis,  and  his  entrance  into  it,  were  perfectly 
correspondent  to  the  rest  of  his  conduct.  Through  every  town  on 
the  road  he  seemed  to  court,  and  was  received  with,  all  warlike 
honours,  and  I  remember  seeing  him  pass  by  the  Parliament  House 


in  Dublin  (Lords  and  Commons  were  then  both  sitting)  escorted 
by  a  body  of  dragoons,  full  of  spirits  and  talk,  apparently  enjoying 
the  eager  gaze  of  the  surrounding  multitude,  and  displaying  alto- 
gether the  self-complacency  of  a  favourite  marshal  of  France  on 
his  way  to  Versailles,  rather  than  the  grave  deportment  of  a  prelate 
of  the  Church  of  England." 

(P.  in.)  Richard  Brinsley  Sheridan,  the  eminent  Irish 
dramatist,  was  educated  first  in  Dublin  and  afterwards  at  Harrow. 
He  gave  no  promise  as  a  boy  of  the  brilliancy  which  he  after- 
wards displayed  as  a  man,  being  pronounced  a  hopeless  dunce  by 
all  his  teachers.  He  does  not  seem  to  have  been  brought  up  to 
any  regular  employment,  and  after  his  elopement  and  marriage 
in  1773  with  a  Miss  Linley,  a  public  singer  of  great  beauty  and 
accomplishments,  his  prospects  did  not  seem  bright,  more  espe- 
cially as  he  insisted  on  a  point  of  pride  that  his  wife  should  give 
up  her  profession.  As  the  readiest  resource  he  betook  himself  to 
literature,  and  in  January,  1775,  his  first  comedy,  The  Rivals,  was 
produced.  Damned  on  its  first  appearance  through  certain  de- 
ficiencies in  the  acting,  this  piece  on  its  repetition  found  gradually 
the  favour  with  the  public  which  its  wit  and  vivacity  deserved, 
and  made  the  reputation  of  the  writer.  In  the  course  of  the 
year  following  Sheridan  followed  up  his  success  by  a  farce  of  no 
very  great  merit,  and  a  second  comedy,  The  Duenna,  among 
the  sparkling  dialogue  of  which  are  interspersed  some  songs  of 
exquisite  merit. 

He  now  became  partner  of  the  Drury  Lane  Theatre,  and  in 
1777  The  School  for  Scandal  was  produced  there.  This,  which  is 
by  much  his  greatest  effort,  instantly  leaped  into  the  popularity  it 
has  ever  since  continued  to  retain.  His  other  works  for  the  stage 
were  the  inimitably  clever  farce,  The  Critic,  in  1779,  and,  after  a 
long  interval,  The  Stranger  and  Pizarro,  in  1798,  both  adapted 
from  the  German  of  Kotzebue.  Leigh  Hunt  observes  of  The 
School  for  Scandal  that,  with  the  exception  of  too  great  a  length 
of  dialogue  without  action  in  its  earlier  scenes,  it  is  a  very  con- 
centration and  crystallization  of  all  that  is  sparkling,  clear,  and 
compact  in  the  materials  of  pure  comedy.  Through  the  influence 
of  Fox  he  was  enabled  to  enter  the  House  of  Commons  in  1780. 
He  gave  a  warm  and  consistent  support  to  the  Whig  party,  and 
during  the  Marquis  of  Rockingham's  administration  held  the  office 


of  Under  Secretary  of  State,  but  he  possessed  none  of  the  high 
qualities  of  a  statesman,  and  as  a  debater  he  gradually  degenerated 
into  a  useless,  though  amusing  speaker,  familiarly  joked  at  by  the 
public,  admired  but  disesteemed  by  his  friends.  He  never  failed 
to  amuse  the  House,  and  when  stirred  by  the  trumpet-call  of  a  great 
occasion  he  was  capable  of  rising  to  heights  of  noble  eloquence. 
In  particular,  his  famous  speech  urging  the  impeachment  of 
Warren  Hastings  is  still  traditionally  remembered  as  perhaps 
the  very  grandest  triumph  of  oratory  in  a  time  prolific  of  such 
triumphs.  (From  Chambers 's  Encyclopmdia  and  Beetoris  Dictionary 
of  Universal  Biography.) 

(P.  123.)  La  Comtesse  de  la  Marche  was  daughter  of 
Frederick  William  II.,  King  of  Prussia,  and  Wilhelmina,  Countess 
of  Lichtenau,  of  whom  the  following  account  appears  in  Meyer's 
Encyclopcedia,  Berlin,  1896: — 

"Lichtenau  (Wilhelmina,  Countess  of),  mistress  of  Frederick 
William  II.  of  Prussia,  was  born  December  29,  1752,  in  Potsdam. 
She  died  June  9,  1820,  in  Berlin.  She  was  the  daughter  of  the 
musician  Enke  of  Hildburghausen. 

"  The  then  Prince  of  Prussia,  afterwards  King  Frederick  William 
II.,  made  her  acquaintance  when  she  was  13  years  old  at  her 
sister's  house,  who  was  a  dancer  at  the  Italian  Opera  in  Berlin. 
The  Prince  had  her  educated  in  Paris  and  in  Potsdam,  where 
intimate  intercourse  followed.  Five  children  were  born,  who 
received  the  title  of  Counts  and  Countesses  of  the  Mark. 

"In  1782  she  was  married  to  Rietz  (Ritz),  Groom  of  the 
Chamber.  When  Frederick  was  crowned  King  of  Prussia  Rietz 
was  made  Groom  of  the  Privy  Chamber.  Although  Rietz's  wife 
was  superseded  in  the  King's  favour  by  the  Countess  of  Voss  and 
the  Donhoff,  she  succeeded  in  retaining  his  friendship  till  1796, 
when  she  received  the  title  of  Countess  of  Lichtenau,  which 
admitted  her  to  Court.  The  King  gave  her  also  the  sum  of 
500,000  thalers,  several  estates,  and  a  dowry  of  200,000  thalers 
to  her  daughter,  Countess  Marianne  of  the  Mark  (a  son,  Count 
of  the  Mark,  died  when  nine  years  old)  on  the  occasion  of  her 
marriage  with  Count  Stolberg.  She  retained  the  King's  affection 
and  confidence,  which  she  never  misused,  till  his  death  in  1797. 

"  King  Frederick  William  III.  then  arrested  and  opened  pro- 
ceedings against  her,  but  nothing  could  be  laid  to  her  charge. 


Nevertheless  she  was  kept  prisoner  at  Glogau,  only  regaining  her 
liberty  by  surrendering  all  her  property,  in  return  for  which  she 
received  a  pension  of  4000  thalers  a  year.  A  marriage  which  she 
contracted  with  the  dramatic  poet  Holbein  in  1802  was  dissolved 
in  1806.     In  181 1  a  portion  of  her  estates  were  returned  to  her. 

"  See  the  Apologie  of  Countess  L.,  edited  by  Schummel,  Breslau, 
1808,  two  volumes;  the  Memoirs  put  out  under  her  name  (1808) 
are  not  genuine." 

(P.  153.)  Sir  Augustus  Foster. — Sir  Augustus  John  Foster, 
Bart.,  P.C.,  and  G.C.H.,  of  Stonehouse,  County  Louth,  was  born 
in  1780.  He  was  the  second  son  of  John  Thomas  Foster,  M.P., 
and  Elizabeth,  second  daughter  of  Frederick  Hervey,  third  Earl 
of  Bristol  and  Bishop  of  Derry.  He  was  educated  at  Drogheda 
and  Christ  College,  Oxford.  He  entered  the  army  as  cornet  in 
the  Royal  Horse  Guards  (blue)  in  1799,  and  studied  at  Weimar 
under  Mons.  Mounier,  who  afterwards  became  private  secretary 
to  Napoleon.  In  1803  he  visited  Greece  in  company  with  his 
cousin  John  Leslie  Foster  and  the  Earl  of  Aberdeen.  He  entered 
the  Diplomatic  Service  in  1804,  being  appointed  Secretary  of 
Legation  at  Washington.  On  his  return  to  Europe  in  1808  he 
was  appointed  Charge'  d'Affaires  at  Stockholm,  whence  he  was 
expelled  by  order  of  Napoleon  in  1810.  In  February,  i8ir,  he 
was  appointed  Minister  to  the  United  States,  and  on  the  breaking 
out  of  war  between  England  and  the  United  States  in  18 12  he 
returned  to  England,  and  in  18 14  received  the  appointment  of 
Minister  to  Denmark.  He  remained  at  Copenhagen  ten  years, 
and  in  1824  was  appointed  in  the  same  capacity  at  the  court  of 
the  King  of  Sardinia.  He  was  created  a  baronet  in  1831,  and 
after  a  residence  of  sixteen  years  at  Turin  retired  from  the  public 
service  in  1840. 

Sir  A.  married  in  1815  Albinia  Jane  Hobart,  daughter  of  the 
Hon.  George  Vere  Hobart,  second  son  of  George,  third  Earl  of 
Buckinghamshire,  and  by  her  had  issue  three  sons,  namely, 
Frederick  John,  the  Rev.  Cavendish  Hervey,  and  Vere  Henry 

Sir  Augustus  died  in  1848,  and  his  wife  Lady  Albinia  Foster  in 

(P.   156.)      Lord    Castlereagh    (Robert    Stewart,   Viscount 


Castlereagh,  a  celebrated  diplomatist  and  minister),  eldest  son 
of  the  first  Marquis  of  Londonderry.  He  entered  the  Irish  Parlia- 
ment in  1789,  although  then  under  age.  He  was  made  Chief 
Secretary  for  Ireland  in  1798.  It  was  the  year  of  the  Insurrection 
and  of  the  French  Invasion,  and  therefore  some  allowance  must 
be  made  for  the  terrible  severities  employed  by  the  Irish  Govern- 
ment; yet  the  cruel  part  he  acted  or  tolerated  in  Ireland  in 
suppressing  the  rebellion  and  effecting  the  union  always  weighed 
upon  his  reputation.  He  afterwards  held  the  positions  of  Presi- 
dent of  the  Board  of  Control  in  the  Addington  administration,  and 
secretary  successively  of  the  War  and  Colonial  Departments  under 
Mr.  Pitt,  until  the  death  of  the  latter  in  1806,  when  he  resigned. 
He  resumed  the  office  of  Minister  of  War  in  the  following  year, 
and  in  1812,  after  the  assassination  of  Mr.  Perceval,  the  Prime 
Minister,  he  became  Secretary  for  Foreign  Affairs  in  the  ministry 
of  Lord  Liverpool,  which  post  he  held  during  the  period  illustrated 
by  the  military  achievements  of  the  Duke  of  Wellington.  "By 
this  time  the  general  direction  of  British  policy  had  become 
unalterably  fixed  by  circumstances,  and  Lord  Castlereagh  has  at 
least  the  merit  of  having  pursued  this  fixed  course  with  a  steadi- 
ness, and  even  obstinacy,  which  nothing  could  abate.  He  was  the 
soul  of  the  coalition  against  Bonaparte,  and  it  was  only  by  his 
untiring  exertions  and  through  his  personal  influence  that  it  was 
kept  together."  He  represented  England  at  the  Congress  of 
Vienna  in  1814,  and  at  the  Treaty  of  Paris  in  1815.  By  the 
death  of  his  father  in  182 1,  he  became  Marquis  of  Londonderry, 
but  his  mind  became  deranged,  and  he  died  by  his  own  hand  in 

"This  statesman,  looked  upon  by  one  party  as  a  paragon  of 
perfection,  has  been  characterised  by  the  other  party  'as  the  most 
intolerable  mischief  that  ever  was  cast  by  an  angry  Providence  on 
a  helpless  people'." — Chambers's  Encyclopaedia.  1769-1822. 

(P.  185.)  The  Earl  of  Aberdeen. — The  following  particulars 
are  taken  from  Blackie  &  Son's  Popular  Encyclopedia  :— 

George  Hamilton  Gordon,  Earl  of  Aberdeen,  was  born  at 
Edinburgh,  28th  January,  1784.  He  was  educated  at  Harrow, 
and  afterwards  at  St.  John's  College,  Cambridge,  where  he 
graduated  in  1804.  He  had  previously,  in  1801,  accompanied  as 
attache  Lord  Cornwall's  embassy  to  France,  which  resulted  in 


the  signing  of  the  treaty  of  Amiens  in  the  following  year.  Before 
returning  home  he  proceeded  south  to  Greece ;  and,  after  travers- 
ing that  ancient  land  with  all  the  enthusiasm  of  an  ardent  classical 
scholar,  retraced  his  steps  to  England  through  Turkey  and  Russia. 
Shortly  after  his  return  he  established  the  Athenian  Society,  one 
indispensable  qualification  for  being  a  member  of  which  was  to 
have  visited  Greece,  and  from  this  circumstance  the  epithet  of 
"Athenian  Aberdeen"  was  affixed  to  Lord  Aberdeen  by  Lord 
Byron.  As  the  result  of  his  classical  studies  and  investigations  he 
contributed  an  article  to  the  Edinburgh  Review  on  the  topography 
of  Troy,  in  which  he  somewhat  severely  handled  Sir  William  Gell, 
and  also  wrote  an  introduction  to  Wilkins's  translation  of  Vitru- 
vius,  giving  an  account  of  the  progress  of  architecture  in  Greece, 
an  essay  subsequently  published  in  a  separate  form  in  1822. 
In  1806  Lord  Aberdeen  entered  Parliament  as  a  Scottish  repre- 
sentative peer,  and  in  18 13  was  intrusted  by  the  British  govern- 
ment with  a  mission  to  Austria,  for  the  purpose  of  inducing  the 
emperor  to  withdraw  from  the  alliance  of  his  son-in-law,  and  join 
the  coalition  of  sovereigns  against  Bonaparte.  In  this  responsible 
duty,  which  was  mainly  effected  through  negotiation  with  Prince 
Metternich,  the  young  diplomatist  acquitted  himself  with  great 
judgment,  and  entirely  to  the  satisfaction  of  the  government.  At 
most  of  the  bloody  engagements  in  Northern  Germany  he  was 
present;  and  from  the  experience  thus  acquired  of  the  horrors  of 
war  he  appears  to  have  imbibed  that  aversion  to  it  which  at  a 
later  period  exposed  him,  in  his  political  administration,  to  the 
charges  of  pusillanimity  and  want  of  spirit.  On  the  termination 
of  the  war  he  returned  to  England,  and  from  this  period  till  1828 
lived  in  strict  retirement.  In  18 14  he  had  been  created  a  British 
peer,  in  recognition  of  the  services  rendered  by  him  in  his 
diplomatic  negotiations  with  Austria.  In  1828  he  became  Foreign 
Secretary  under  the  Duke  of  Wellington.  He  was  a  warm  sup- 
porter of  the  bill  repealing  the  Test  and  Corporation  Acts,  a 
measure  effected  by  the  ministry  under  which  he  served,  and  he 
also  advocated  the  bill  for  the  emancipation  of  the  Roman 
Catholics.  During  the  short  premiership  of  Sir  Robert  Peel 
in  1834-35  he  acted  as  Colonial  Secretary,  and  on  the  subsequent 
accession  of  Sir  Robert  to  the  premiership  in  1841,  again  took 
office  as  Secretary  for  Foreign  Affairs.  Quitting  office  with  his 
chief  in  1846,  with  whose  views  on  the  question  of  free-trade  he 



thoroughly  coincided,  he  came,  on  the  death  of  Sir  Robert  Peel 
in  1850,  to  be  regarded  as  the  leader  of  the  Conservative  free- 
trade  party.  On  the  inability  of  the  Derby  ministry  to  maintain 
its  place,  Lord  Aberdeen  was  instructed  to  form  a  cabinet,  and 
accordingly  returned  to  office  in  1853  as  head  of  a  coalition 
ministry.  The  principal  event  which  marks  his  administration 
is  the  Russian  war;  but  the  tardiness  which  he  displayed,  and 
unwillingness  to  enter  into  hostilities,  the  result  of  his  constitu- 
tional aversion  to  warlike  measures,  irritated  the  country.  .  In 
1855,  a  majority  of  the  House  of  Commons  having  decided  for 
the  appointment  of  a  committee  of  inquiry  into  the  conduct  of 
the  war,  a  motion  which  the  Aberdeen  ministry  had  uniformly 
resisted,  the  resignation  of  the  cabinet  ensued,  and  Lord  Palmer- 
ston  took  the  post  of  premier.  This  event  marks  the  close  of 
Lord  Aberdeen's  public  career;  he  died  on  the  14th  December, 

(P.  192.)  Young  Roscius  (William  Henry  West  Betty).  His 
grandfather  and  father  were  bleachers  of  linen  at  Lisburn,  in 
County  Antrim.  His  mother  was  the  only  child  of  James  Stanton, 
Esq.,  of  Hopton  Court,  Shropshire.  She  was  a  lady  of  good 
education  and  high  accomplishments.  In  the  year  1802  the 
celebrated  actress,  Mrs.  Siddons,  visited  Belfast.  Betty  had  never 
before  been  to  a  theatre.  He  was  so  inspired  with  enthusiasm  by 
her  acting  that,  on  his  return  home  from  the  theatre,  he  told  his 
father  that  he  should  certainly  die  if  he  was  not  to  be  a  player. 
He  was  then  eleven  years  old.  All  his  ordinary  amusements 
became  wearisome  and  trivial,  and  henceforth  the  theatre  became 
the  subject  of  his  morning  thoughts  and  midnight  dreams.  Mr. 
Aikin,  manager  of  the  Belfast  theatre,  now  engaged  the  boy 
through  his  father  for  a  nightly  performance  commencing  August 
19,  1803.  During  the  next  year,  1804,  he  acted  in  the  theatres 
of  nearly  all  the  provincial  towns  of  the  United  Kindgom,  cul- 
minating in  December,  1804,  in  simultaneous  engagements  at  the 
two  great  theatres  of  Covent  Garden  and  Drury  Lane,  the  receipts 
of  these  two  houses  during  the  first  four  months  of  his  performance 
amounting  to  nearly  ^40,000.  On  one  occasion,  on  the  motion 
of  William  Pitt,  the  House  of  Commons  adjourned  to  witness 
his  performance  of  Hamlet.  He  was  usually  called  Roscius  in 
memory  of  a  celebrated  ancient  Roman  actor  of  that  name. 


During  1806  and  1807  Master  Betty  revisited  all  the  chief 
towns  of  the  kingdom.  At  last,  after  three  or  four  years  of  hard 
work,  during  which  the  public  interest  was  gradually  languishing, 
and  it  was  recognized  that  a  youth  of  sixteen  or  seventeen  could 
no  longer  be  considered  a  juvenile  phenomenon,  it  was  announced 
at  Bath  in  March,  1808,  that  he  was  about  to  retire  from  the 
stage,  and  in  July  of  that  year  he  withdrew  altogether,  and  entered 
Cambridge  University.  It  is  noteworthy  that  Mrs.  Siddons  never 
condescended  to  act  with  him,  saying  that  he  was  a  very  clever, 
pretty  boy,  but  nothing  more. 

On  his  father's  death  in  181 1,  young  Betty,  then  nearly  twenty 
years  of  age,  returned  to  the  stage,  and  was  able  to  retain  his 
position  as  a  clever  and  interesting  actor  for  some  years  longer, 
but  in  August,  1824,  he  made  his  positively  last  appearance. 
(The  above  information  is  chiefly  derived  from  a  lecture  delivered 
at  Holywood,  County  Down,  by  my  friend,  Mr.  W.  H.  Malcolm, 
of  that  town,  in  the  year  1882. — V.  F.)  1 791-1874. 

(P.  222.)  Caroline  Ponsonby,  daughter  of  Frederick  Pon- 
sonby,  Earl  of  Bessborough,  was  married  June  3,  1805,  to  the 
Honourable  William  Lamb,  afterwards  Viscount  Melbourne,  Her 
Majesty  Queen  Victoria's  first  Prime  Minister.  She  became  in 
March,  181 2,  passionately  infatuated  with  Lord  Byron,  of  whom 
she  wrote  in  her  diary  immediately  on  her  return  home  after  her 
introduction  to  him  that  he  was  mad,  bad,  and  dangerous  to  know. 
He  subsequently  wrote  of  her  that  she  was  the  kindest  and  ablest 
female  he  ever  met. 

After  Byron's  rupture  with  her  in  181 3  her  temper  became  so 
ungovernable  that  her  husband  reluctantly  determined  upon  a 
separation.  While  the  legal  instruments  were  being  prepared,  she 
wrote  and  sent  her  first  novel,  Glenarvon,  to  the  press.  However, 
on  the  day  fixed  for  the  execution  of  the  deed  of  separation  a 
sudden  reconciliation  took  place,  and  Lady  Caroline  was  found 
seated  beside  her  husband  feeding  him  with  tiny  scraps  of  trans- 
parent bread  and  butter,  while  the  solicitor  was  waiting  below  to 
attest  the  signatures  (see  Torrens'  Memoirs  of  Viscount  Melbourne, 
vol.  i.  p.  112).  "In  July,  1824,  she  accidentally  met  Byron's 
funeral  procession  on  its  way  to  Newstead.  Though  she  partially 
recovered  from  this  sudden  shock,  her  mind  became  more 
affected,  and  in  the  following  year  she  was  separated  from  her 


husband."  She  died  at  Melbourne  House,  Whitehall,  on  January 
26,  1828,  aged  42,  in  the  presence  of  her  husband,  who  had 
hastened  over  from  Ireland.     {Diet,  of  National  Biography.) 

Mr.  Jeaffreson,  in  his  Real  Lord  Byron,  says  of  Lady  Caroline 
Lamb  that  "  it  is  perhaps  no  extenuation  of  her  most  considerable 
faults  and  follies  that,  in  her  fantastic  and  flighty  way,  she  really 
loved  the  poet  whom  she  injured  so  greatly,  possibly  loved  him 
even  when  in  her  jealous  wrath  she  was  striking  at  him  with  the 
vicious  energy  of  an  enraged  tigress".  1786-1828. 

(P.  292.)  Lines  on  Charles  James  Fox. — On  inquiry  of  His 
Grace,  the  Duke  of  Bedford,  I  find  that  the  lines  written  by 
Georgiana,  Duchess  of  Devonshire,  for  inscription  on  the  bust 
of  C.  J.  Fox,  now  in  the  Sculpture  Gallery  of  Woburn  Abbey, 
were  ultimately  slightly  altered,  and  therefore,  by  His  Grace's 
kind  permission,  I  append  the  more  correct  version — 

Here  midst  the  Friends  he  loved  the  man  behold 
In  truth  unshaken  and  in  virtue  bold. 
Whose  Patriot  zeal  and  uncorrupted  mind 
Dared  to  assert  the  freedom  of  mankind : 
And  whilst,  extending  desolation  far, 
Ambition  spread  the  baneful  flames  of  war, 
Fearless  of  blame,  and  eloquent  to  save, 
'Twas  he — 'twas  Fox  the  warning  counsel  gave: 
Midst  jarring  conflicts  stemmed  the  tide  of  blood, 
And  to  the  menaced  world  a  sea-mark  stood. 
Oh !  had  his  voice  in  mercy's  cause  prevailed, 
What  grateful  millions  had  the  Statesman  hailed ! 
Whose  wisdom  bade  the  broils  of  nations  cease, 
And  taught  the  world  humanity  and  peace ! 
But  though  he  failed  successive  ages  here, 
The  vain,  yet  pious,  effort  shall  revere, 
Boast  in  their  annals  his  illustrious  name, 
Uphold  his  greatness,  and  confirm  his  fame ! 

— Georgiana  Duchess  of  Devonshire. 

(P.  445.)  Count  Capo  d'Istrias. — Count  John  Anthony  Capo 
d'Istrias— a  patriot,  philanthropist,  and  able  diplomatist— was  born 
at  Corfu,  Feb.  11,   1776.     His  family   originally  came  from  the 


Illyrian  town  of  Capo  d'Istria,  near  Trieste,  but  had  been  settled 
in  Corfu  for  upwards  of  four  hundred  years.  He  began  life  as  a 
medical  student,  devoted  himself  to  political  life,  and  after  having 
held  a  high  position  in  the  Ionian  Islands,  entered  the  diplomatic 
service  of  Russia.  In  18 13  he  became  the  minister-plenipotentiary 
of  Russia  to  Switzerland,  and  gained  the  favour  of  the  Swiss  by 
advocating  the  restoration  of  all  the  territory  which  the  French 
had  taken  from  them,  and  the  re-establishment  of  Helvetian 
independence.  In  1814  he  attended  the  Congress  of  Vienna, 
and  in  the  following  year  was  the  plenipotentiary  of  Russia  in  the 
arrangement  of  the  final  treaty  of  peace  with  France.  In  1822  he 
retired  from  the  public  service  of  Russia  and  retired  to  Geneva, 
whence  he  plotted  the  undermining  of  Turkey;  and  on  the 
separation  of  Greece  from  that  power,  after  the  battle  of  Navarino, 
in  which  the  Turkish  and  Egyptian  fleets  were  annihilated  by  the 
combined  British,  French,  and  Russian  fleets,  under  the  command 
of  Sir  Edward  Codrington,  on  October  20,  1827,  he  was  elected, 
in  January,  1828,  President  of  the  Greek  Republic  for  seven  years, 
but  was  by  no  means  equal  to  the  task  which  he  had  undertaken. 
Everything  was  in  disorder;  the  people  had  been  long  enslaved 
and  knew  not  how  to  use  their  freedom,  and  the  President  had 
been  so  much  imbued  with  the  centralizing  principles  prevalent  at 
the  Courts  which  he  had  frequented  that  some  of  his  measures, 
especially  that  restricting  the  liberty  of  the  press,  gave  offence  to 
even  the  most  temperate  of  the  enlightened  lovers  of  civil  liberty, 
and  his  career  was  cut  short  by  assassination  in  a  church  at 
Nauplia  on  October  9,  1831,  the  assassins  being  George,  the  son, 
and  Constantine,  the  brother,  of  Peter  Mauromichali,  against  whom 
he  was  urging  on  a  prosecution  for  alleged  offences  against  the 
state.  (The  above  information  is  culled  from  the  following  sources: 
Encyclopedia  Britannica,  Chambers's  Encyclopedia,  Blackie's 
Popular  Encyclopedia,  and  Beeton's  Dictionary  of  Universal  Bio- 

(P.  449.)  Elizabeth  Vassall  Fox,  Lady  Holland,  daughter 
and  heir  of  Richard  Vassall  of  Jamaica,  was  first  married  in  1786 
to  Sir  Godfrey  Webster.  The  marriage  was  dissolved  in  June, 
1797,  by  Act  of  Parliament,  on  the  ground  of  adultery  committed 
by  her  with  Henry  Richard,  Lord  Holland,  whom  she  married  on 
the  9th  of  the  following  month. 


The  following  notice  of  Lady  Holland  is  copied  from  the 
Annual  Register  of  1845,  Appendix  to  Chronicle,  page  314: — 

"  The  deceased  lady  played  a  very  conspicuous  part  in  society, 
political  and  literary.  Her  great  attainments,  lively  wit,  her  grace 
and  dignity,  decidedly  placed  her  at  the  head  of  Whig  fashion.  The 
charms  of  the  celebrated  hospitalities  of  Holland  House  in  the 
time  of  its  late  revered  owners  have  been  made  known  wherever 
liberal  thought,  literary  merit,  or  eminence  in  the  arts  are  to  be 
found.  For  the  remarkable  position  occupied  by  her  ladyship 
during  many  years  of  those  daily  festivals  in  which  genius,  wit, 
and  patriotic  hope  were  triumphant,  she  was  eminently  gifted. 
While  her  own  remarks  were  full  of  fire,  practical  sense,  and  nice 
observations,  her  influence  was  chiefly  felt  in  the  discourse  of 
those  whom  she  directed  and  inspired,  and  which,  as  she  impelled 
it,  startled  by  the  most  animated  contrast,  or  blended  in  the  most 
graceful  harmonies.  Beyond  any  other  hostess,  and  very  far 
beyond  any  host,  she  possessed  the  tact  of  perceiving,  and  the 
power  of  evoking  the  various  capacities  which  lurked  in  every  part 
of  the  brilliant  circles  she  drew  around  her.  To  enkindle  the 
enthusiasm  of  an  artist  on  the  theme  over  which  he  had  achieved 
the  most  facile  mastery;  to  set  loose  the  heart  of  the  rustic  poet, 
and  imbue  his  speech  with  the  freedom  of  his  native  hills;  to 
draw  from  the  adventurous  traveller  a  breathing  picture  of  his 
most  imminent  danger;  or  to  embolden  the  bashful  soldier  to 
disclose  his  own  share  in  the  perils  and  glories  of  some  famous 
battlefield;  to  encourage  the  generous  praise  of  friendship  when 
the  speaker  and  the  subject  reflected  interest  on  each  other,  or 
win  the  secret  history  of  some  effort  which  had  astonished  the 
world,  or  shed  new  lights  on  science;  to  conduct  those  brilliant 
developments  to  the  height  of  satisfaction,  and  then  to  shift  the 
scene  by  the  magic  of  a  word,  were  among  her  daily  successes. 
Habituated  to  a  generous  partisanship  by  strong  sympathy  with  a 
great  political  cause,  she  carried  the  fidelity  of  her  devotion  to 
that  cause  into  her  social  relations,  and  was  ever  the  truest  and 
fastest  of  friends.  The  tendency,  often  more  idle  than  malicious, 
to  soften  down  the  intellectual  claims  of  the  absent,  which  so 
insidiously  besets  literary  conversation,  and  teaches  a  superficial 
insincerity  even  to  substantial  esteem  and  regard,  found  no  favour 
in  her  presence.  Under  her  auspices  not  only  all  critical,  but  all 
personal  talk  was  tinged  with  kindness;  the  strong  interest  which 


she  took  in  the  happiness  of  her  friends  shed  a  peculiar  sunniness 
over  the  aspects  of  life  presented  by  the  common  topics  of  alli- 
ances, and  marriages,  and  promotions;  and  not  a  promising 
engagement,  or  a  wedding,  or  a  promotion  of  a  friend's  son,  or  a 
new  intellectual  triumph  of  any  youth  with  whose  name  and 
history  she  was  familiar,  but  became  an  event  on  which  she 
expected  and  required  congratulation,  as  on  a  part  of  her  own 
fortune.  If  to  hail  and  welcome  genius,  or  even  talent,  which 
revered  and  imitated  genius,  was  one  of  the  greatest  pleasures  of 
Lord  Holland's  life,  to  search  it  out,  and  bring  it  within  the  sphere 
of  his  noble  sympathy,  was  the  delightful  study  of  hers.  How 
often,  during  the  last  half  century,  has  the  steep  ascent  of  fame 
been  brightened  by  the  genial  appreciation  she  bestowed,  and  the 
festal  light  she  cast  on  its  solitude.  How  often  has  the  assurance 
of  success  received  its  crowning  delight  amid  the  genial  luxury  of 
her  circle,  where  renown  itself  has  been  realized  for  the  first  time 
in  all  its  sweetness." 

The  remains  of  Lady  Holland  were  interred  at  Ampthill, 

(P.  455.)  De  Fellenberg.  Emanuel  de  F.,  a  philanthropic 
Swiss  nobleman,  who,  after  taking  part  in  the  public  affairs  of  his 
country  during  the  occupation  of  the  French,  whom  he  did  all  in 
his  power  to  resist,  retired  entirely  from  politics,  and  devoted  his 
whole  life  to  the  cause  of  literary  and  agricultural  education.  In 
1799  he  purchased  an  estate  near  Berne,  where  he  organized  a 
system  of  tuition,  which  was  designed  to  show  what  education 
could  do  for  humanity.  His  life  from  this  time  is  a  continual 
record  of  benevolent  enterprises,  labours  for  the  diffusion  of  know- 
ledge and  improvement  of  the  people.  He  possessed  singular  tact 
in  disarming  the  opposition  of  interested  or  jealous  opponents, 
and  ultimately  accomplished  a  large  measure  of  success  for  his 
favourite  projects.     (Beeton's  Dictionary  of  Universal  Biography) 


(P.  468.)  Paul  Count  de  Barras  was  a  most  prominent 
member  of  the  French  Revolutionary  Convention,  in  which  he 
voted  for  the  execution  of  the  King,  Louis  XVI.,  without  delay  or 
appeal.  He  was  appointed  by  the  Convention  Commander-in- 
Chief  in    1794,   and  was   mainly  instrumental   in   overthrowing 


Robespierre  and  the  rest  of  the  terrorists.  Being  again  appointed 
Commander-in-Chief  in  the  following  year,  he  commissioned  his 
young  friend,  Napoleon  Bonaparte,  whose  military  talents  he  had 
learned  to  admire  at  Toulon,  to  crush  the  Paris  sections  with 
merciless  discharges  of  artillery.  He  next  became  a  member  of 
the  Directory,  consisting  of  five  members,  and  appointed  Napoleon 
Commander-in-Chief  of  the  army  in  Italy,  and  a  few  days  after- 
wards arranged  the  marriage  of  Napoleon  with  the  widow  Beau- 

On  the  overthrow  of  the  Directory  by  Napoleon,  on  the  18th 
Brumaire  (Nov.  9),  1799,  Barras  retired  into  private  life.     .     .     . 



Abbot,  Mr.,  Speaker  of  the  House  of 
Commons,  214. 

Abercorn,  Lady,  207,  234. 

Abercromie,  Colonel,  284. 

Aberdeen,  Earl  of,  193,  209,  210, 211, 
215,  216,  217,  219,  220,  224,  225, 
230,  232,  236,  248,  257,  262,  284, 
390,  405 ;  Appendix,  475 ;  letter  to 
Augustus  Foster,  185,  187,  188, 
190,  207,  213,  241,  248,  305,  356, 

—  Lady,  236,  310,  443. 

A'Court,  429. 

Ada,  Lord  Byron's  daughter  (after- 
wards Lady  Lovelace),  430. 

Adair,  418. 

Addington,  Henry  A.,  167,  194  ("the 
Doctor"),  196,  219,  341. 

Aix,  Archbishop  of,  179,  181. 

Alexander,  Emperor  of  Russia,  109, 
261,  274,  311,  328,  382,  384,  390, 
402,  443. 

Allecetas,  Marquis  d',  398. 

Alten  Kirchen,  129. 

Americans  and  American  affairs,  let- 
ters from  Augustus  Foster,  203,  206, 
226,  229,  239,  246,  &c. 

Arena,    attempts    life   of   Bonaparte, 

Armfelt,    Baron   d',    172,    323,   375; 

letter  to  Augustus  Foster,  328. 
Ashburner,  Mrs.,  88,  106. 
Atholl,  Duke  of,  189. 
Atlee,  Mr.,  458. 
Auckland,  Lord,  271,  325,  326. 
Augereau,   Field-Marshal,   380,   383, 

Augusta,  sister  of  George  III.,  8. 

Augustenbourg,  Prince  of,  335. 
Augustus,    Prince,    of    Saxe-Coburg, 

8,  22. 
Austria,  Emperor  of,  261,  381,  382. 
Avondale,  Lord,  418. 

Bagot,  Charles,  339. 
Baird,  General,  314,  316. 
Bajocchi,  Madame,  412. 
Banks,  Mr.,  358,  363. 
Banks,  Sir  Joseph,  165. 
Barham,  Lord,  232. 
Barmeath,  104. 
Barnard,  Hon.  Henry,  453. 

—  Lord,  354. 

Barras,  letter  from  Napoleon  Bona- 
parte, 468. 

—  Paul  Count  de,  Appendix,  482. 
Barry,  Mrs.,  196. 

Batoni,  Pompeo,  no,  118. 

Bayley,  Dean,  40. 

Beauharnais,  Eugene,  382. 

Beauvale,  Lord,  450. 

Bellasyse,    Mr.   (Lord   Bolingbroke), 

Bellew,  Miss,  28,  109. 

—  Mrs.,  113. 

Benixin  (Bennigsen),  170. 
Bennet,  Mr.,  218,  230. 
Bentinck,  Lord  W.,  333,  342. 
Beresford,  Viscount,  327. 
Bergamo,  434. 
Berkeley,  Lady,  67. 
Bernadotte,  388,  389,  390,  391. 
Bernis,  Cardinal  de,  33,  34,  38,  78, 

107,  108. 
Berri,  Duke  of,  385. 
Berthier,  General  (Marshal),  153,  383. 



Bertin,  Mademoiselle,  88. 
Bertrand,  General,  384,  396. 

—  Madame,  408. 
Bessborough,  Earl  of,  II. 

—  Lady,  163,  195,  223,  285,  288,  317, 

334.  376,  393.  438.  44°- 

Betty,  William  Henry  West  (Young 
Roscius),  Appendix,  477.  See 

Billington,  Mrs.,  304. 

Birbeck,  Madame,  102. 

Bishop  of  Derry.  See  BRISTOL, 
Earl  of. 

Bishopswerder,  Hans  Rodolph,  137. 

Bittio,  28,  35,  46. 

Blackall,  Miss,  40. 

Blake,  General,  313,  314,  354. 

Blane,  Sir  Gilbert,  209. 

Blayden,  Mr.,  164. 

Blayney,  Lord,  171. 

Blucher,  Marshal,  383,  406. 

Bolingbroke,  Lord,  239,  240. 

Bonaparte  (Napoleon  I.),  159,  160, 
164,  171,  172,  173,  179,  180,  192, 
210,  243,  244,  255,  298,  306,  313, 
315,  316,  318,  321,  327,  329,  331, 
342,  346,  349,  360,  37S,  376,  379, 
381,  383,  386,  391,  392,  393,  395, 
396,  398,  400,  401,  402,  404,  405, 
408,  410,  411,  412. 

—  Jerome,  206,  211. 

—  Joseph,  334,  345. 

—  Louis,  182,  424. 

—  Madame,  182. 

—  Madame  Jerome  (Miss  Patterson), 
197,  221,  222,  234,  294,  296,  297. 

—  Madame  Lucien,  424. 
Bond,  Mrs.,  4. 

Borghese,  Princess,  412,  423. 

Boringdon,  Lady,  203. 

Bourke,  Mr.,  395. 

Bourne,  Sturges,  339. 

Brand,  Mrs.,  109. 

Brandenburg,  House  of,  141. 

Bristol,  Countess  of,  letter  to  the 
Bishop,  81;  letter  to  Lady  Eliza- 
beth Foster,  82,  83,  85,  88,  90,  94, 
99,  103,  105,  108,  113,  142;  letter 

to  Frederick  Foster,  148;  death  of, 
Bristol,  Earl  of,  Bishop  of  Derry,  2,  5, 
7,  11,  18,  20,  24,  38,  43,  95,  106; 
Appendix,  469 ;  letter  from  the 
Countess  of  Bristol,  81 ;  letter  to 
Lady  Elizabeth  Foster,  78,  116, 
119,  121,  122,  123,  124,  127,  128, 
129,  137,  139.  143,  15°,  1S2;  letter 
to  Mrs.  J.  Th.  Foster,  14,  16,  22, 
32>  34.  47.  55.  63,  65,  68,  72,  74. 

—  George  William,  Earl  of,  32. 

—  Lady,  Duchess  of  Kingston,  61. 

—  Lord,  206. 
Brook,  Lord,  219. 
Brougham,  Henry,  423,  424. 
Brown,  Dr.,  299. 

—  John,  191. 

Bruce,  Rev.  Sir  Henry  Hervey  Aston, 

—  Theo.,  126. 

Brunswick,  Duchess  of,  300,  311. 

—  Duke  of,  9,  295,  299,  300,  330. 

—  Prince  of,  9,  15,  20. 

—  Princess  of,  8. 
Buchanan,  President,  466. 
Buckingham,  Lady,  32. 

—  Lord,  75. 

Buckinghamshire,  Lord,  219. 
Buenos  Ayres,  294,  301,  304. 
Buonaparte.     See  Bonaparte. 
Burdett,  Sir  Francis,  295,  310. 
Burgersh,  Lord,  327,  349,  385. 
Burke,  Edmund,  378. 
Burnet,  Bishop,  140. 

Burr,  Aaron,  297,  301,  302,  308. 
Bute,  Lord,  142. 
Butler,  Miss,  40. 
Buxton,  Mr.  C,  460. 
Byres,  Mr.,  107. 
Byrne,  N.,  12,  30. 

Byron,  Lady,  412,  413,  415,  430;  let- 
ter to  Vere  Foster,  451,  452,  453, 

458.  459.  460,  462,  463.  464.  4°6. 

—  Lord,  352,  361,  362,  364,  375, 
376,  378,  401,  412,  424,  438,  442; 
verses  addressed  to  Hon.  Mrs.  G. 



Lamb,  374;  letter  to  Elizabeth, 
Duchess  of  Devonshire,  426,  436, 
439;  letter  from  Elizabeth,  Duchess 
of  Devonshire,  439. 
Byron,  Lord  and  Lady,  408,  413,  414, 

Calder,    Sir  Robert,  235,  236,  238, 

Calthorpe,  Lord,  460. 
Cambaceres,  181. 
Camden,  Lord,  341,  342. 
Campbell,  Colonel,  385,  396. 
Canning,  George,  167,  196,  202,  203, 

305.  3°9.  3IQ>  34i.  342,  343.  345. 

35°.  356,  369.  44i,  444- 
Canning  and  Castlereagh,  339,  340. 
Canova,  Antonio,  411,  415;   letter  to 

Elizabeth,  Duchess  of  Devonshire, 

419,  420. 
Carlisle,    Earl   of,    his   lines    on   the 

death  of  the  Duchess  of  Devonshire 

(Georgiana),  278. 

—  Lady,  450. 

—  Lord,  376. 

Carnival,  description  of  the,  34,  35. 
Caro,  218. 

Castanos,  General,  312. 
Castlereagh,  Lady,  326. 

—  Lord,  156,  308,  324,  325,  326, 
345.  35°.  3S8,  388,  39°,  432;  Ap- 
pendix, 474. 

Castlereagh  and  Canning,  339,  340. 

Catalani,  303. 

Cathcart,  Lord,  249,  390. 

Catholic  question  brought  on,  354. 

Catholic  Relief  Bill,  58. 

Cattaro,  the,  to  be  yielded  to  France, 

Cavendish,  Lord  George,  309. 

—  H.,  333,  345. 

—  Lady  Harriet,  211. 

—  Mrs.,  355. 

—  William,  355. 

Charles,   Archduke,   128,   255,   329, 

33i.  332,  336- 
Charles  XIII.,  433. 
Chatham,   Lord  (First  Earl),  47,  54, 

58,   143,  148;  (Second  Earl),  158, 

209,  337.  338,  339.  345- 
Cherokees  and  Creeks,  258. 
Chesterfield,  Lord,  42,  212. 
Chief  Governor  of  Ireland,  79- 
Choiseul  Gouffier,  Duke  de,  410. 
Christian,  King  of  Denmark,  letter  to 

Augustus  Foster,  447. 
Christophe,  Henri,  250. 
Cimabue,  Giovanni,  118. 
Ciudad  Rodrigo  taken,  354. 
Civil  war  imminent  in  Ireland,  80. 
Clarence,  Duke  of,  218,  352. 
Clarke,  Mrs.,  320,  322,  330. 
Clay,  Mr.,  254. 

Clifford,  Augustus  C,  235,  256. 
Closius,  Dr.,  14. 
Cobbett,  William,  202. 
Cochrane,     Admiral     (Lord),     202, 

Coigny,  Madame  de,  388. 
Cole,  Lady  Harriet,  231. 
Congress,  opening  of,  253. 
Constant,  B.,  404,  430. 
Corda,  la,  35. 
Corisande  ("Corise"),  173,  175,  182, 

196,  203,  208,  213,  224,  231,  286, 

Cornwallis,  Admiral,  236,  238. 

—  Lord,  212,  277,  291. 
Corunna,  victory  of,  317. 
Cosway,  Mrs.,  103. 

Countess  de  Salis,  Harriet,  letter  from 

John  Leslie  Foster,  170. 
Cowper,  Lady,  106. 

—  Lord,    164,    171,    174,    195,    222, 
224,  231,  3SS,  424. 

Craig,  Sir  James,  355. 

—  Sir  S.,  209. 
Craven,  Lady,  97. 

Crawford,  Mr.,  his  opinion  of  Roscius, 

Creeks,  258. 
Creightons,  Miss,  3. 
Cromwell,  Oliver,  143. 
Cuesta,  335,  336,  337. 
Cumberland,  Duchess  of,  182. 

—  Duke  of,  269. 



Curera,  General,  329. 
Cust,  Mr.,  171. 

Danby,  Miss,  94,  97. 

Danoot,  31. 

Dante,  118. 

Dantzig,  Duke  of,  330. 

D'Aumont,  403. 

Davers,  Sir  Charles,  Bart.,  5,  82,  98. 

D'Ellioto,  380. 

Demidoff,  172. 

Denen,  Mr.,  426. 

Denmark,  King  of,  404,  406. 

—  Queen  of,  372. 
Dennel,  Mr.,  4. 

Derry,  Bishop  of.  See  Bristol, 
Earl  of. 

Dessalines,  Jacques,  250. 

Devonshire,  Elizabeth,  Duchess  of 
(previously  Lady  Elizabeth  Foster — 
see  Foster),  letter  from  Lord  By- 
ron, 426,  436,  439;  letter  from 
Antonio  Canova,  419,  420;  letter 
from  Augustus  Foster,  360, 365, 372, 
378,  379,  380,  381,  38S-  387,  388, 
389.  394.  395.  401,  4°3,  406,  407, 
410,  411,  412,  414,  416,  418,  427, 
42S,  429,  431,  432,  433,  435,  438, 
442 ;  letter  from  W.  H.  Hill,  401 ; 
letter  from  the  Prince  Regent,  347; 
letter  from  the  Countess  of  Liver- 
pool, 415, 417 ;  letter  from  the  Duke 
of  Wellington,  441 ;  letter  to  Lord 
Byron,  439;  letter  to  Augustus  Fos 
ter,   341,  342,  343,  34s,  347,  ,348 

349,  35°,  35i,  354,  357,  361,  364 
367,  368,  372,  375,  386,  393,  397 
404,  409,  411,  412,  413,  415,  423. 
424,  425,  441,  442;  letter  to  Frede 
rick  Foster,  352;  letter  to  Mrs, 
Foster,  423;  memorandum  inclosing 
copy  of  letter  of  General  Moreau  to 
his  wife,  377 ;  memorandum  inclos- 
ing copy  of  the  Emperor  Alexander's 
letter,  378. 

—  Georgians,  Duchess  of,  84,  85,  94, 
96,  101,  103,  115,  191,  223,  256, 
291;  letter  to  Frederick  Foster,  130; 

poetry  addressed  to  Lady  Elizabeth 
Foster,  131,  132;  poetry  on  Lady 
Elizabeth  Foster  (in  French),  132; 
poetry  addressed  to  her  children — 
The  Passage  of  the  Mountain  of 
Saint  Gothard,  133;  poetry  on  the 
Battle  of  Aboukir,  155;  letter  from 
Charles  James  Fox,  184;  poetry  on 
the  death  of  James  Hare,  200;  Epi- 
gram on  the  peerage,  201 ;  lines  on 
the  Victory  of  Trafalgar  and  the 
death  of  Nelson,  252;  letter  to 
Augustus  Foster,  273 ;  lines  on  the 
death  of,  by  the  Earl  of  Carlisle, 
278;  lines  on  the  bust  of  Fox,  292 ; 
letter  from  R.  B.  Sheridan,  m. 

Devonshire,  Duke  of,  84,  101,  191, 
199,  218,  223,  236,  256,  285,  286, 
288;  lines  on  death  of  Nelson,  252; 
epitaph  on  Lord  Spencer,  264. 

Dicot,  Mr.,  379. 

Dillon,  Colonel,  36,  39. 

—  Henry,  196,  203. 

Dillons — poor  little  Dillons,  87. 

Dissenters'  Bill,  78. 

Dodd,  Rev.  Wm.,  LL.D.,  4. 

Douglas,  Sir  I.  and  Lady,  285. 

Dresden,  battle  of,  376. 

Drouet,  General,  384,  387. 

Drummond,  Miss,  in  love  with  Young 
Roscius,  207. 

Dubelloy,  Archbishop  of  Paris,  179, 

Duchess  Countess,  Lady  Bristol,  67. 

Duchess  of  York,  120. 

Ducos,  Roger,  159. 

Dumas,  Comte  de,  400. 

Duncannon,  Lord,  203,  215,  230,  256, 
296,  299,  310. 

Dundas,  Henry,  Viscount  Melville. 
See  Melville  (Lord). 

Durer,  Albert,  118. 

Elector  of  the  Rhenish  Palatinate,  20; 
Elector's  minister,  singular  ceremo- 
nials, 20,  21. 

Elgin,  Lord,  138,  284. 

Eliott,  Lady,  97. 



Ellenborough,  Lord,  285. 

Elliot,  Mr.,  137,  138,  168. 

Ellis,  Charles,  222,  251. 

Elmsley,  Mr.,  423. 

Engelstr6m,  Baron  d',  letter  to  Au- 
gustas Foster — order  to  quit  Swe- 
den, 346,  433. 

Ermiskillen,  Lord,  230. 

Erne,  Countess  of,  2,  3,  4,  43,  68,  83, 
15°.  157.  344.  369;  letter  to  Frede- 
rick Foster,  166. 

—  Earl  of,  4,  43. 

—  Lord  and  Lady,  62,  64,  67. 
Erskine,  Mr.,  286. 

Eugene,  Charles,  22. 
Excavations  at  Rome,  425. 
Exeter,  Bishop  of,  262. 

Falkland,  Lord,  killed  in  a  duel,  322. 
Farquhar,  Sir  Walter,  121,  209. 
Faucit,  Col.,  11. 
Faukes,  Mr.,  296. 

Fellenberg,  Emanuel  de,  455;  Appen- 
dix, 482. 
Ferguson,  General,  314. 

—  Mrs.,  43. 

Ferronayes,  M.  La,  427. 
Finch,  Captain,  87. 
Fitz,  L.  M.,  5. 

—  The,  40. 

Fitzgeralds,  Ladies,  213. 
Fitzjames,  M.  de,  383. 
Fitzpatrick,  General,  193,  268. 

—  Mr.,  202. 

Fitzroy,  Lady  Anne,  158. 

Fitzwilliam,  Lord,  296. 

Flahault,  Monsieur  de,  397. 

Flushing,  333. 

Follen,  Mrs.,  459,  462. 

Foster,  Augustus,  150,  171,  348;  Sir 
Augustus,  Appendix,  474;  Augus- 
tus (afterwards  Sir  Augustus  F., 
Bart. ),  letter  from  the  Earl  of  Aber- 
deen, 185,  187,  188,  190,  207,  213, 
241,  248,  305,  356,  442;  letter  from 
Christian  VIII.,  king  of  Denmark, 
447;  letter  from  Baron  d'Armfelt, 
328;   letter   from   Baron  d'Engel- 

I  str6m,  346,  433;  letter  from  Count 
John  Anthony  Capo  d'Istrias,  445'; 
letter  from  Lady  Elizabeth  Foster 
(afterwards  Duchess  of  Devonshire), 

153.  156,  iS7>  160,  161,  167,  191. 
192,  194,  198,  201,  207,  209,  210, 
214,  217,  220,  230,  235,  237,  242, 
243.  244,  250,  252,  255,  260,  261, 
262,  264,  266,  272,  280,  283,  285, 
286,  287,  292,  294,  298,  300,  303, 

307,  3°9.  3».  312.  313.  3H.  3*5, 
316,  317,  319,  321,  322,  324,  326, 

327,  329,  33o.  33i»  332,  333.  334, 
335,  336,  337,  338,  339,  340;  letter 
from  Elizabeth,  Duchess  of  Devon- 
shire, 341,  342,  343,  345,  347,  348, 
349,  350,  35i,  354,  357,  361,  364, 
367,  368,  372,  375,  38°,  393,  397, 
404,  409,  411,  412,  413,  415,  423, 
424, 425, 441, 442;  letter  from  Frede- 
rick Foster,  169,  290,  343,  380,  391, 
395, 398, 400;  letter  from  Georgiana, 
Duchess  of  Devonshire,  273;  letter 
from  the  Hon.  Mrs.  Lamb,  279, 
353,  373,  404,  4°8,  430,  434,  449, 
450;  letter  to  Lady  Elizabeth  Fos- 
ter, 156,  159,  160,  164,  173,  176, 
178,  180,  182,  183,  196,  203,  206, 
225,  226,  232,  238,  239,  246,  253, 
257,  271,  274,  276,  281,  290,  291, 
296,  301,  308;  letter  to  Elizabeth, 
Duchess  of  Devonshire,  360,  365, 
372,  378,  379,  380,  381,  385,  387, 
388,  389,  394,  395,  4°i,  403,  406, 
407,  410,  411,  412,  414,  416,  418, 
427,  428,  429,  431,  432,  433,  435, 
438,  442;  letter  to  Frederick  Fos- 
ter, 229. 
Foster,  Colonel,  365. 

—  Doctor  Thomas,  3,  13,  25,  104, 

—  Lady  Elizabeth  (afterwards  Duchess 
of  Devonshire),  III;  poetry  ad- 
dressed by  Georgiana,  Duchess  of 
Devonshire,  to,  131;  poetry  by 
Georgiana,  Duchess  of  Devonshire, 
on,  132;  letter  from  Augustus  Fos- 
ter,  156,  159,   160,   164,   173,  176, 



178,  180,  182,  183,  196,  203,  206, 
225,  226,  232,  238,  239,  246,  253, 
257,  271,  274,  276,  281,  290,  291, 
296,  301,  308;  letter  from  the 
Bishop  of  Derry,  78,  116;  letter 
from  the  Countess  of  Bristol,  82,  83, 
85,  88,  90,  94,  99,  103,  105,  108, 
113;  letter  from  the  Earl  of  Bristol 
(Bishop  of  Derry),  116,  119,  121, 
122,  123,  124,  127,  128,  129,  137, 
139,  143,  150,  152;  letter  from 
Edward  Gibbon,  115;  letter  from 
George,  Prince  of  Wales,  279;  letter 
to  Augustus  Foster,  153,  156,  157, 
160,  161,  167,  191,  192,  194,  198, 
201,  207,  209,  210,  214,  217,  220, 
230,  235,  237,  242,  243,  244,  250, 
252,  255,  260,  261,  262,  264,  266, 
272,  280,  283,  285,  286,  287,  292, 
294,  298,  300,  303,  307,  309,  311, 
312,  313,  314,  315,  316,  317,  319, 
321,  322,  324,  326,  327,  329,  330, 

33i.  332.  333.  334,  335.  336.  337. 
338,  339,  340;  letter  to  Frederick 
Th.  Foster,  166. 
Foster,  Frederick,  letter  from  Lady 
Elizabeth  Foster,  166;  letter  from 
Elizabeth,  Duchess  of  Devonshire, 
352;  letter  from  G.  Thorwaldsen, 
422;  letter  to  Augustus  Foster,  169, 
290,  343.  380,  391,  398,  395.  400. 

—  Fred.  Th.,  44. 

—  Henry,  162. 

—  John,  Speaker  of  Irish  House  of 
Commons,  64. 

—  John  Leslie,  177;  letter  to  Harriet, 
Countess  de  Salis,  170. 

—  J.  Th.,  S,  24,  26,  31,  33,  39,  62, 
75.  83,  86,  93,  109. 

—  Mr.,  243. 

—  Mrs.  J.  Th.  (afterwards  Lady  Eliza- 
beth Foster — see  above),  letter  from 
Bishop  of  Derry  and  the  Hon.  Mrs. 
Hervey,  22;  letter  from  the  Bishop 
of  Derry,  14,  16,  32,  47,  55,  63, 
65,  68,  72,  74;  letter  from  the  Hon. 
Mrs.  Hervey  (afterwards  Countess 
of  Bristol),  I,  3,  6,  10,  18,  25,  29, 

38,  41,  45,  50,  S3.  59,  61,  69;  letter 
from  the  Hon.  Mrs.  Hervey  and 
the  Bishop  of  Derry,  34. 

Foster,  Vere,  birth  of,  428,  432;  letter 
from  Lady  Byron,  451,  452,  453, 
458.  459.  460,  462.  463.  464.  466, 

Fox,  Charles  James,  199,  215,  227, 
231,  236,  237,  266,  267,  268,  271, 
273,  285,  286,  289,  293,  297,  300, 
304,  449 ;  Appendix,  479 ;  letter  to 
Duchess  of  Devonshire  (Georgiana), 
184,  263 ;  inscription  for  a  bust  of, 
263;  lines  by  Duchess  of  Devon- 
shire on  bust,  292. 

—  Elizabeth  Vassall,  Lady  Holland, 
Appendix,  480. 

—  Mrs.,  273. 

France,  King  of,  Louis  XVI.,  78. 

Francis,  Sir  Philip,  185. 

Freddy,  432. 

Fred  the  third,  37. 

Frederick,  Prince  of  Orange,  128, 129. 

French  Minister  at  Washington,  228. 

Gamba,  two  Counts,  436,  440. 

Gambier,  Lord,  323. 

Gardiner,  Mr.,  54. 

Garrick,  209. 

Garth,  Sir  Samuel,  118. 

Gay,  John,  118. 

Gell,  Mr.,  313. 

—  Sir  William,  187,  189,  190. 
George  III.,  167,  168,  195,  218,267, 

269,  347,  352,  354- 
Gerard,  384,  387. 
Germany,  Emperor  of,  64,  261. 

—  Empress  of,  64. 

Gibbon,  Edward,  letter  to  Lady  Eliza- 
beth Foster,  115. 

Gifford,  Mr.,  9. 

Gleadow,  Mr.,  48. 

"Glenarvon",  418. 

Gloucester,  Duke  of,  237-238. 

Goderich,  Viscount,  444. 

Goethe,  161. 

Gonsalvi,  Cardinal,  412,  419,  425, 



Goodwood,  116. 

Gordon,  406. 

Gordon,  Duchess  of,  188,  211,  233. 

—  Mrs.,  83. 
Gore,  Miss  E.,  157. 
Gosford,  Lady,  362. 
Gosling,  Messrs.,  124. 
Gotha,  Prince  of,  45. 
Gower,  Lady  Charlotte,  213. 
Graham,  General,  350. 
Grantham,  Lord,  231. 

—  Lord,  and  Miss  Pole,  213. 
Granville,  Lady,  334. 

—  Lord,  196,  249,  303. 

Grassini,  Josephina,   207,   263,    304, 

Grattan,  182. 

Greene,  Mrs.,  6,  87,  94,  98. 
Grenville,  Lord,  141,  266,  267,  268, 

269,  270,  272,  285,  291,  310,  340, 

Grenville  and  Fox,  267. 

—  Mr.  T.,  286. 

Grenvilles,  the  king  hates  the  thought 

of  them,  339. 
Greville,  Charles,  112. 

—  Mrs.  C,  112. 
Grey,  Lady  de,  444. 

—  Lord,  203,  215,  322,  325,  340,  341. 

Hamilton,  Lady  Catherine,  224,  230, 

—  Lord  Archibald,  171,  324. 

—  Viscountess,  207. 
Hamlet,  406,  407. 
Hammond,  Mr.,  137. 
Hanover,  Chancellor  of,  141. 
Hardwick,  Lord,  243. 
Hare,  James,  112,  199,  200. 
Harrowby,  Lady,  344. 

—  Lord,  195,  246,  331,  344. 
Hartington,    Marquis   of,    288,    289, 

354,  355- 
Harvey,  Admiral,  323. 
Hatton,  Lady  An»e,  160,  163. 
Haugnitz,  296. 
Hawkesbury,   Lady  (formerly   Lady 

Louisa  Hervey  and  afterwards  Coun- 

tess of  Liverpool — which  see),  150, 

215,  219. 
Hawkesbury,  Lord  (afterwards   Earl 

of  Liverpool — which  see),  131,  150, 

156,  158,  167,  194,  195,  221,  225, 

232,  268,  273,  309. 
Hawkesburys,  157,  192. 
Hawkins,  Colonel,  258. 
Henrietta,  71. 
Henry,  Mr.,  363. 
Hertford,  Lady,  311. 
Hervey,    Fred.,    93.     See    Hervey 


—  Captain  Jack,  71,  78,  102. 

—  General,  90,  94,  157. 

—  John  Augustus,  72. 

—  Lady,  no,  150,  369. 

—  Lady  Louisa  (afterwards  Lady 
Hawkesbury  and  Countess  of  Liver- 
pool— which  see),  3,  13,  24,  25,  28, 
43.  5°,  65,  69,  87,  92. 

—  Lord,  119,  122,  123,  125,  126, 166. 

—  Hon.  Miss,  letter  to  Mrs.  J.  Th. 
Foster,  41. 

—  Hon.  Mrs.  (afterwards  Countess  of 
Bristol),  letter  to  Mrs.  Foster,  I,  3, 
6,  10,  18,  22,  25,  29,  34,  38,  41, 

45,  50,  53,  59,  61,  69. 

—  William,  no. 

Hill,  W.  H.,  letter  to  Elizabeth, 
Duchess  of  Devonshire,  401. 

Hillsborough,  Lord,  free  trader,  75. 

Hobart,  Miss  Vere,  letter  to  Mrs. 
Foster,  444. 

Holland,  140. 

Holland,  Lady,  163,  266,  291,  449; 
Appendix,  480. 

—  Lord,  266,  286,  363. 
Hood,  Sir  S.,  299. 

—  Sir  T.,  323. 

Hope,  General,  315,  316,  319. 

—  Mr.,  425. 
Hough,  Mr.,  202. 
Howard,  Charles,  449 

—  Fred.,  312,  404. 

—  W.,  299. 
Howe,  Lord,  157. 

Howick,  Lord,  291,  303,  304,  305, 309. 



Hunter,  Mr.,  87,  88,  94. 
Huntly,  Lord,  333. 
Huskisson,  339. 
Hutchinson,  Lord,  300. 

Ick worth  House,  116. 
Indian  Nations,  257. 
Influenza,  61. 

Invasion  of  Ireland  intended,  57,  76. 
Irish  regiment  in  the  French  service,  48. 
Istrias,  Count  Capo  d',  Appendix,  479; 
letter  to  Augustus  Foster,  445. 

Jackson,  Mr.,  164. 

Jefferson,    Thomas,    President,    197, 

229,  308. 
Jenkins,  Mr.,  107. 
Jerome,  Madame,  294. 
Jersey,  Lord,  423,  424. 
Jordan,  Mr.,  194. 
Joseph  Napoleon,  345. 
Josephine,  424;  death  of,  388. 
Jourdan,  Canaille,  180. 

Kaufiman,  Angelica,  218. 
Keith,  Lord,  158. 
Kelly,  Father,  64. 
Kemble,  Charles,  262,  263. 

—  John,  250. 

Kemble  and  Mrs.  Siddons,  250. 

Keppel,  Admiral  Lord,  63,  77. 

Ker,  Lady  Emily,  87. 

King,  Mr.,  239. 

Kingston,  Duchess  of,  63. 

Korsakow,  427. 

Kotzebue,  156,  160,  161,  162. 

Lafayette,  430. 

Lamb,  Lady  Caroline (Ponsonby),  222, 
223,  232,  233,  242,  257,  303,  307, 
354.  362,  364.  369.  376,  416,  418; 
Appendix,  478. 

—  Emily,  222,  231. 

—  George,  310,  316,  345,  409. 

—  Hon.  Mrs.  George,  letter  to  Augus- 
tus Foster,  279,  373,  404,  408,  430, 
434,  449,  450;  verses  addressed  by 
Lord  Byron  to,  374. 

Lamb,  William  (afterwards  Lord  Mel- 
bourne), 154,  162,  219,  222,  223, 
249,  257,  299,  303 ;  inscription  for 
a  bust  of  C.  J.  Fox,  263. 

Lambert,  Chevalier,  47. 

—  Lady  Maria,  242. 

—  Sir  John,  38. 
Lansdowne,  Lord,  423,  444. 
Lascelles'  motion  of  public  honour  to 

Pitt,  267,  268. 
Lauderdale,  Lord,  358. 
Lawrence,  Mr.,  359. 
Le  Brun,  181. 
Lecourbe,  399. 
Leinster,  Duke  of,  80. 
Lennox,  Lord,  209. 
Le  Sage,  Monsr.,  J.  Th.  Foster,  1. 
Leveson,  Lord  Granville,  331. 
Lewis,  "Monk",  425. 
Lichtenstein,  Prince  John  of,  336. 
Lilford,  Lady,  449. 
Liverpool,  Countess  of  (formerly  Lady 

Hawkesbury — which  see),  344,  380; 

letter    to    Elizabeth,    Duchess    of 

Devonshire,  415,  417. 

—  Earl  of  (previously  Lord  Hawkes- 
bury—which  see),  3,  317,  344,  350, 
355.  363.  368,  389. 

London,  Bishop  of,  417. 
Louchee,  87,  94. 
Louis  XVI.,  78. 

—  XVIII.,  140,  380,  381,  400,  403, 
429;  deathblow  to  his  hopes,  180. 

Lovel,  Mr.,  139. 

Lucan,  Lord  and  Lady,  67. 

Lucchesini,  Prussian  Ambassador,  172, 

296,  299. 
Lucien,  Madame,  424. 
Lucullus,  139. 
Luttrell,  172. 

Macartney,  Lord,  117. 

M 'Donald,  Marshal,  like  Lord  Mor- 
peth, 181;  report  of  his  defeat,  349. 

MacEgan,  Governor,  64. 

M'Intosh,  Sir  James,  378. 

Mack,  General,  244;  taken  prisoner, 



M'Mahon,  Colonel,  358. 
Maitland,  Captain,  408. 
Malmesbury,  Lordj  139. 
Mannheim,  description  of,  19,  20. 
Mansbridge,  Mr.,  222,  233. 
Marche,   Comtesse   de   la,   123,   129; 

Appendix,  473. 
Maria  Louisa,  388,  424. 
Markoff,  Russian  ambassador,  172. 
Marmont,  Marshal,  363,  396. 
Marsden,  Mr.,  251. 
Marshalls,  109. 

Martinetti,  Madame,  437,  440. 
Mary,  Lady,  83. 
Massena,  Marshal,  181,  391,  392,  393, 

395,  400,  401,  409. 
Materosa,  328. 
Meister,  Count,  382. 
Melbourne,  Lady,  223,  224,  314,  335, 

437.  44°- 

—  Lord,  223,  450  (2nd  Viscount). 
Melboumes,  The,  162,  222. 
Mellisb,  Mr.,  299. 

Melville,  Lady,  236,  262. 

—  Lord,  202,  210,  211,  214,  215,  216, 
217,  218,  224,  225,  230,  232,  236, 
241,262,  305,  368;  party  virulence 
against  him,  213;  expelled  from  the 
Privy  Council,  220;  to  appear  at 
the  bar  of  the  House  of  Commons, 
224;  to  be  impeached,  231;  pro- 
longation of  impeachment,  250;  his 
trial  about  soon  to  end,  284. 

—  Lord  and  Lady,  262. 
Menou,  175. 

Mercer,  190. 

Merry,  Mr.,  196,  245,  275,  311. 

—  Mrs.,  226,  238,  275. 
Michael  Angelo,  118. 
Middleton,  Sir  Charles,  218,  219,  232. 
Milbanke,  Lady,  353,  368,  372,  373. 

—  Miss  (afterwards  Lady  Byron),  348, 
358,  360,  361,  365,  367,  370,  372, 


—  Sir  Ralph,  354,  373- 

—  Sir  Ralph  and  Lady,  367,  370,  430. 
Minden,  127. 

Ministry,  change  of,  270. 

Minto,  Lord,  286,  450. 

Miranda,  General,  276,  284,  294,  297, 

Moellendorf,  Count  de,  137. 
Moira,  Lady,  60,  190,  368. 
Monaco,  Prince  of,  397. 
Monni,  380. 
Monroe,  Mr.,  357. 
Monson,  Colonel,  212. 
Montoro,  General,  389. 
Moore,  Sir  John,  316,  317,  318,  319, 

321.  335- 
Moreau,  General,  128,  238,  243,  245, 
246,  250,  276,  294,  297;  letter  to 
Augustus  Foster,  366;  letter  to  his 
wife,  376. 

—  Madame,  276;  letter  from  Emperor 
Alexander  I.,  377. 

Morice,  Mr.,  87,  94. 

Morier,  Mr.,  355. 

Morpeth,  Lord  (afterwards  Earl  of 
Carlisle),  163,  223,  289,  294,  295, 
296,  299,  300,  303,  312,  325,  354, 

Morpeths,  195. 

Motteux,  Mr.,  311. 

Mounier,  le,  159,  161,  389. 

Mounier's  son,  383. 

Mountstuart,  Lord,  73. 

Mulgrave,  Lady,  78. 

—  Lord,  106. 
Munroe,  Mr.,  259,  274. 
Murat,  Madame,  182,  412. 

—  Marshal,  401,  404,  409. 

Napoleon,  243,  385;  description  of, 
164;  letter  to  Barras  (?),  468.  See 

—  Joseph,  345. 
Narischkin,  Madame,  443. 
Nelson,    Lord,    182,   221,   224,   232, 

235,  238,  241,  243,  244,  246,  249, 
251,  256,  261,  265,  274,  277,  291, 
298;  death  of,  lines  by  Georgiana, 
Duchess  of  Devonshire,  on,  252. 

Ney,  Marshal,  244,  313,  329,  382, 

Noailles,  M.  de,  46. 



Noel,  Mr.,  453. 
Noels,  the,  430. 
North,  B.,  203. 

—  Lord,  77,  358. 
Norway,  King  of,  246. 

Ockham,  Viscount,  462,  467. 
Oldenbourg,  Duchesse  d',  328. 
Orange,  Prince  of,  165. 

—  Prince  Frederick  of,  128,  129. 
O'Reilly,  Mr.,  56. 

Oriel,  Lord,  64. 

Ossulston,  Lord  (afterwards  Earl  of 
Tankerville),  196,  203,  208,  215, 
219,  250,  265,  286,  296,  303,  325, 

Oxford,  Lady,  409. 

Padre,  the  (Bishop  of  Derry),  5. 
Paget,  Lady  Charlotte,  23 1. 

—  Lord,  90,  92,  331. 
Pa-hu-la,  258. 

Paine,  Thomas,  139,  204. 
Painters,  118. 

Palafox,  General,  319,  321. 
Palladio's  stucco,  117. 
Palliser,  Dr.,  56. 
Palmerston,  Lady,  449,  450. 

—  Lord,  463 ;  letter  to  Sir  Augustus 
Foster,  359. 

Panisse,  Comte  de,  398. 

Paris,  Archbishop  of,  1 79,  181. 

Parkison,  Mr.,  91. 

Parnello,  M.  B.,  31. 

Patterson,  Miss,  wife  of  Jerome  Bona- 
parte, 206,  297. 

Paul,  Emperor,  1 69. 

Pauline,  387,  399. 

Paull,  Mr.,  296,  299,  308,  310. 

Payne,  Mrs.,  203. 

Peel,  Sir  Robert,  429. 

Pemberton,  Dr.,  415. 

Perceval,  Mrs.,  365. 

Percival,  Mr.,  303,  304,  305,  356, 
358,  364- 

Petty,  Lord  Henry,  214,  219. 

Phipps,  Augustus,  87. 

—  Miss,  36. 

Pichegru,  General,  245. 

Pichon,  Mr.,  234. 

Pitt,  William,  106,  125,  152,  156, 166, 
167,  193.  IQ4.  195.  199.  202,  214, 
216,  219,  220,  225,  241,  250,  261, 
272,  273,  277,  291,  305;  reflections 
by  Lady  Elizabeth  Foster  on  death 
of,  266;  the  Duchess  of  Devonshire 
(Georgiana),  remarks  about  Pitt  and 
Fox,  273,  274. 

Pitt  and  Addington,  their  reconcilia- 
tion, 219. 

Pitt  and  Fox,  231,  236,  237. 

Pitt,  Nelson,  and  Lord  Cornwallis, 

Pitt,  Thomas,  68. 

Planta,  432. 

Playfair,  Mr.,  423. 

Pocahontas,  the  Indian  Queen,  205, 

Pole,  Miss,  213. 
Polignacs,  97. 
Pollington,  Lady,  451. 
Ponsonby,     Lady     Caroline.       See 

Lamb,  Lady  Caroline. 

—  Fred.,  296,  299,  303,  304,  334, 
364,  405,  408. 

—  G.,  358- 

—  William,  341. 
Poole,  Sir  Charles,  195. 

Pope,  The,  sent  to  a  hospital  in  France, 

Popery,  cry  about  Popery  raised  by 

the  ministers,  309. 
Popham,  Sir  H.,  301,  304. 
Portland,  Duke  of,  91,  101,  195,  341. 
Portugal,    the   government  about   to 

emigrate  to  the  Brazils,  311. 
Powel,  Mr.,  322. 
Precy,  399. 
Preston,  Mrs.,  31. 
Prettyman,  202. 
Prevost,  Sir  George,  356. 
Prime  Serjeant,  65. 
Prince  Augustenbourg,  335. 

—  Augustus  of  Saxe-Coburg,  8,  22. 

—  Frederick  of  Orange,  128,  129. 

—  John  of  Lichtenstein,  336. 



Prince  Leopold  of  Saxe-Coburg,  414, 

—  of  Brunswick,  9,  15,  20. 

—  of  Gotha,  45. 

—  of  Monaco,  397. 

—  of  Orange,  165. 

—  of  Saxe-Gotha,  17. 

—  ofWaldeck,  8,  15. 

—  of  Wales,  192,  194,  261,  311  ; 
letter  to  Lady  Elizabeth  Foster, 
279;  (Regent),  358,  368,  406. 

—  Regent,  letter  to  Elizabeth,  Duchess 
of  Devonshire,  Mr.  Foster  nomi- 
nated Minister  to  the  United  States, 
347.  348- 

Princess,  our,  11. 

Princess  Augusta,  hereditary  Princess 
of  Brunswick,  15. 

—  Charlotte,  415. 
-of  Wales,  195. 

—  Mary,  335. 

—  of  Brunswick,  8. 

—  of  Wales,  120,  285,  286. 
Prussia,  King  of,  58,  120,   122,  137, 

246,  298,  299,  381,  382,  385. 

—  Queen  of,  298. 

Pyrmont,  5,  description  of,  and  of  a 
good  savoury  oglio  of  society  at, 
15,  16. 

Queen  Caroline,  434. 
Queen  of  Denmark,  372. 

Randolph,  John,  204,  259,  260,  274, 

—  Mrs.,  222,  223,  233,  260. 
Raphael,  118,  122. 
Rattcliffe,  Rev.  Charles,  460. 
Reis  Effendi,  183. 
Rembrandt,  118. 

Review  of  troops  by  Bonaparte,  176. 
Reynolds,  Sir  Joshua,  420. 
Rhodes,  Mr.,  299. 
Rich,  Mr.,  28,  31. 
Richardson,  Mrs.,  40,  55,  60. 
Richelieu,  Duke  de,  410. 
Richmond,  Duke  of,  116,  153. 
Rivers,  Lady,  94,  97. 

Riviera,  398. 
Robertson,  Mr.,  104. 
Robespierre,  the  only  great  man  pro- 
duced by  the  Revolution,  379. 
Robinson,  Lady  Sarah,  444. 

—  Mr.  (Viscount  Goderich),  444. 
Rodney,  Lord,  102. 

Rogers,  S.,  352. 

Rolfe,  John,  205. 

Rolla,  Baron  de,  337. 

Romana,  General,  316,  321,  323. 

Roman  Catholic  Emancipation,  168. 

question,  182,  358. 

relief,  57. 

Roman    Catholics,    33,   34,   68,   75, 

Rome,  King  of,  388. 
Rosbach,  127. 
Roscius,     Young     (William     Henry 

West  Betty),   192,   195,  201,  202, 

207,  210,  218,  220,  225,  241,  250; 

Appendix,  477. 
Roscius  and  Charles  Kemble,  262. 
Roscoe,  309. 
Ross,  Lady,  40. 

—  Mr.,  461. 

Rousseau,  Jean  Jacques,  37. 
Royal  marriage,  account  of,  415. 
Rubens,  Peter  Paul,  118. 
Ruggerdorff,  323. 
Russell,  Lord  John,  449. 
Russia,   Emperor  of,  260;   letter  to 
Madame  Moreau,  377. 

—  Paul,    Emperor    of,    story   of   his 
murder,  169. 

Rutland,  Duke  of,  312. 

St.  Leger,  Mrs.,  201. 

St.  Vincent,  Lord,  161,  167,  168,  196, 

219,  287,  323,  324. 
Salis,  Countess  de,  letter  from  John 

Leslie  Foster,  170. 
Salisbury,  Lord,  451. 
Salvatore,  93,  101,  104,  107. 
Sans  Souci,  123,  129,  150. 
Sardinia,  King  of,  399. 
Saxe-Coburg,  Prince  Leopold  of,  414, 




Saxe-Gotha,   Prince  Augustus  of,   8, 

17,  22. 

Saxo-Grammaticus,  406,  407. 

Scheldt  expedition,  345. 

Schiller,  161. 

Scott,   Sir  Walter,   The  Lay  of  the 

Last  Minstrel,  210. 
Sebastiani,  Marshal,  334. 
Selkirk,  Lord,  286. 
Seymour,  Colonel,  341. 
Shaftesbury,  Lady,  430. 
Shakespeare,  118. 
Shanahan,  57. 
Sheffield,  Lady,  115. 
Sheffield  Park,  6. 
Sheridan,  Richard,  157, 158,  162, 185, 

192,  296,  299,  308,  310,  358,  417; 

Appendix,  472;  letter  to  Georgiana, 

Duchess  of  Devonshire,  III. 

—  Mrs.  R.  B.,  417. 

—  T.,  296. 
Shipley,  Colonel,  328. 
Shuldam,  Lord,  86. 
Sicard,  Abbe,  260. 
Siddons,  Mrs.,  250. 

Sidi  men  ne  melli,  Ambassador  from 

Tunis  to  United  States,  259. 
Sidmouth,  Lord,  231,  271,  347. 
Sieyes,  159. 

Sismondi,  John  S.,  404. 
Slave  Market,  Constantinople,  183. 

—  Trade,  263,  306,  307. 
Slimness  (J.  Th.  Foster),  30,  44. 
Smith,  Cullen,  158,  163. 
Smyth,  Dr.,  42. 

Smyth,  Sir  Robert,  42,  109. 

Sneyd,  Mr.,  409. 

Somerset,  Lord  Fitzroy,  401. 

Sotheby,  Mr.,  423. 

Soult,      Marshal,     326,     330,     336, 

Souza,  Madame  de,  397. 
Speaker,  The,  gave  the  casting  vote, 

Spencer,  Countess,  105,  310. 

—  Lord,  127,  153,  285;  epitaph  by 
Duke  of  Devonshire  on,  264. 

—  Lord  Robert,  219,  337. 

Stael,  Madame  de,  175,  378,  381,  390, 

404,  410. 
Stewart,  General,  320. 
Stormont,  Lady,  33. 

—  Lord,  46. 

Strahan,  Sir  R.,  256,  271. 
Strange,  Mr.  and  Mrs.,  28. 

—  Mrs.,  44. 
Strangford,  Lord,  432. 
Stratton,  249. 

Stuart,  Sir  Charles,  381. 

—  Lord  James,  444. 

—  Mrs.,  97. 

Sutton,    Archbishop    of    Canterbury, 

Suza,  311. 
Sweden,  King  of,  109,  246,  327. 

Talavera,  victory  of,  334,  335. 
Talleyrand-Perigord,    171,    177,   239 

304,  380,  397. 
Tankerville,  Lady,  231. 

—  Lord,  211,  213,  231. 
Temple,  Lord,  326. 
Thistlewood's  conspiracy,  344. 
Thornton,  Major,  333. 
Thorwaldsen,  G.,  414,  415,  423,  425, 

431;  letter  to  Frederick  Foster,  422. 
Tichfield,  Lord,  342. 
Tierney  and  Sheridan,  299. 
Tierney,  George  T.;  190,  325,  337. 
Titian,  122. 
Toleration  Bill,  64. 
Toujour s  Gai,  196. 
Townsend,  Audrey,  394. 
Trimmer,  Miss,  195. 
Trotter,  Mr.,  216,  218. 
Trumbull,  Mr.,  223. 
Tunis,  ambassador  from,  255. 
Turreau,  General,  in  tears  about  battle 

of  Trafalgar,  276. 

Ulm  taken  and  Austrian  army  anni- 
hilated, 244. 

United  States  Constitution,  remarks 
on,  227,  228. 

Usher,  Captain,  389. 



Valdagno,  II,  16,  17,  25,  29. 
Valencia,  has  fallen,  354. 
Valentine,  no. 
Vane,  Sir  Harry,  354. 
Vanoost,  32. 
Varegas,  335. 
Vaughan,  Mr.,  337. 
Vemon,  Lord  Henry,  423. 

—  Mr.,  334. 
Victor,  Marshal,  329. 

Villeneuve,  Admiral,  and  two  other 
French  admirals  landed  prisoners  in 
England,  253. 

Villiers,  Lord  and  Lady,  203. 

Voltaire,  36,  44,  200;  four  lines  of 
poetry,  29. 

Walcheren  expedition,  158,  160,  330, 

33i»  333- 

Waldeck,  Prince  of,  8,  15. 

Wales,  Prince  of  (afterwards  George 
IV.),  192,  194,  261,  311,  358,  368, 
406 ;  letter  to  Lady  Elizabeth  Fos- 
ter, 279. 

—  Princess  of,  120,  285,  286. 
Wallace,  203. 
Wa-Pawni-ha,  258. 

Ward,  Mr.,  195. 
Wardle,  Colonel,  330. 

—  Mr.,  322,  332. 

Warren,  Sir  George  and  Lady,  III. 
Washington,  Colonel,  233. 

—  George,  253. 

Way,  Abigail,  Countess  of  Sheffield, 

Webster,  Sir  Godfrey,  163. 
Weissenberg,  388. 
Wellesley,  Marquis  of,  211,  265,  325, 

331,  35°>  354,  358.  364.  368,  369- 
Wellington,  Duke  of,  326,  328,  329, 

33i.  336,  337,  338,  34i,  345,  354, 
362,  363,  384,  385,  392,  405,  406, 
411;   letter  to  Elizabeth,  Duchess 
of  Devonshire,  441. 
West,  Lady  Mary,  451. 

—  Mr.,  464. 

Whitbread,  Mr.,  214,  215,  303,  319. 

Whittington,  208. 

Wilberforce,   Mr.,   said   the  national 

justice  was  satisfied,  215. 
Wilkinson,  Nurse,  12,  21,  30. 
Wirtemberg,  Duke  of,  23. 
Wollaston,  Mr.,  98. 
Wolsey,  Cardinal,  56. 
Wortley,  Caroline,  202. 

—  Mr.,  368. 
Wroughton,  193. 
Wyndham,  Mr.,  284. 

Yarmouth,  Lord,  284,  303. 
York,  Duchess  of,  120. 

—  Duke  of,  158,  244,  269,  320,  322, 

Young,  Rev.  Mr.,  459,  460,  462,  464. 

Zaragossa,  319.